Kerala ki chitrakala

praacheen kaal mein jab se Kerala ki parvateeya gufaaon mein manushya nivaas karne lage the tabhi se chitrakala ki parampara aarambh hui hogi. praacheen gufaaon ke chitraankan iska pramaan hain. is prakaar ke chitr jin gufaaon mein upalabdh hain ve hain vayanaad ki edakkal gufa, idukki mein marayoor ki eshuttaale gufa, tiruvanantapuram ke perunkadavilyil ki paandavan paara gufa (yeh gufa patthar ke khanan ke kaaran ab nasht ho gayi) aadi. kollam jile ke tenmala ki chantarunivn gufa mein bhi gufaachitr milte hain. in chitron mein pradhaan hain - patthar ki deevaaron par utkeern kiye gufa chitr (Engravings) aur shila chitr (Rock carvings).

anukram

gufa chitr

edakkal gufa (edakkal) vayanaad ke anpalavayal ke paas anpukutti pahaadi par sthit hai. yahaaain gufa - bhittiyon par ukere gaye atipraacheen chitr milte hain. adhikaansh chitr paun inch se ek inch tak chaudaai aur ek inch gaharaai liye hain. chitron mein manushya ki aakrutiyaaain anushthaan kalaaparak nrutya karte hue ukeri gayi hain. lagbhag sabhi maanav aakrutiyon mein patton se banaaye keshaalankaar dikhaai dete hain. saath mein haathi, shikaari kutte, hiran aadi pashuon ki aakrutiyaaain bhi hain. inke atirikt jyaamiteeya aakaar bhi ankit kiye gaye hain. saath hi dhuri sahit pahiyon waali gaadiyaaain bhi ankit hai. anumaan hai ki edakkal chitr naveen prastar yug mein nirmit kiye gaye hain.

teevari parvat ke puraappaara naamak patthar ke dwaar par bhi is prakaar ke chitr hain. yahaaain astr, kushippaara (ek tarah ka aujaar) aadi hathiyaaron evam pakshiyon ke chitr bhi dikhaai padte hain. marayoor ki eshuttaalai naamak gufa ke chitron mein haathi, ghoda, jangali bhainsa, hiran aadi pashuon ke aakaar aur katipya amoort chitr bhi hain. eshuttaalai ke chitr ek ke oopar ek is tarah se banaaye gaye hain, jinse pramaanit hota hai ki ye chitrakalaaeain vibhinn yugon ki hai.

bhitti chitr, anushthaanaparak rangoli chitr (kalameshuttu), mukhaute ya mukh par chitraankan aadi keraleeya chitrakala ke anya praacheen roop hain. bhitti chitron ko chhod shesh chitr aaj bhi chitrakala ki parampara mein jeevit hai.

bhittichitr

bhittichitr mandir aur raajamahalon ki bhittiyon par ankit hain. Kerala ke bhitti chitron ka hajaar saal puraana itihaas hai. ye bhitti - chitr ek samaan shaili ke naheen hain. jin mandiron mein bhitti-chitr ankit hue hain unke naam hain - trushshoor vadakkunnaath mandir, tiruvanchikkulam, elankunnappusha, mulakkulam, kottayam taashttangaadi vaasudevapuram, trukkotittaanan, kottakkal, talayolaparampu, pundareekapuram, truprayaar panayannaarakaavu, lokanaarakaavu, aarpukkara, tiruvanantapuram shri padmanaabhasvaami mandir, koshikkod tali, ettumaanoor truchchakrapuram, baalushsheri, mookkutala, punnattoor kotta aadi mandir. ve raajamahal jahaaain bhitti chitr upalabdh hain - padmanaabhapuram, mattaancheri, tiruvanantapuram karivelappuramaalika, krushnapuram aadi. kuchh girjaagharon mein bhi bhitti chitr ankit hue hain. ye hain - akapparampu, kaanjoor, tiruvalla, kottayam cheriyaapalli, cheppaatu, ankamaali aadi.

bhitti - chitron mein prayukt pradhaan rang hain geruaa - laal, hara, safed, kaala. chaayilyan (ek jadi booti jiska laal rang hai) manayola (peet rang ki ek khanij) gandhak (sulpher), eravikkara (ek tarah ka sares), neelaamari (ek paudha) gobar, vettukallu (ek prakaar ka patthar) gomootr aadi kai vastuon ke yog se rangon ka nirmaan hota hai. aadhunik kaal mein mammiyoor Krishnan kutti Nair ke netrutv mein bhitti-chitron ke punaruddhaar ka saarthak prayaas kiya gaya hai.

kalameshuttu

kalameshuttu ek anushthaan kala hai jismein paaainch vibhinn prakaar ki rangeen bukaniyon se devi - devataaon ki aakrutiyaaain jameen par utaari jaati hai. kalameshuttu ka anushthaan anek samudaaya ke log karte hain. kalameshuttu anek anushthaanaparak kalaaon ka ang hai. Bhagwan ko prasann karne keliye aur amangal dosh nivaaran keliye kalameshuttu aur sanbandhit geeton ka aayojan kiya jaata hai. bhagavati mandir ke utsav tatha sarpakkaavu tatha ayyappan kaavu mein vishisht avsaron par bhi kalameshuttu ka aayojan kiya jaata hai. is avsar par rangeen bukaniyon se vibhinn devataaon ki aakrutiyaaain chitrit ki jaati hain. kalameshuttu ko chitrit karne vaale kalaakaar adhikaansh samaaj ke nimnavarg ke hote hain. inmein pramukh hain - vannaan, kaniyaan, pulavar, malayan, pulayar, maavilr, munnoottaan, parayan, paniyn, aviyr, velan, mannaan, koppaalan, kuravar, teeyyaattunni, teeyaati nanpiryaar, teyyanpaati nanpiyaar, vaaranaattu kuruppanmaar, kallaattakkuruppanmaar, putushsheri kuruppanmaar, maaraar ityaadi.

mukhatteshuttu

(chehare ko rangana)

anushthaan kalaaon ke kalaakaaron ke cheharon ko rangane ki kriya ko mukhatteshuttu kehte hain. ismein Kerala ki lokapriya kala parampara spashtat: jhalakati hai. mudiyettu, teyyam, tira, kaalikettu, kaaliyoottu, tullal, kathakali, krushnanaattam, koodiyaattam, koottu ityaadi sabhi nrutya kalaaon mein chehare ko rangana aavashyak hai. mukhatteshuttu ke paramparaagat bhed hain - pullitteshuttu, shankhitteshuttu, hanumaan kannitteshuttu, maankannitteshuttu, vattakkannitteshuttu, anchupulliyetteshuttu aadi. mukhatteshuttu us devata ke chehare par abhivyanjit bhaav ke anuroop hi kiya jaata hai jiska vesh dhaaranakar anushthaan kalaakaar nrutya karte hain.

mukhaute

padayani (padeni) ke mukhaute lokachitrakala ka ek anyatam roop hai. ye mukhaute supaari ke ped ke patte se lage bhaag mein vividh rangon ka prayog karke banaaye jaate hain. tolpaavakkoottu keliye nirmit gudiyon mein lok chitrakala ka ek doosra roop prakat hota hai.

padmam

'padmangal' un rangoliyon ko kehte hain, jo maantrik-taantrik karmon ke liye nirmit hoti hain. tarah-tarah ke rangeen bukaniyon se nirmit 'kamal' (padm) ki aakrutiyon par moorti rakhi jaati hai. ye padmam varttul, trikon, chatushkon, seedhi rekha aadi vibhinn aakrutiyon mein banaaye jaate hain. sabse pehle chaaval ke aate se rekhaachitr ankit kiya jaata hai. baad mein padmon ki aakrutiyon ko rangeen bukaniyon bhara jaata hai.

taantrik vidhi ke anusaar braahmanon dvaara nirmit padm is prakaar hain - svastik, navak, navak-panchagavya, chatu:shuddhi, ashtadal, dvaadashanaam, vaastubali, sarpabali, navagrah, bhadrak, shaktidndak bhadr, chakraabj, shivmahaakunbh svaastik bhadrak, shatdal, shatyaaveethi svastik, kalash padmam.

kolameshuttu

(maandane) Kerala mein base tamil braahmanon ke beech kolameshuttu ka prachaar hai. ghar ke praangan mein chaaval ke aate se pratidin maandane banaae jaate hai. yeh kaam ghar ki striyaaain hi karti hain. kolam ya maandane ka uddeshya hai samruddhi ke devata ka svaagat karna. pramukh kolam ke naam isaprakaar hain - shreepotikkolam aur naalumoolakkolam. chitr rachana mein ashikshit striyon dvaara taiyyaar kiye gaye jyaamiteeya aakrutiyaaain dekhkar dekhanevaala aashacharyachakit rah jaata hai.

aadhunik chitrakala

Kerala mein kaafi samay tak aisi chitrakala ka vikaas naheen hua jo dhaarmik anushthaan se pare ho. yahau maatr anushthaan ke ek bhaag ke roop mein hi chitrakala ko sthaan diya jaata tha. bhitti-chitr ko isse pruthak maana ja sakta hai. kintu bhitti chitron ka vishay adhiktar dhaarmik hua karta tha. aadhunik chitrakala ka aavirbhaav is parampara se hatkar hua hai. aadhunik bhaarateeya chitrakala ka itihaas Kerala se praarambh hota hai. raaja ravivrma aadhunik bhaarateeya chitrakala ke janak maane jaate hain, unheen se aadhunik keraleeya chitrakala ka itihaas shuroo hota hai. ravivrma ne tailarang naamak naye maadhyam, kainavaas naamak naye falak donon ka yathaarth roop mein parichay karavaaya diya. ijtarah ravivrma ke dvaara chitrakala ke dharmanirpeksh sansaar mein Kerala ka pravesh hua.


raaja ravi varma kaaleen

(1848 - 1906) raaja ravi varma ka janm tiruvanantapuram ke kilimaanoor raajamahal mein 29 April 1848 ko hua tha. unke pratham guru chitrakaar maatul raajaraajavarma the. un dinon saaf kiye gaye farsh par choone ke aakrutiyaaain banavaakar prashikshan dene ka rivaaj tha. baad mein kaagaj par peinsil se chitr khinchavaane ki parampaara aarambh hui. us kaal mein baajaar mein rangon ka milna mushkil tha. chitrakaar paudhon aur foolon se rangon ka nirmaan karte the. paramparaagat shiksha pranaali ke antargat prashikshan paane vaale pratibhaavaan baalak ravivrma May 1862 in mein apne maatul raajaraajavarma ke saath tiruvanantapuram pahuainche aur unhonne aayilyam tirunnaal mahaaraaja se bheint ki. mahaaraaja ne baalak ko chitrakala ki shiksha praapt karne keliye tiruvanantapuram mein thaharane ka aadesh diya. tiruvanantapuram mein rahane se yeh laabh hua ki raajamahal ke chitron, jo itaaliyn navajaagaran shaili ke the, ko dekhkar unhein kaafi kuchh seekhane ka avsar mila, saath hi ve Tamil Nadu ki chitrakala bhi seekh sake.

ravivrma paashchaatya chitrakala tatha tail chitr nirmaan se tabhi parichit ho paaye jab san 1868 mein tiruvanantapuram mein thiydor jenasan naamak dach chitrakaar se unki mulaakaat hui. ravivrma ne mahaaraaja aur raaj parivaar ke sadasyon ke chitr naveen shaili mein banaaye. san 1873 in se chennai mein aayojit chitrapradarshani mein 'mullappoo chootiya Nair stri' (chameli ke foolon se keshaalankaar karti Nair stri) naamak chitr ko pratham sthaan mila jisse ravivrma prasiddh ho gaye. ostriya ke viyna mein sampann hui chitr pradarshani mein bhi yahi chitr puraskrut hua. agale varsh unhonne 'tamil mahila ki sangeet saadhana' (1874) naam se jo chitr banaaya tha vah bhi chennai ki pradarshani mein puraskaar hua. yahi chitr 'daaridraya' sheershak se tiruvanantapuram ki shri chitra Art gailari mein pradarshit hai. 1876 in mein 'shakuntala ki prem drushti' chennai pradarshani mein puraskrut hui. paaainv mein lage kaaainte ko nikaalne ke bahaane dushyant ko mudakar dekhti 'abhijnyaaanashaakuntalam' ki shakuntala ka chitr unke sarvaadhik prasiddh chitron mein ek hai. british praachyavid meniyr viliyans ne apne shakuntalaanuvaad ke mukhaprushth par isi chitr ko prastut kiya tha.

tiruvitaankoor ke deevaan sar ti. maadhavaraav ravivrma ko jaante the. maadhavaraav badauda (badodara) ke mahaaraaja ke salaahakaar the. san 1880 in mein maadhavaraav jab tiruvanantapuram padhaare tab unhonne ravivrma ke kuchh chitr khareed liye. ravivrma ke jeevan mein badauda ke raaj parivaar ne jo yog daan diya, usaka aarambh yaheen se hua.

ravivrma chitr ka sabse badaa niji sangrahaalaya aaj bhi badauda raajaparivaar ke paas hai. 1881 in mein badauda ke mahaaraaja sayaaji Rao Gaikwad ke raajyaabhishek ke avsar par ravivrma ko usamein sammilit hone keliye aamantrit kiya gaya. ravivrma apne anuj raajaraajavarma ke saath badauda gaye aur vaheen chaar maheene thahare. is kaalaavadhi mein anek aise chitr banaae jo puraanon ke sandarbhon par aadhaarit hain. san 1885 in mein Mysore ke mahaaraaja chaamaraajendran odayaar ne unako nimantrit kar chitr taiyaar karaae. san 1888 se ravivrma ka badauda kaal shuroo hua. do varsh ke badauda jeevan mein unhonne puraan sanbandhi 14 chitr banaae. uttar Bhaarat ki vyaapak yaatraaeain keen. san 1893 mein America ke Chicago mein aayojit vishv pradarshani mein das chitr pradarshit kiye.

jab unhein chitrakaar ke roop mein khyaati mili tab unhonne socha ki apne chitron ko mudrit kar saste daam par pradaan kiye jaaeain. chitrakala ko aadhunik praudyogiki se jodane ke is nirnaya ne bhaarateeya chitrakala ke itihaas mein ek naye adhyaaya ka praarambh kiya. san 1894 mein unhonne videsh se ek kalar oliyograafik press khareedkar mumbai mein sthaapit ki. is press mein unhonne chitron ke saste sanskaran mudrit kiye. san 1897 mein mumbai aur Pune mein pleg faila to unhe apna press band karna pada. ant mein 21 January 1901 in mein press saste daamon mein bechana pada tatha assi se adhik chitr ke prakaashanaadhikaar ko bhi bechana pada.

Bhaarat ke raaja evam british shaasak sabhi ravivrma se chitr banavaane keliye atyant laalaayit rahate the. Rajasthan ke Udaipur mahaaraaja ne unhein nimantrit kar apne poorvajon ke chitr banavaaye. inmein mahaaraaja prataap ka chitr bhi hai jo chhaaya - chitr rachana ke maastarapeeson mein ek hai. san 1904 mein chennai ke tatkaaleen british raajyapaal aarthar haavalauk ke chitr rachane ka kaam ravivrma ko supurd kar diya gaya. isi varsh british sarkaar ne ravivrma ko 'kesar - A - hind' puraskaar bhi diya. yeh prasidv puraskaar pehli baar kisi ek kalaakaar ko pradaan kiya gaya tha.

ravi varma ke pramukh puraan sambandhi chitr hain - 'hansadamayanti', 'seetaasvayanvar', 'seetaapaharan', 'seeta dharaapravesh', 'shreeraam pattaabhishek', 'vishvaamitr aur menaka', 'shreekrushn janm', 'raadhaamaadhav', 'arjun aur subhadra' aadi. unke anya prasiddh chitr hain - sady: 'snaata stri', 'nartaki', 'vidyaarthi', 'sarasvati', 'viraat rajdhani ki draupadi', 'bhaarateeya sangeetajnya', 'maagantuk pita', 'Udaipur raajamahal', 'sipaahi', 'lakshmi', 'yashoda va Krishna', 'kaadanbari' aadi. jeevan ke antim dinon mein ve kilimaanoor vaapas aa gaye aur samruddh chitr rachana mein vyast rahe. 2 October 1906 ko chitron ke mahaaraaja ravi varma divangat ho gaye.

ravi varma ke chitr sangrah Bhaarat ke kai sthaanon ke niji sangrah karttaaon ke saath saath tiruvanantapuram sthit shri chitra Art gailari mein pradarshit hai. Delhi ke naishanal gailari of maadern Art sahit anek sangrahaalayon mein ravi varma ke chitr rakhe gaye hain.

ravi varma - uttarakaal

raaja ravi varma ke bhaai si. raajaraajavarma aur bahan mangalaabhaayi tanpuraatti donon achhe chitrakaar the. Kerala ki khyaati praapt pratham mahila chitrakaar mangalaabhaayi rahi hogi. unhonne ravi varma ka chhaayaachitr banaaya jo atyant prasiddh hua. raajaraajavarma ki praveenata bhaugolik kshetron ke chitr banaane mein bhi thi. ravi varma ke samakaaleen achyutan pillaai kishkkematham aur padmanaabhan tanpi donon tiruvitaankoor raajamahal ke chitrakaar the.

ravi varma ke uparaant jo chitrakaar prasiddh hue ve hain - ravi varma ke putr Ram varma raaja, pi. J. cheriyaan, N. N. nanpiyaar, ke. maadhav Menon, pi. gangaadharan, raamakrushnanaashaari, si. vi. Balan Nair, pi. I. ittoopp aadi. chitrakaar pi. J. cheriyaan aur aartist pi. J. cheriyaan naam se vikhyaat pi. J. cheriyaan (1891 - 1981), chitrakaar, chitrakala shikshak, aaranbhakaaleen cinema pravarttak, naatak abhineta aadi roop mein prasiddh rahe. unhonne chennai mein chitrakala seekhi thi aur potret painting mein vishesh prashikshan liya tha. chennai se vaapas aakar ve uchchashiksha ke liye maavelikkara pahuainche aur Ram varma raaja ka shishyatv praapt kiya. donon ne milkar maavelikkara mein ravi varma painting school ki sthaapana ki. 1921 mein cheriyaan ne chennai mein bhi ek studiyo sthaapit kiya. cheriyaan ne naatak aur cinema mein bhi yogadaan diya. ve 18 January 1981 ko divangat ho gaye. unki krutiyaaain hain - 'ente kalaajeevitm' (mera kala jeevan) aur 'kalaaveekshanam' (kala drushti).

ke. maadhav Menon ne baingaal ke shaantiniketan mein chitrakala mein prashikshan liya. unhonne keraleeya prateekon ko chitrit kiya. kintu Menon ne shaanti niketan ke prabhaav se apne ko mukt rakha jo unke chitron se spasht hota hai. maadhav Menon ke chitr mein Kerala ki bhaugolik prakruti, kumudiniyon se bhare taalaab, pakshi, varsha, naariyl aadi yathesht milte hain. unamein ek prakaar ka klaasijm hai jo romaantik kaavyaatmakata prakat karta hai (2). maadhav Menon ke chitron ka paashchaatya shaili se door ka rishta bhi naheen. unki aastha maatr bhaarateeya shaili mein rahi.

is kaal mein anek chitrakaar prasiddh hue jinmein dau॰ A. aar. potuvaal ka naam vishesh ullekhaneeya hai jinhonne pashchimi vastunishth adhyayan ko pradhaanata di. ravi varma se prabhaavit anya chitrakaar the aar. govindanaashaari, vi. S. valyattaan, ti. A. shreedharan, ti. vi. Balkrishnan Nair, aar. hari aadi.

ke. si. S. panikkar kaal

ke. si. S. panikkar (1911 - 1977) ka poora naam tha kishkke chiranpatt shankar panikkar. ve bhaarateeya chitrakala mein naveenata laae. unhonne Madras school naam se abhihit chitrakala pravruttiyon ko aage badhaaya aur pashchimi prabhaav se mukt aadhunikta ko prashast kiya. unhonne cholamandalam naamak kalaakaar gram sthaapit kiya. svaatantryottar bhaarateeya chitr kalaakaaron mein panikkar ka naam agragananeeya hai. panikkar ne us samay chitrakala praarambh ki jis samay chitrakala par Bengal school prabhaav jamaai hui thi. saath pashchimi shaili bhi prabhaav daal rahi thi. panikkar ne donon prabhaavon se apne ko bachaaye rakha. yadyapi panikkar Kerala ke baahar hi jeevan bitaate the tathaapi unhonne apni chitrakala mein keraleeya roopon - drushyon ko pradhaanata di. is prakaar unhonne aadhunikta mein desheepan banaae rakha.

yadyapi panikkar ne daak vibhaag mein karmachaari rahate samay chitr banaane shuru kar diye the tathaapi unhonne naukri tyaag dene ke baad chitrakala mein prashikshan praapt kiya. san 1936 mein ve naukri chhodkar Madras school of Arts mein bharti hue. san 1940 mein diploma paakar vaheen adhyaapak niyukt ho gaye.

dakshin Bhaarat mein un dinon paramparaagat chitrakala ka hi praadhaanya tha. parantu panikkar usase bhinn chitrakala shaili ka svapn dekh rahe the. san 1944 mein unhonne chennai mein 'prograsiv painters essosiyeshan' naamak sanstha ki sthaapana ki. isi ke tattvaavadhaan mein chitrakala ki aadhunik pravruttiyon par charchaaeain evam pradarshaniyaaain aayojit keen. inheen varshon mein naveen chitrakala shaili ka aavirbhaav hua tha. panikkar ne un chitrakala pradarshaniyon mein bhaag liya tha jo chennai, mumbai, kolakaatta, nai Delhi, London aadi nagaron mein aayojit hui thi. is kaal mein unhonne jalarang mein anek maastarapees rachanaayein prastut keen. ye keraleeya graamon ke chitr the jo naharon, udyaanon se bharpoor the. panikkar ko is baat ka gyaan ho gaya tha ki gram chitron ke saundarya ke chitran ke liye saghan tailarang se uttam hai jalarang. 1954 mein ve lalit kala academy, nai Delhi ki prashaasan samiti ke sadasya chune gaye. isi varsh England, France, svitjralaind, Italy aadi deshon ki yaatra ki. panikkar ki pradarshani London, pairis, leel aadi nagaron mein sampann hui. ve 1955 mein school of Arts ke up praachaarya evam 1957 mein aachaarya bane. das varsh ke baad ve sevaanivrutt hue. is kaalaavadhi mein unhonne videshon mein anek pradarshaniyaaain lagaain. isi beech Madras school naam se vikhyaat anek chitrakala pravruttiyaaain viksit huin tatha panikkar ne 'cholamandalam' ki sthaapana ki. New York mein hue world Art Congress (1963), tokyo intaraneshanal eksibishn (1964), London mein hue festival hall eksibishn (1965), venees binail (1967) aadi antaraashtreeya pradarshaniyon mein panikkar ke chitr lagaae gaye. san 1966 mein chennai ke sameepavarti pradesh irinyachamabaakkam mein panikkar ki maanas rachana ki 'cholamandalam' naamak kalaakaar gram ki sthaapana hui. san 1968 - 1976 ki avadhi mein unhonne anek kala pradarshaniyon mein bhaag liya. san 1976 mein lalit kala academy ne unhein vishisht sadasyata pradaan ki. 15 January 1977 ko ve chennai mein divangat hue. do varsh baad 30 May 1979 ko raajya sarkaar ne tiruvanantapuram mein sthit sangrahaalaya mein panikkar ke 65 se adhik chitron waali 'ke. si. S. panikkars gailari' aarambh ki.

panikkar ki chitrakala ko kai charanon mein baaaint sakte hain. 1940 mein nirmit jalarang chitr bhaugolik drushyon ko prastut karte hain. tatpashchaat maanav aakrutiyon ke chitr, vaak aur prateekon se bhare amoortt chitr prastut kiye gaye. maanav aakrutiyon ke jo chitr nirmit hue ve unki kala vikaas ke kai charan prastut karte hain. inmein maaain aur bachcha (1954), paapini (1956), laal rang ka kamara (1960) aadi chitr pramukh hain. is kaalakhand ke unke doosare pramukh chitr hain - narttakiyaaain, mandir ki or, Peter ka tirskaar, bheed mein isa maseeh, nrutya karti ladki aadi. panikkar ke amoortt chitron ke udaaharan hain vaak aur prateek chitr parampara. in chitron mein prayukt motifs keraleeya parampara se sveekrut hain.

panikkar ke netrutv mein kalaakaaron ka jo sangh bana vah Madras school naam se jaana jaata hai. kisi vastu ki aakruti mein rekha ko praadhaanya dena Madras school ki den hai. Madras school ke nipun chitr kalaakaar hain - santaanaraaj, aadimoolam, reddappa naayadu, M. vi. devan, akkittam Narayanan, raamaanujam, ke. vi. haridaasan, nanpootiri, ti. ke. padmini, pairis vishvanaathan, pi. gopeenaath, A. si. ke raaja, daglas, entaneedaas, alafonso, S. ji. vaasudev aadi. saath ka dashak Madras school ka suvarnakaal maana jaata hai. yahi vah kaal tha jab saahitya aur kala aadhunikta (Modernism) se prabhaavit ho rahe the.

panikkar - uttar kalaakaar

Kerala mein aadhuniktaavaadi chitrakaaron ki kaafi sankhya rahi hai, jaise ki - si. ke. ra (si. ke raamakrushnan Nair), appukkuttanaashaari, M. vi. devan, ke. vi. haridaasan, A. si. ke raaja, rukmini varma, ti. ke. padmini, ti. pi. raadhaamani, H. geeta, chiryinkeesh shreekanthan Nair, kaattoor Narayan pillai, sanaatanan, A. raamachandran, M. aar. di. dattan, pi. S. puninyachittaaya, ke. daamodaran, pairis vishvanaathan, mohan Kumar, akkittam Narayanan, muttukkoya, Balan nanpiyaar, si. N. karunaakaran, kalaadharan, jayapaalapanikkar aadi. inmein ti. ke padmini, A. raamachandran, vishvanaathan aadi ke naam vishesh dhyaan dene yogya hain.

ti. ke padmini (1940 - 1969) maatr 29 varsh tak jeevit rahi thi. kintu ve aadhunik chitrakala ki pratinidhi ke rup mein vikhyaat hui. ve Madras school ki den theen. unhonne chennai school of Arts mein shiksha paayi tatha 1968 mein prasiddh chitrakaar ke. daamodaran se vivaah kiya. 11 May 1969 mein prasav ke samay unka nidhan ho gaya.

padmini ke chitr naari drushtikon prastut karte hain. keraleeya gram-mandiron ke shilpon ko padmini ne apne chitron mein ukera hai. dakshin Bhaarat ke mandir shilpon ki udaatt shaili ke sthaan par unhonne shuddh keraleeya shilpashaili mein apne chitron ko aakaar diya. dhoom aur tail mishrit tailakaalima waali pratima shilpon ka varn vinyaas padmini ko priya tha. rangon ka laalitya unke chitron ki anya visheshata hai. unamein naari ke nagn tatha arddhanagn roop bhi ubharakar prakat hote hain. in kala roopon ki visheshata hai lambi tatha badi aaainkhein. unhonne na sandarbh ka chitran kiya, na ghatnaaon ki vyaakhya hi di. is prakaar unke chitron mein aadhunikta ke gun prakat hue.

padmini ke chitron mein lagbhag 30 tailachitr sanhit 200 painting tatha skech milte hain. anek rachanaaon ke sheershak naheen hain. un chitron mein aadhunika ki amoortt sankalpanaaeain prasfutit hui hain. udaaharanaarth, 'jaata hua pakshi', 'patang udaati ladki' aadi dekhiye. ye sab keraleeya chitr kala ki amoolya sampatti hain. padmini ke adhiktam chitr lalit kala academy gailari, trushshoor mein rakhe hue hain. unhein san 1967 mein academy puraskaar, 1965 mein aisosiyeshan of yang painters end skalpchers award praapt hue the

aadhunikottar kaal

assi ke dashakon mein prasiddh hue chitrakaaron mein pramukh hain ti. kalaadharan, aleks maithyu, vatsan koleri, N. N. mohanadaas, Ajay Kumar, baabu sevyar, gopi Krishnan, jyoti baasu, sajita shankar, George, pushkin, A. sajit aadi. assi ke ant mein kuchh yuva kalaakaaron ne chitr-shilp kalaaon mein parivartan laane ki koshish ki. ye kalaakaar aaj bhi sakriya hain aur inmein aadhunikottar kaaleen saundarya chetna pramukh hai.[1] [2]

sandarbh

  1. shashibhooshan M. ji., keralatile chuvarachitrangal (Kerala ke bhitti-chitr), Kerala bhaasha instityoot, tiruvanantapuram, 2000 pru 11
  2. vijyakumaar Menon, bhaarateeya kala irupataan noottaandil (bhaarateeya kalaa: beesaveen shataabdi mein), di. si. books, pru 164