Kashmiri bhaasha

Kashmiri bhaasha Bhaarat aur Pakistan ki ek pramukh bhaasha hai. kshetravistaar 10,000 varg meal; Kashmir ki vitsta ghaati ke atirikt uttar mein jojeela aur barjl tak tatha dakshin mein baanahaal se pare kishtavaad (Jammu praant) ki chhoti upatyaka tak. Kashmiri, Jammu praant ke baanahaal, raamaban tatha bhadravaah mein bhi boli jaati hai. kul milaakar bolanevaalon ki sankhya 15 lakh se kuchh oopar hai. pradhaan upabhaasha kishtavaad ki "kashtavaadi" hai.

anukram

naamakaran

Kashmiri ka sthaaneeya naam ka shur hai; par 17veen shati tak iske liye "bhaasha" ya "deshabhaasha" naam hi prachalit raha. sambhavat: anya pradeshon mein ise Kashmiri bhaasha ke naam se hi soochit kiya jaata raha. aitihaasik drushti se is naam ka sabse pehla nirdesh ameer khusaro (13veen shati) ki nuh-sipihn (si. 3) mein sindhi, laahauri, tilangi aur maabari aadi ke saath chalta he. spashtat: yeh disha vahi hai jo punjabi, sindhi, gujaraati, maraathi, baingala, [[hindi aur urdoo aadi bhaarataarya bhaashaaon ki rahi hai.

udbhav

griyrsan ne jin tarkon ke aadhaar par Kashmiri ke "daarad" hone ki parikalpana ki thi, unhein fir se parakhana aavashyak hai; kyonki isse bhi Kashmiri bhaasha ki gayi gutthiyaaain sulajh naheen paateen. ghosh mahaapraan ke abhaav mein jo daarad prabhaav dekha gaya hai vah to sindhi, pashtoo, punjabi, dogari ke atirikt poorvi baingala aur raajasthaani mein bhi dikhaai padta hai; par kriyaapadon ke sanshleshan mein karta ke atirikt karm ke purush, ling aur vachan ka jo sparsh paaya jaata hai usapar daarad bhaashaaeain koi prakaash naheen daalateen. sambhavat: Kashmiri bhaasha "daarad" se prabhaavit to hai, par udbhoot naheen.

lipi

15veen shati tak Kashmiri bhaasha keval shaarada lipi mein likhi jaati thi. baad mein faarasi lipi ka prachalan badhta gaya aur ab isi ka ek anukoolit roop sthir ho chuka hai. siraamapur se baaibal ka sarvapratham Kashmiri anuvaad shaarada hi mein chhapa tha, doosra faarasi lipi mein aur kuchh sanskaran roman mein bhi nikle. devanaagari ko apnaane ke prayog bhi hote rahe hain aur aajkal yeh devanaagari mein bhi likhi ja rahi hai.

dhvanimaala

Kashmiri dhvanimaala mein kul 46 dhvanim (foneem) hain.

svar : a, aa, i, E, u, oo, A, O, a", aa", u", oo", A", O";

maatra svar : i, -u, -oo

anusvaar : an

ant:sth svar : ya, va

vyanjan :

k, kh, g, ङ, ch, chh, j; ch, chh, za, nya;

t, th, d, t, th, the, na; p, f, b, m;

ya, r, l, va, sh, s, h

i, E, u, oo aur A ke roop padaaranbh mein yi, yi, -vu, voo aur ye" ho jaate hain. ch, chh aur za dantataalavya hain aur chh za ka mahaapraan hain. padaant a bola naheen jaata.

kaarak

Kashmiri kaarakon mein sanshleshanaatmakata ke avashesh aaj bhi dikhaai padte hain; jaise-

su jogn Ð. so jano Ð. s jano; tim za"nya Ð. tein jane (te jana:); t"mya za"nya Ð. tein3 janein3 (ten janen); timv, janyav Ð. tain janai: (tai: janai:); karm, sanpradaan, apaadaan aur adhikran mein praaya: sambandh ke mool roop mein hi parasarg jodkar kaam nikaala jaata hai; yadyapi napun. ke adhikran (ef.) mein praacheen roopon ki jhalak bhi milti hai. sambandh ka mool roop yon hai-tas za"nis Ð. tass janass Ð tasya janasya; timn jnyan Ð. teinnaaain janenaan (teshaan janaanaam).

napun. mein-tath garas Ð. tad gharass; Ru" Ð. tamhaado gharado; tami garuk Ð. gharako (gruhak:); tami gari Ð. ghare (gruhe).

kriyaapad

Kashmiri kriyaapadon mein bhaarateeya arthavisheshataaon ke oopar bahut hi vilkshan prabhaav padta gaya hai, jinse kuchh vidvaanon ko unke abhaarateeya hone ka bhram bhi hua hai. ling, vachan, purush aur kaal ke anusaar ek-ek dhaatu ke sainkadon roop bante hain; jaise-

kuchh Ð veekshasv;

vuchhaan chhu Ð veeksh (m) man : asti (vah dekhta/dekh raha hai);

vuchhaan chhum (vah mujhe dekhta/dekh raha hai);

vuchhaan chham (vah mujhe dekhti/dekh rahi hai.)

-chhuham (too mujhe . . . hai);

-chhasath (main tumhein. . . hooain);

-chhusan (mein use . . .hooain);

vuchhan (main use dekhooainga); vuchhath (main tujhe dekhooainga);

vuchhuth (tumane dekha);

vuchhathas (tumane mujhe dekha). tumane uske liye dekha);

vuchhathan (tumane use dekha);

vuchhith (tumane unhein dekha);

vuchhu"th (tumane us (stri) ko dekha);

vuchhyath (tumane un (striyon) ko dekha);

vuchhutham (tumane mera/mere liye dekha);

vuchhyatham (tumane meri/mere liye dekheen), aadi-aadi.

kriyaapadon ki yeh vilkshan pravrutti sambhavat: madhya Asiaee prabhaav hai jo khuraasaan se hokar Kashmir pahuaincha hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain