Karnataka

Karnataka
ಕaaರaa್aaನaaಾaaಟaaಕ
raajya
कर्नाटक के चित्रदक्षिणावर्त, ऊपर बायें:पश्चिमी घाट, हम्पी, वृंदावन उद्यान, होयसालेश्वर प्रतिमा, कन्नड़ खाना, जोग प्रपात, ललितामहल, महाराजा महल, गोमतेश्वर, कलमकारी, (बीच में) बादामी, विधान सौध और महिषासुर प्रतिमा
Karnataka ke chitr
dakshinaavart, oopar baayein:pashchimi ghaat, hampi, vrundaavan udyaan, hoyasaaleshvar pratima, kannad khaana, jog prapaat, lalitaamahal, mahaaraaja mahal, gomateshvar, kalamakaari, (beech mein) baadaami, vidhaan saudh aur mahishaasur pratima
samay mandal: aaiesati (yooteesi+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
jila 29
' 1 November 1956
rajdhani bangaluru
sabse bada nagar bangaluru
raajyapaal hansaraaj Bhardwaj
mukhya mantri sidramaya
vidhaan sabha (seatein) dvisdaneeya (224 + 75)
janasankhya
ghanatv
5,28,50,562[1] (9vaan)
• 275.6 /kimi2 (714 /varg meal)
aadhikaarik bhaasha(eain) kannad
kshetrafal 1,91,976 ki.mee² (74,122 varg meal)[2]
ISO 3166-2 IN-KA
aadhikaarik jaalasthal: karunadu.gov.in/

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 12°a58′a13″aN 77°a33′a37″aE / 12.970214°aN 77.56029°aE / 12.970214; 77.56029 Karnataka (kannad: ಕaaರaa್aaನaaಾaaಟaaಕ), jise karnaatak bhi kehte hain, dakshin Bhaarat ka ek raajya hai. is raajya ka gathan 1 November, 1956 ko raajya punargathan adhiniyam ke adheen kiya gaya tha. pehle yeh Mysore raajya kahalaata tha. 1973 mein punarnaamakaran kar iska naam Karnataka kar diya gaya. iski seemaaen pashchim mein arab saagar, uttar pashchim mein goaa, uttar mein Maharashtra, poorv mein Andhra pradesh, dakshin-poorv mein tamil naadu evam dakshin mein Kerala se lagti hain. iska kul kshetrafal 74,122 varg meal (1,91,976 ki.mi.²) hai, jo Bhaarat ke kul bhaugolik kshetr ka 5.83% hai. 29 jilon ke saath yeh raajya aathavaan sabse bada raajya hai. raajya ki aadhikaarik aur sarvaadhik boli jaane waali bhaasha hai kannad.

Karnataka shabd ke udgam ke kai vyaakhyaaon mein se sarvaadhik sveekrut vyaakhya yeh hai ki Karnataka shabd ka udgam kannad shabd karu, arthaat kaali ya oonchi aur naadu arthaat bhoomi ya pradesh ya kshetr se aaya hai, jiske sanyojan karunaadu ka poora arth hua kaali bhoomi ya ooncha pradesh. kaala shabd yahaan ke bayaaluseem kshetr ki kaali mitti se aaya hai aur ooncha yaani dakkan ke pathaari bhoomi se aaya hai. british raaj mein yahaan ke liye kaarnetik shabd ka prayog kiya jaata tha, jo Krishna nadi ke dakshini or ki praayadveepeeya bhoomi ke liye prayukt hai aur moolat: Karnataka shabd ka apabhransh hai.[3]

praacheen evam madhyakaaleen itihaas dekhein to Karnataka kshetr kai bade shaktishaali saamraajyon ka kshetr raha hai. in saamraajyon ke darabaaron ke vichaarak, daarshanik aur bhaat va kaviyon ke saamaajik, saahityik va dhaarmik sanrakshan mein aaj ka Karnataka upaja hai. bhaarateeya shaastreeya sangeet ke donon hi roopon, Karnataka sangeet aur hindustaani sangeet ko is raajya ka mahattvapoorn yogadaan mila hai. aadhunik yug ke kannad lekhakon ko sarvaadhik jnyaaanapeeth sammaan mile hain.[4] raajya ki rajdhani bangaluru shahar hai, jo Bhaarat mein ho rahi tvarit aarthik evam praudyogiki ka agrani yogadaanakartta hai.

anukram

itihaas

pattadakal mein mallikaarjun aur kaashi vishvanaath mandir chaalukya evam raashtrakoot vansh dvaara banavaaye gaye the, jo ab yoonesko vishv dharohar hain

Karnataka ka vistrut itihaas hai jisne samay ke saath kai karavatein badaleen hain.[5] raajya ka praagaitihaas paashaan yug tak jaata hai tatha isne kai yugon ka vikaas dekha hai. raajya mein madhya evam nav paashaan yugon ke saakshya bhi paaye gaye hain. hadppa mein khoja gaya svarn Karnataka ki khaanon se nikla tha, jisne itihaasakaaron ko 3000 E.poo ke Karnataka aur sindhu ghaati sabhyata ke beech sambandh khojane par vivsh kiya.[6][7] truteeya shataabdi E.poo se poorv, adhikaansh Karnataka raajya maurya vansh ke samraat ashok ke adheen aane se pehle nand vansh ke adheen raha tha. saatavaahan vansh ko shaasan ki chaar shataabdiyaan mileen jinmein unhonne Karnataka ke bade bhoobhaag par shaasan kiya. saatavaahanon ke shaasan ke patan ke saath hi sthaaneeya shaasakon kadanb vansh evam pashchim gang vansh ka udaya hua. iske saath hi kshetr mein svatantr raajanaitik shaktiyaan astittv mein aayeen. kadanb vansh ki sthaapana mayoor sharma ne 345 E. mein ki aur apni rajdhani banavaasi mein banaayi;[8][9] evam pashchim gang vansh ki sthaapana konganivrman maadhav ne 350 E mein taalakaad mein rajdhani ke saath ki.[10][11]

hoyasaal saamraajya sthaapatya, beloor mein.

haalmidi shilaalekh evam banavasi mein mile ek 5veen shataabdi ki taamr mudra ke anusaar ye raajya prashaasan mein kannad bhaasha prayog karne vaale pratham drushtaant bane[12][13] in raajavanshon ke uparaant shaahi kannad saamraajya baadaami chaalukya vansh,[14][15] maanyakhet ke raashtrakoot,[16][17] aur pashchimi chaalukya vansh[18][19] aaye jinhonne dakkhin ke bade bhaag par shaasan kiya aur raajadhaaniyaan vartamaan Karnataka mein banaayeen. pashchimi chaalukyon ne ek anokhi chaalukya sthaapatya shaili bhi viksit ki. iske saathahi unhonne kannad saahitya ka bhi vikaas kiya jo aage chalakar 12veen shataabdi mein hoyasaal vansh ke kala va saahitya yogadaanon ka aadhaar bana.[20][21]

aadhunik Karnataka ke bhaagon par 990-1210 E. ke beech chol vansh ne adhikaar kiya.[22] adhikran ki prakriya ka aarambh raajaraaj chol 1 (985-1014) ne aarambh kiya aur ye kaam uske putr Rajendra chol 1 (1014-1044) ke shaasan tak chala.[22] aarambh mein raajaraaj chol 1 ne aadhunik Mysore ke bhaag "gangaapaadi, nolanbapaadi evam tadigaipaadi' par adhikaar kiya. usane donoor tak chadhaai ki aur banavasi sahit raayachoor doaab ke bade bhaag tatha pashchimi chaalukya rajdhani maanyakhet tak hathiya li.[22] chaalukya shaasak jayasinh ki Rajendra chol 1 ke dvaara haar uparaant, tungabhadra nadi ko donon raajyon ke beech ki seema tay kiya gaya tha.[22] raajaadhiraaj chol 1 (1042-1056) ke shaasan mein dannad, kulpaak, koppam, kaampilya durg, pundoor, yetigiri evam chaalukya rajdhani kalyaani bhi chheen li gain.[22] 1053 mein, Rajendra chol 2 chaalukyon ko yuddh mein haraakar kollaapura pahuncha aur kaalantar mein apni rajdhani gangaakondacholapuram vaapas pahunchane se poorv vahaan ek vijay smaarak stambh bhi banavaaya.[23] 1066 mein pashchimi chaalukya someshvar ki sena agale chol shaasak veeraraajendr se haar gayeen. iske baad usi ne dobaara pashchimi chaalukya sena ko kudaalasangam par maat di aur tungabhadra nadi ke tat par ek vijay smaarak ki sthaapani ki.[23] 1075 mein kulottung chol 1 ne kolaar jile mein naangili mein vikramaaditya 6 ko haraakar gangavaadi par adhikaar kiya.[24] chol saamraajya se 1116 mein gangavaadi ko vishnuvardhan ke netrutv mein hoyasaalon ne chheen liya.[22]

hampi, vishv dharohar sthal man ek ugranarasinh ki moorti. yeh vijyanagar saamraajya ki poorv rajdhani vijyanagar ke avasheshon ke nikat sthit hai.

pratham sahasraabdi ke aarambh mein hi hoyasaal vansh ka kshetr mein punarodbhav hua. isi samay hoyasaal saahitya panapa saath hi anupam kannad sangeet aur hoyasaal sthaapatya shaili ke mandir aadi bane.[25][26][27][28] hoyasaal saamraajya ne apne shaasan ke vistaar ke tahat aadhunik Andhra pradesh aur Tamil Nadu ke chhote bhaagon ko vilay kiya. 14veen shataabdi ke aarambh mein harihr aur bukka rai ne vijyanagar saamraajya ki sthaapana ki evam vartamaan bellaari jile mein tungabhadra nadi ke tat hosanapatt (baad mein vijyanagar) mein apni rajdhani basaayi. is saamraajya ne agali do shataabdiyon mein muslim shaasakon ke dakshin Bhaarat mein vistaar par rok lagaaye rakhi.[29][30]

baadaami guha ke bheetar

1565 mein samast dakshin Bhaarat sahit Karnataka ne ek bada raajanaitik badlaav dekh, jismein vijyanagar saamraajya taalikot ke yuddh mein haar ke baad islaami saltanaton ke adheen ho gaya.[31] beedar ke bahamani sultaan ki mrutyu uparaant udaya hue Bijapur saltanat ne jaldi hi dakkhin par adhikaar kar liya aur 17veen shataabdi ke ant mein mugal saamraajya se maat hone tak banaaye rakha.[32][33] bahamani aur Bijapur ke shasakon ne urdoo evam faarasi saahitya tatha bhaarateeya punaroddhaar sthaapatyakala (indo-sairesinik) ko badhaava diya. is shaili ka pradhaan udaaharan hai gol gumbaj[34] purtagaali shaasan dvaara bhaari kar vasooli, khaadya aapoorti mein kami evam mahaamaariyon ke kaaran 16veen shataabdi mein konkani hindu mukhyat: sailset, goaa se visthaapit hokar]],[35] Karnataka mein aaye aur 17veen tatha 18veen shataabdiyon mein visheshat: baaradej, goaa se visthaapit hokar mangalauriyaai Catholic isaai dakshin kannad aakar bas gaye.[36]

bhoogol

jog prapaat Bhaarat mein sabse ooncha jal prapaat hai. yahaan sharaavati nadi oonchaai se neeche girti hai.

Karnataka raajya mein teen pradhaan mandal hain: tateeya kshetr karaavali, pahaadi kshetr maalenaadu jismein pashchimi ghaat aate hain, tatha teesara bayaaluseemi kshetr jahaan dakkhin pathaar ka kshetr hai. raajya ka adhikaansh kshetr bayaaluseemi mein aata hai aur iska uttari kshetr Bhaarat ka sabse bada shushk kshetr hai.[37] Karnataka ka sabse ooncha sthal chikmangaloor jile ka mullayanagiri parvat hai. yahaan ki samudra satah se oonchaai 1,929 meter (6,329 fut) hai. Karnataka ki mahattvapoorn nadiyon mein kaaveri, tungabhadra nadi, Krishna nadi, malayaprabha nadi aur sharaavati nadi hain.

krushi hetu yogyata ke anusaar yahaan ki mruda ko chh: prakaaron mein vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai: laal, laiteritik, kaali, ऍlyuviyo-kolyuvilya evam tateeya reteeli mitti. raajya mein chaar pramukh rituen aati hain. January aur fravari mein sheet ritu, uske baad March-May tak greeshm ritu, jiske baad June se September tak varsha ritu (maunasoon) aur antat: October se December paryant maunasoonottar kaal. mausam vigyaan ke aadhaar par Karnataka teen kshetron mein baanta ja sakta hai: tateeya, uttari aantarik aur dakshini aantarik kshetr. inmein se tateeya kshetr mein sarvaadhik varsha hoti hai, jiska lagbhag 3,638.5 mimi (143 inch) prativrsh hai, jo raajya ke vaarshik ausat 1,139 mimi (45 inch) se kaheen adhik hai. shimoga jila mein agumbe Bhaarat mein doosra sarvaadhik vaarshik ausat varsha paane wala sthal hai.[38] dvaara kiya gaya hai. yahaan ka sarvaadhik ankit taapamaan 45.6 ° se. (114 °afai.) raayachoor mein tatha nyoonatam taapamaan 2.8 °ase (37 °afai) beedar mein naapa gaya hai.

Karnataka ka lagbhag 38,724 kimi2 (14,951 varg meal) (raajya ke bhaugolik kshetr ka 20%) vanon se aachhaadit hai. ye van sanrakshit, surakshit, khule, graameen aur niji vanon mein vargeekrut kiye ja sakte hain. yahaan ke vanaachhaadit kshetr Bhaarat ke ausat vaneeya kshetr 23% se kuchh hi kam hain, kintu raashtreeya van neeti dvaara nirdhaarit 33% se kaheen kam hain.[39]

up-mandal

Karnataka ke jile

Karnataka raajya mein 30 jile hain —baagalakot, bangaluru graameen, bangaluru shahari, belagaam, bellaari, beedar, Bijapur, chaamaraajanagar, chikballapur,[40] chikmangaloor, chitradurg, dakshin kannad, daavanagiri, dhaaravaad, gadag, gulabarg, hasan, haveri, kodagu, kolaar, koppal, maandya, Mysore, raayachoor, raamanagar,[40] shimoga, tumakur, udupi, uttar kannad evam yaadageer. pratyek jile ka prashaasan ek jilaadheesh ya jilaayukt ke adheen hota hai. ye jile fir up-kshetron mein bante hain, jinka prashaasan upajilaadheesh ke adheen hai. up-jile block aur panchaayaton tatha nagarapaalikaaon dvaara dekhe jaate hain.

2001 ki janaganana ke aankadon se gyaat hota hai ki janasankhyaanusaar Karnataka ke shaharon ki soochi mein sarvochch chh: nagaron mein bangaluru, Hubli-dhaaravaad, Mysore, gulabarg, belagaam evam mangalaur aate hain. 10 lakh se adhik janasankhya vaale mahaanagaron mein maatr bangaluru hi aata hai. bangaluru shahari, belagaam evam gulabarg sarvaadhik janasankhya vaale jile hain. pratyek mein 30 lakh se adhik janasankhya hai. gadag, chaamaraajanagar evam kodagu jilon ki janasankhya 10 lakh se kam hai.[41]


janasaankhyiki

2001 ki bhaarateeya janaganana ke anusaar, Karnataka ki kul janasankhya 52,850,562 hai, jismein se 26,898,918 (50.89%) purush aur 25,951,644 striyaan (43.11%) hain. yaani pratyek 1000 purush 964 striyaan hain. iske anusaar 1991 ki janasankhya mein 17.25% ki vruddhi hui hai. raajya ka janasankhya ghanatv 275.6 prati varg ki.mi hai aur 33.98% log shahari kshetron mein rahate hain. yahaan ki saaksharata dar 66.6% hai, jismein 76.1% purush aur 56.9% striyaan saakshar hain.[1] yahaan ki kul janasankhya ka 83% hindu hain aur 11% muslim, 4% isaai, 0.78% jain, 0.73% bauddh aur shesh log anya dharmaavalanbi hain.[43]

Karnataka ki aadhikaarik bhaasha kannad hai aur sthaaneeya bhaasha ke roop mein 64.75% logon dvaara boli jaati hai. 1991 ke anusaar anya bhaashaayi alpasankhyakon mein urdu (9.72%), telugu (8.34%), tamil (5.46%), maraathi (3.95%), tulu (3.38%, hindi (1.87%), konkani (1.78%), malayalam (1.69%) aur kodav takk bhaashi 0.25% hain.[44] raajya ki janm dar 2.2% aur mrutyu dar 0.72% hai. iske alaava shishu mrutyu (maurtailiti) dar 5.5% evam maatru mrutyu dar 0.195% hai. kul prajanan (fartiliti) dar 2.2 hai.[45]

svaasthya evam aarogya ke kshetr (super speshiyliti hailth keyar) mein Karnataka ki niji kshetr ki companiyaan vishv ki sarvashreshth sansthaaon se tulaneeya hain.[46] Karnataka mein uttam jan svaasthya sevaaen upalabdh hain, jinke aankade va sthiti Bhaarat ke anya adhikaansh raajyon ki tulana mein kaafi behtar hai. iske baavajood bhi raajya ke kuchh ati pichhde ilaakon mein praathamik svaasthya sevaaon ka abhaav hai.[47] prashaasanik uddeshya hetu, Karnataka ko chaar revenyu mandalon, 49 up-mandalon, 29 jilon, 175 taalukon aur 745 hobleej/revenyu vrutton mein baanta gaya hai.[48] pratyek jila prashaasan ka adhyaksh jila upaayukt hota hai, jo bhaarateeya prashaasanik seva (I.A.S) se hota hai aur uske adheen Karnataka raajya sevaaon ke anek adhikaareegan hote hain. raajya ke nyaaya aur kaanoon vyavastha ka uttaradaayitv police upaayukt par hota hai. ye bhaarateeya police seva ka adhikaari hota hai, jiske adheen Karnataka raajya police seva ke adhikaareegan kaaryarat hote hain. bhaarateeya van seva se van upasanrakshak adhikaari tainaat hota hai, jo raajya ke van vibhaag ki adhyakshata karta hai. jilon ke sarvaangeen vikaas, pratyek jile ke vikaas vibhaag jaise lok seva vibhaag, svaasthya, shiksha, krushi, pashu-paalan, aadi vibhaag dekhte hain. raajya ki nyaayapaalika bangaluru mein sthit Karnataka uchch nyaayaalaya (attaar kacheri) aur pratyek jile mein jile aur satr nyaayaalaya tatha taaluk star ke nichle nyaayaalaya ke dvaara chalti hai.

sarkaar evam prashaasan

bangaluru sthit Karnataka sarkaar ka vidhaan bhavan: vidhaan saudh

Karnataka raajya mein Bhaarat ke anya raajyon ki bhaanti hi lokataantrik prakriya dvaara chuni gayi ek dvisdaneeya sansadeeya sarkaar hai: vidhaan sabha evam vidhaan parishad. vidhaan sabha mein 24 sadasya hain jo paanch varsh ki avadhi hetu chune jaate hain.[49] vidhaan parishad ek 75 sadasyeeya sthaayi sanstha hai aur iske ek-tihaai sadasya (25) pratyek 2 varsh mein seva se nivrutt hote jaate hain.[49]

Karnataka sarkaar ki adhyakshata vidhaan sabha chunaavon mein jeetkar shaasan mein aayi party ke sadasya dvaara chune gaye mukhya mantri karte hain. mukhya mantri apne mantrimandal sahit tay kiye gaye vidhaayi agenda ka paalan apni adhikaansh kaaryakaari shaktiyon ke upayog se karte hain.[50] fir bhi raajya ka samvaidhaanik evam aupachaarik adhyaksh raajyapaal hi kahalaata hai. raajyapaal ko 5 varsh ki avadhi hetu kendra sarkaar ke paraamarsh se Bhaarat ke raashtrapati dvaara niyukt kiya jaata hai.[51] Karnataka raajya ki janta dvaara aam chunaavon ke maadhyam se 28 sadasya lok sabha hetu bhi chune jaate hain.[52][53] vidhaan parishad ke sadasya Bhaarat ke sansad ke uchch sadan, raajya sabha hetu 12 sadasya chun kar bhejate hain.

prashaasanik suvidha hetu Karnataka raajya ko chaar raajasv vibhaagon, 49 up-mandalon, 29 jilon, 175 taaluk tatha 745 raajasv vrutton mein baanta gaya hai.[48] pratyek jile ke prashaasan ka adhyaksh vahaan ka upaayukt (deputy commissioner) hota hai. upaayukt ek bhaarateeya prashaasanik seva ka adhikaari hota hai tatha usaki sahaayata hetu raajya sarkaar ke anek uchchaadhikaari tatpar rahate hain. bhaarateeya police seva se ek adhikaari raajya mein upaayukt pad par aaseen rahata hai. uske adheen bhi raajya police seva ke anek uchchaadhikaari tatpar rahate hain. police upaayukt jile mein nyaaya aur prashaasan sambandhi dekhbhaal ke liye uttaradaayi hota hai. bhaarateeya van seva se ek adhikaari van upasankshak adhikaari (deputy kanjrvetar of faurests) ke pad par tainaat hota hai. ye jile mein van aur paadap sambandhi maamalon hetu uttaradaayi rahata hai. pratyek vibhaag ke vikaas anubhaag ke jila adhikaari raajya mein vibhinn prakaar ki pragati dekhte hain, jaise raajya lok seva vibhaag, svaasthya, shiksha, krushi, pashupaalan aadi. ] beech mein bana hai. iske oopar ghere hue chaar Singh chaaron dishaaon mein dekh rahe hain. ise saaranaath mein ashok stambh se liya gaya hai. is chinh mein do sharabh hain, jinke haathi ke sir aur Singh ke dhad hain.]] raajya ki nyaayapaalika mein sarvochch peeth Karnataka uchch nyaayaalaya hai, jise sthaaneeya log "attaar kacheri" bulaate hain. ye rajdhani bangaluru mein sthit hai. iske adheen jila aur satr nyaayaalaya pratyek jile mein tatha nimn stareeya nyaayaalaya taallukon mein kaaryarat hain.

Karnataka raaj ke aadhikaarik chinh mein gand berund beech mein bana hai. iske oopar ghere hue chaar Singh chaaron dishaaon mein dekh rahe hain. ise saaranaath mein ashok stambh se liya gaya hai. is chinh mein do sharabh hain, jinke haathi ke sir aur Singh ke dhad hain. Karnataka ki raajaneeti mein mukhyat: teen raajanaitik paartiyon: bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress, bhaarateeya janta party aur janta dal ka hi varchasv rahata hai.[54] Karnataka ke raajaneetijnyaon ne Bhaarat ki sangheeya sarkaar mein pradhaanamantri tatha uparaashtrapati jaise uchch padon ki bhi shobha badhaayi hai. vartamaan sanyukt pragatisheel gathabandhan (you.pi.A sarkaar mein bhi teen cabinet stareeya mantri Karnataka se hain. inmein se ullekhaneeya hain poorv mukhyamantri evam vartamaan kaanoon evam nyaaya mantraalayaveerappa moili hain. raajya ke kaasaragod[55] aur sholaapur[56] jilon par tatha Maharashtra ke belagaam par daave ke vivaad raajyon ke punarsangathan kaal se hi chale aa rahe hain.[57]

arthavyavastha

haal ke varshon mein Karnataka ki aarthik sthiti (sakal raajya gharelu utpaad)

Karnataka raajya ka varsh 2007-08 ka sakal raajya gharelu utpaad lagbhag Indian Rupee symbol.svg 215.282 hajaar karod ($ 51.25 billion) raha.[58] 2007-08 mein iske sakal gharelu utpaad mein 7% ki vruddhi hui thi.[59] Bhaarat ke raashtreeya sakal gharelu utpaad mein varsh 2004-05 mein is raajya ka yogadaan 5.2% raha tha.[60] Karnataka pichhle kuchh dashakon mein GDP evam prati vyakti GDP ke padon mein teevratam vikaasasheel raajyon mein raha hai. yeh 56.2% GDP aur 43.9% prati vyakti GDP ke saath bhaarateeya raajyon mein chhathe sthaan par aata hai.[61] September, 2006 tak ise vitteeya varsh 2006-07 ke liye 78.097 billion ($ 1.7255 billion) ka videshi nivesh praapt hua tha, jisse raajya Bhaarat ke anya raajyon mein teesare sthaan par tha.[62] varsh 2004 ke ant tak, raajya mein anudyog dar (berojagaar dar) 4.94% thi, jo raashtreeya anudyog dar 5.99% se kam thi.[63] vitteeya varsh 2006-07 mein raajya ki mudra sfeeti dar 4.4% thi, jo raashtreeya dar 4.7% se thodi kam thi.[64] varsh 2004-05 mein raajya ka anumaanit gareebi anupaat 17% raha, jo raashtreeya anupaat 27.5% se kaheen neeche hai.[65]

Karnataka ki lagbhag 56% janasankhya krushi aur sambandhit gatividhiyon mein sanlagn hai.[66] raajya ki kul bhoomi ka 64.6%, yaani 1.231 karod hekteyar bhoomi krushi kaaryon mein sanlagn hai.[67] yahaaain ke kul ropit kshetr ka 26.5% hi sinchit kshetr hai. isliye yahaaain ki adhikaansh kheti dakshin-pashchim monsoon par nirbhar hai.[67] yahaaain Bhaarat ke saarvajanik kshetr ke anek bade udyog sthaapit kiye gaye hain, jaise Hindustan eyaronautiks limited, national erospes laiboretareej, Bhaarat heavy elektrikls limited, Indian telephone indastreej, Bhaarat arth moovars limited evam Hindustan machine tools aadi jo bangaluru mein hi sthit hain. yahaaain Bhaarat ke kai pramukh vigyaan evam praudyogiki anusandhaan kendra bhi hain, jaise bhaarateeya antariksh anusandhaan sangathan, kendreeya vidyut anusandhaan sansthaan, Bhaarat electronics limited evam kendreeya khaadya praudyogiki anusandhaan sansthaan. maingalor rifaainari end petrokaimikls limited, mangalor mein sthit ek tel shodhan kendra hai.

1980 ke dashak se Karnataka (visheshakar bangaluru) soochana praudyogiki ke kshetr mein vishesh ubhara hai. varsh 2007 ke aankadon ke anusaar Karnataka se lagbhag 2000 I.ti farm sanchaalit ho rahi theen. inmein se kai ke mukhyaalaya bhi raajya mein hi sthit hain, jinmein do sabse badi I.ti companiyaan infosis aur Wipro hain.[68] in sansthaaon se niryaat Ru. 50,000 karod (12.5 billion) se bhi adhik pahuncha hai, jo Bhaarat ke kul soochana praudyogiki niryaat ka 38% hai.[68] devanahalli ke baahari or ka nandi hil kshetr mein 50 varg ki.mi bhaag, aane vaale 22 billion ke byaal IT nivesh kshetr ki sthali hai. ye Karnataka ki mool sanrachana itihaas ki ab tak ki sabse badi pariyojana hai.[69] in sab kaaranon ke chalte hi bangalaur ko Bhaarat ki silikaun ghaati kaha jaane laga hai.[70]

aarthik pragati mein kshetravaar yogadaan

Bhaarat mein Karnataka jaivapraudyogiki ke kshetr mein bhi agrani hai. yeh Bhaarat ke sabse bade jaiv aadhaarit udyog samooh ka kendra bhi hai. yahaan desh ki 320 jaivapraudyogiki sansthaaon va companiyon mein se 158 sthit hain.[71] isi raajya se Bhaarat ke kul pushp-udyog ka 75% yogadaan hai. pushp udyog teji se ubharata aur failata udyog hai, jismein vishv bhar mein sajaavati paudhe aur foolon ki aapoorti ki jaati hai.[72]

Bhaarat ke agrani bankon mein se saat bankon, Canara bank, Syndicate bank, corporation bank, vijaya bank, Karnataka bank, vaishya bank aur state bank of Mysore ka udgam isi raajya se hua tha.[73] raajya ke tateeya jilon udupi aur dakshin kannad mein prati 500 vyakti ek bank shaakha hai. ye Bhaarat ka sarvashreshth bank vitran hai.[74] March 2002 ke anusaar, Karnataka raajya mein vibhinn bankon ki 4767 shaakhaaen hain, jinmein se pratyek shaakha ausat 11,000 vyaktiyon ki seva karti hai. ye aankade raashtreeya ausat 16,000 se kaafi kam hai.[75]

Bhaarat ke 3500 karod ke resham udyog se adhikaansh bhaag Karnataka raajya mein aadhaarit hai, visheshakar uttari bangalaur kshetron jaise muddanahalli, kanivenaaraayanapura evam doddaballapur, jahaan shahar ka 70 karod resham udyog ka ansh sthit hai. yahaan ki bangalaur silk aur Mysore silk vishvaprasiddh hain.[76][77]

yaataayaat

Kingfisher airlines bangaluru mein aadhaarit vimaanaseva hai.

Karnataka mein vaayu yaataayaat desh ke anya bhaagon ki tarah hi badhta hua kintu kaheen unnat hai. Karnataka raajya mein bangaluru, mangalaur, Hubli, belagaam, hampi evam bellaari vimaanakshetr mein vimaanakshetr hain, jinmein bangaluru evam mangalaur antarraashtreeya vimaanakshetr hain. Mysore, gulabarg, Bijapur, hassan evam shimoga mein bhi 2007 se prachaalan kuchh had tak aarambh hua hai.[78] yahaan chaaloo pradhaan vaayusevaaon mein Kingfisher airlines evam air Deccan hain, jo bangaluru mein aadhaarit hain.

Karnataka ka rel yaataayaat jaal lagbhag 3,089 kilometer (1,919 meal) lamba hai. 2003 mein Hubli mein mukhyaalaya sahit dakshin pashchimi railway ke srujan se poorv raajya dakshini evam pashchimi railway mandalon mein aata tha. ab raajya ke kai bhaag dakshin pashchimi mandal mein aate hain, va shesh bhaag dakshin railway mandal mein aate hain. tateeya Karnataka ke bhaag konkan railway network ke antargat aate hain, jise Bhaarat mein is shataabdi ki sabse badi railway pariyojana ke roop mein dekha gaya hai.[79] bangaluru antarraajyeeya shaharon se rel yaataayaat dvaara bhali-bhaanti juda hua hai. raajya ke anya shahar apekshaakrut kam jude hain.[80][81]

Karnataka mein 11 jahaajapattan hain, jinmein mangalaur port sabse naya hai, jo anya das ki apeksha sabse bada aur aadhunik hai.[82] mangalaur ka naya pattan Bhaarat ke naunve pradhaan pattan ke roop mein 4 May, 1974 ko raashtra ko saunpa gaya tha. is pattan mein vitteeya varsh 2006-07 mein 3 karod 20.4 lakh tan ka niryaat evam 141.2 lakh tan ka aayaat vyaapaar hua tha. is vitteeya varsh mein yahaan kul 1015 jalapoton ki aavaajaahi hui, jismein 18 kyooj pot the. raajya mein antarraajyeeya jalamaarg ullekhaneeya star ke viksit naheen hain.[83]

Karnataka ke raashtreeya evam raajya raajamaargon ki kul lanbaaiyaan kramash: 3,973 kilometer (2,469 meal) evam 9,829 kilometer (6,107 meal) hain. Karnataka raajya sadak parivhan nigam (ke.S.aar.ti.si) raajya ka sarkaari lok yaataayaat evam parivhan nigam hai, jiske dvaara pratidin lagbhag 22 lakh yaatriyon ko parivhan sulabh hota hai. nigam mein 25,000 karmachaari sevaarat hain.[84] 1990 ke dashak ke antim daur mein nigam ko teen nigmon mein vibhaajit kiya gaya tha, bangalaur metropolitan traansport corporation, North-vest Karnataka traansport corporation evam North-East Karnataka traansport corporation. inke mukhyaalaya kramash: bangalaur, Hubli evam gulabarg mein sthit hain.[84]

sanskruti

ek kalaakaar, yakshagaan ke roop mein kedig ke sang.

Karnataka raajya mein vibhinn bahubhaashaayi aur dhaarmik jaati-prajaatiyaan basi hui hain. inke lambe itihaas ne raajya ki saanskrutik dharohar mein amoolya yogadaan diya hai. kannadigon ke alaava, yahaan tuluv, kodav aur konkani jaatiyaan, bhi basi hui hain. yahaan anek alpasankhyak jaise tibbati bauddh tatha anek janajaatiyaaain jaise solig, yerava, toda aur siddhi samudaaya hain jo raajya mein bhinn rang gholate hain. Karnataka ki paramparaagat lok kalaaon mein sangeet, nrutya, naatak, ghumakkad kathaavaachak aadi aate hain. maalanaad aur tateeya kshetr ke yakshagan, shaastreeya nrutya-naatikaaen raajya ki pradhaan rangamanch shailiyon mein se ek hain. yahaan ki rangamanch parampara anek sakriya sangathanon jaise ninaasam, rangashankar, rangaayan evam prabhaat kalaavidru ke prayaason se jeevant hai. in sangathanon ki aadhaarashila yahaan gubbi veeranna, ti fi kailaasham, bi vi karanth, ke vi subanna, prasanna aur kai anya dvaara rakhi gayi thi.[85] veeraages, kamasel, kolaat aur dolukunita yahaan ki prachalit nrutya shailiyaan hain. Mysore shaili ke bharatanaatya yahaan jatti tayamma jaise paarangaton ke prayaason se aaj shikhar par pahuncha hai aur is kaaran hi Karnataka, visheshakar bangalaur bharatanaatya ke liye pradhaan kendron mein gina jaata hai.[86]

Karnataka ka vishvastareeya shaastreeya sangeet mein vishisht sthaan hai, jahaan sangeet ki[87] Karnataka (kaarnetik) aur hindustaani shailiyaan sthaan paati hain. raajya mein donon hi shailiyon ke paarangat kalaakaar hue hain. vaise Karnataka sangeet mein Karnataka naam Karnataka raajya vishesh ka hi naheen, balki dakshin bhaarateeya shaastreeya sangeet ko diya gaya hai.16veen shataabdi ke haridaas aandolan Karnataka sangeet ke vikaas mein abhinn yogadaan diya hai. sammaanit haridaason mein se ek, purandar das ko Karnataka sangeet pitaamah ki upaadhi di gayi hai.[88] Karnataka sangeet ke kai prasiddh kalaakaar jaise gangoobaai hangal, mallikaarjun mansoor, bheemasen Joshi, basavaraaj raajaguru, savaai gandharv aur kai anya Karnataka raajya se hain aur inmein se kuchh ko kaalidaas sammaan, padm bhooshan aur padm vibhooshan se bhi Bhaarat sarkaar ne sammaanit kiya hua hai.

Karnataka sangeet par aadhaarit ek anya shaastreeya sangeet shaili hai, jiska prachalan Karnataka raajya mein hai. kannad bhagavati shaili aadhunik kavignon ke bhaavaatmak ras se prerit prasiddh sangeet shaili hai. Mysore chitrakala shaili ne anek shreshth chitrakaar diye hain, jinmein se sundaraiya, tanjaavur kondavya, bi.veinkatappa aur keshavaiyya hain. raaja ravi varma ke banaaye dhaarmik chitr poore Bhaarat aur vishv mein aaj bhi pooja archana hetu prayog hote hain.[89] Mysore chitrakala ki shiksha hetu chitrakala parisht naamak sangathan yahaan vishesh roop se kaaryarat hai.

Karnataka mein mahilaaon ki paramparaagat bhoosha saadi hai. kodagu ki mahilaaen ek vishesh prakaar se saadi pahanati hain, jo shesh Karnataka se kuchh bhinn hai.[90] raajya ke purushon ka paramparaagat pahanaava dhoti hai, jise yahaan paaainche kehte hain. vaise shahari kshetron mein log praay: kameej-pataloon tatha salavaar-kameej pahana karte hain. raajya ke dakshini kshetr mein vishesh shaili ki pagadi pahani jaati hai, jise maisoori peta kehte hain aur uttari kshetron mein raajasthaani shaili jaisi pagadi pahani jaati hai aur pagadi ya pataga kahalaati hai.

chaaval (kannad: ಅaaಕaa್aaಕaaಿ) aur raagi raajya ke pradhaan khaadya mein aate hain aur jolad rotti, soragham uttari Karnataka ke pradhaan khaadya hain. inke alaava tateeya kshetron evam kodagu mein apni vishisht khaadya shaili hoti hai. bise bele bhaat, jolad rotti, raagi bada, upama, masaala dosa aur maddoor vada Karnataka ke kuchh prasiddh khaadya padaarth hain. mishthaann mein Mysore Pak, belagaavi kund, gokak karadantu aur dhaaravaad peda mashahoor hain.

dharm

shravanabelagola mein gomateshvar (982-983) ki ekaashm-pratima, aaj jain dharmaavalanbiyon ke sarvapriya teerthon mein se ek hai.

aadi shankaraachaarya ne shrungeri ko Bhaarat paryant chaar peethon mein se dakshin peeth hetu chuna tha. vishisht advait ke agrani vyaakhyaata raamaanujaachaarya ne melakot mein kai varsh vyateet kiye the. ve Karnataka mein 1098 mein aaye the aur yahaan 1122 tak vaas kiya. inhonne apna pratham vaas tondaanoor mein kiya aur fir melakot pahunche, jahaan inhonne chelluvanaaraayan mandir aur ek suvyavasthit math ki sthaapana ki. inhein hoyasaal vansh ke raaja vishnuvardhan ka sanrakshan mila tha.[91] 12veen shataabdi mein jaativaad aur anya saamaajik kuprathaaon ke virodh svaroop uttari Karnataka mein veerashaivadharm ka udaya hua. in aandolan mein agrani vyaktitvon mein basav, akka mahaadevi aur alaam prabhu the, jinhonne anubhav mandap ki sthaapana ki jahaan shakti vishishtaadvait ka udaya hua. yahi aage chalakar lingaayat mat ka aadhaar bana jiske aaj kai lakh anuyaayi hain.[92] Karnataka ke saanskrutik aur dhaarmik dhaanche mein jain saahitya aur darshan ka bhi mahattvapoorn yogadaan raha hai.

islaam ka aaranbhik udaya Bhaarat ke pashchimi chhor par 10veen shataabdi ke lagbhag hua tha. is dharm ko Karnataka mein bahamani saamraajya aur Bijapur saltanat ka sanrakshan mila.[93] Karnataka mein isaai dharm 16veen shataabdi mein purtagaaliyon aur 1545 mein seint Francis jeviyr ke aagaman ke saath faila.[94] raajya ke gulabarg aur banavaasi aadi sthaanon mein pratham sahasraabdi mein bauddh dharm ki jade panapeen. gulabarg jile mein 1986 mein hui akasmaat khoj mein mile maurya kaal ke avashesh aur abhilekhon se gyaat hua ki Krishna nadi ki taraai kshetr mein bauddh dharm ke mahaayan aur hinaayan maton ka khoob prachaar hua tha.

Mysore Mysore raajya mein naad habba (raajyotsav) ke roop mein manaaya jaata hai. yeh Mysore ke pradhaan tyauhaaron mein se ek hai.[95] ugaadi (kannad nav varsh), makar sankraanti, ganesh chaturthi, naag panchami, basav jayanti, deepaavali aadi Karnataka ke pramukh tyauhaaron mein se hain.

bhaasha

kannad bhaasha mein praacheenatam abhilekh 450 E. ke halmidi shilaalekhon mein milte hain.

raajya ki aadhikaarik bhaasha hai kannad, jo sthaaneeya nivaasiyon mein se 65% logon dvaara boli jaati hai.[96][97] kannad bhaasha ne Karnataka raajya ki sthaapana mein ek mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaayi hai, jab 1956 mein raajyon ke srujan hetu bhaashaayi saankhyiki mukhya maanadand raha tha. raajya ki anya bhaashaaon mein konkani evam kodav tak hain, jinka raajya mein lamba itihaas raha hai. yahaan ki muslim janasankhya dvaara urdu bhi boli jaati hai. anya bhaashaaon se apekshaakrut kam boli jaane waali bhaashaaon mein beyare bhaasha va kuchh anya boliyaan jaise sanketi bhaasha aati hain. kannad bhaasha ka praacheen evam prachur saahitya hai, jiske vishyon mein kaafi bhinnata hai aur jain dharm, vachan, haridaas saahitya evam aadhunik kannad saahitya hai. ashok ke samay ki raajaajnyaaaon va abhilekhon se gyaat hota hai ki kannad lipi evam saahitya par bauddh saahitya ka bhi prabhaav raha hai. halmidi shilaalekh 450 E. mein mile kannad bhaasha ke praacheenatam upalabdh abhilekh hain, jinmein achhi lanbaai ka lekhan milta hai. praacheenatam upalabdh saahitya mein 850 E. ke kaviraajamaarg ke kaarya milte hain. is saahitya se ye bhi siddh hota hai ki kannad saahitya mein chattaan, beddand evam melavadu chhandon ka prayog aaranbhik shataabdiyon se hota aaya hai.[98]

raashtrakavi kuveinpu, 20veen shataabdi ke kannad saahitya ke pratishthit kavi

kuveinpu, prasiddh kannad kavi evam lekhak the, jinhonne jaya Bhaarat jananeeya tanujate likha tha, jise ab raajya ka geet (entham) ghoshit kiya gaya hai.[99] inhein pratham Karnataka ratn sammaan diya gaya tha, jo Karnataka sarkaar dvaara diya jaane wala sarvochch naagrik sammaan hai. anya samakaaleen kannad saahitya bhi bhaarateeya saahitya ke praangan mein apna pratishthit sthaan banaaye hue hai. saat kannad lekhakon ko Bhaarat ka sarvochch saahitya sammaan jnyaaanapeeth puraskaar mil chuka hai, jo kisi bhi bhaarateeya bhaasha ke liye sabse bada saahityik sammaan hota hai.[100] tulu bhaasha mukhyat: raajya ke tateeya jilon udupi aur dakshin kannad mein boli jaati hai. tulu mahaabharato, arunabj dvaara is bhaasha mein likha gaya puraatanatam upalabdh paath hai.[101] tulu lipi ke kramik patan ke kaaran tulu bhaasha ab kannad lipi mein hi likhi jaati hai, kintu kuchh shataabdi poorv tak is lipi ka prayog hota raha tha. kodav jaati ke log, jo mukhyat: kodagu jile ke nivaasi hain, kodav takk bolte hain. is bhaasha ki do kshetreeya boliyaan milti hain: uttari mendale takk aur dakshini kiggaati tak.[102] konkani mukhyat: uttar kannad jile mein aur udupi evam dakshin kannad jilon ke kuchh sameepasth bhaagon mein boli jaati hai. kodav takk aur konkani, donon mein hi kannad lipi ka prayog kiya jaata hai. kai vidyaalayon mein shiksha ka maadhyam angreji hai aur adhikaansh bahuraashtreeya companiyon tatha praudyogiki-sambandhit companiyon tatha BPO mein angreji ka prayog hi hota hai.

raajya ki sabhi bhaashaaon ko sarkaari evam ardh-sarkaari sansthaaon ka sanrakshan praapt hai. kannad saahitya parisht evam kannad saahitya academy kannad bhaasha ke utthaan hetu evam kannad konkani saahitya academy konkani saahitya ke liye kaaryarat hai.[103] tulu saahitya academy evam kodav saahitya academy apni apni bhaashaaon ke vikaas mein kaaryasheel hain.

shiksha

bhaarateeya vigyaan sansthaan, Bhaarat ka ek pratishthit vigyaan sansthaan, bangaluru mein sthit hai

2001 ki janasankhya anusaar, Karnataka ki saaksharata dar 67.04% hai, jismein 76.29% purush tatha 57.45% striyaaain hain.[104] raajya mein Bhaarat ke kuchh pratishthit shaikshik aur anusandhaan sansthaan bhi sthit hain, jaise bhaarateeya vigyaan sansthaan, bhaarateeya prabandhan sansthaan, raashtreeya praudyogiki sansthaan, Karnataka aur bhaarateeya raashtreeya vidhi vishvavidyaalaya.

March 2006 ke anusaar, Karnataka mein 54,529 praathamik vidyaalaya hain, jinmein 2,52,875 shikshak tatha 84.95 lakh vidyaarthi hain.[105] iske alaava 9498 maadhyamik vidyaalaya jinmein 92,287 shikshak tatha 13.84 lakh vidyaarthi hain.[105] raajya mein teen prakaar ke vidyaalaya hain, sarkaari, sarkaari sahaayata praapt niji (sarkaar dvaara aarthik sahaayata praapt) evam poornataya niji (koi sarkaari sahaayata naheen). adhikaansh vidyaalayon mein shiksha ka maadhyam kannad evam angreji hai. vidyaalayon mein padhaaya jaane wala paathyakram ya to seebeeesai, I.si.S.E ya Karnataka sarkaar ke shiksha vibhaag ke adheenasth raajya board paathyakram (esaesaelasi) se nirdeshit hota hai. kuchh vidyaalaya open school paathyakram bhi chalaate hain. raajya mein Bijapur mein ek sainik school bhi hai.

vidyaalayon mein adhiktam upasthiti ko badhaava dene hetu, Karnataka sarkaar ne sarkaari evam sahaayata praapt vidyaalayon mein vidyaarthiyon hetu ni:shulk apaharan-bhojan yojana aarambh ki hai.[106] raajya board pareekshaaen maadhyamik shiksha avadhi ke ant mein aayojit ki jaati hain, jismein utteern hone vaale chhaatron ko dvivrsheeya vishvavidyaalaya-poorv course mein pravesh milta hai. iske baad vidyaarthi snaatak paathyakram ke liye arhak hote hain.

raajya mein chh: mukhya vishvavidyaalaya hain: bangaluru vishvavidyaalaya,gulabarg vishvavidyaalaya, Karnataka vishvavidyaalaya, kuveinpu vishvavidyaalaya, mangalaur vishvavidyaalaya tatha Mysore vishvavidyaalaya. inke alaava ek maaniv vishvavidyaalaya kraaist vishvavidyaalaya bhi hai. in vishvavidyaalayon se maanyata praapt 481 snaatak mahaavidyaalaya hain.[107] 1998 mein raajya bhar ke abhiyaantriki mahaavidyaalayon ko navagathit belagaam sthit vishveshvaraiya praudyogiki vishvavidyaalaya ke antargatt laaya gaya, jabki chikitsa mahaavidyaalayon ko Rajiv Gandhi svaasthya vigyaan vishvavidyaalaya ke adhikaarakshetr mein laaya gaya tha. inmein se kuchh achhe mahaavidyaalayon ko maanit vishvavidyaalaya ka darja bhi pradaan kiya gaya tha. raajya mein 123 abhiyaantriki, 35 chikitsa 40 dantachikitsa mahaavidyaalaya hain.[108] raajya mein vaidik evam sanskrut shiksha hetu udupi, shrungeri, gokarn tatha melakot prasiddh sthaan hain. kendra sarkaar ki 11veen panchavarsheeya yojana ke antargatt mudenahalli mein ek bhaarateeya praudyogiki sansthaan ki sthaapana ko sveekruti mil chuki hai. ye raajya ka pratham I.I.ti sansthaan hoga.[109] iske atirikt medenahalli-kaanivenaaraayanapura mein vishveshvaraiya unnat praudyogiki sansthaan ka 600 karod rupaye ki laagat se nirmaan pragati par hai.[110]

media

raajya mein samaachaar patron ka itihaas 1843 se aarambh hota hai, jab Bessel mission ke ek mishnari, harmain mogling ne pratham kannad samaachaar patra mangaluru samaachaar ka prakaashan aarambh kiya tha. pratham kannad saamayik, maisuru vruttaant prabodhini Mysore mein bhaashyam bhaashyaachaarya ne nikaala tha. bhaarateeya svatantrata uparaant 1948 mein ke. N.gurusvaami ne the printars (Mysore) pra.li. ki sthaapana ki aur vaheen se do samaachaar-patra Deccan heraald aur prajaavani ka prakaashan shuru kiya. aadhunik yug ke patron mein the times of indiya aur vijay Karnataka kramash: sarvaadhik prasaarit angreji aur kannad dainik hain.[111][112] donon hi bhaashaaon mein badi sankhya mein saaptaahik, paakshik aur maasik patrikaaon ka prakaashan bhi pragati par hai. raajya se nikalne vaale kuchh prasiddh dainikon mein udayavaani, kannadprabha, sanyukt Karnataka, vaarta bhaarati, sanjeevani, hos digant, eisanje aur karaavali aale aate hain.

dooradarshan Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara chalaaya gaya aadhikaarik sarkaari prasaaranakartta hai aur iske dvaara prasaarit kannad channel hai deedi chandana. pramukh gair-sarkaari saarvajanik kannad TV channelon mein iteevi kannad, jeeteevi kannad, udaya TV, yoo2, teevee9, eshiyaanet suvarn evam kastoori TV hain.[113]

Karnataka ka bhaarateeya radio ke itihaas mein ek vishisht sthaan hai. Bhaarat ka pratham niji radio station aakaashavaani 1935 mein pro॰aema॰avee॰ gopaalasvaami dvaara Mysore mein aarambh kiya gaya tha.[114] yeh rediyosteshan kaafi lokapriya raha aur baad mein ise sthaaneeya nagarapaalika ne le liya tha. 1955 mein ise all indiya radio dvaara adhigrahan kar bangaluru le jaaya gaya. iske 2 varshoparaant A.I.aar ne iska mool naam aakaashavaani hi apna liya. is channel par prasaarit hone vaale kuchh prasiddh kaaryakramon mein nisrg sanpada aur saasya sanjeevani rahe hain. inmein gaanon, naatakon ya kahaaniyon ke maadhyam se vigyaan ki shiksha di jaati thi. ye kaaryakram itne lokapriya bane ki inka anuvaad 18 bhaashaaon mein hua aur prasaarit kiya gaya. Karnataka sarkaar ne is poori shrunkhala ko audio kaiseton mein record karaakar raajya bhar ke sainkadon vidyaalayon mein bantavaaya tha.[114] raajya mein ef M prasaaran radio channelon mein bhi badhottri hui hai. ye mukhyat: bangaluru, mangalaur aur Mysore mein chalan mein hain.[115][116]

kreeda

bhaarateeya cricket team ke poorv kaptaan, anil Kumble antarraashtreeya cricket mein Bhaarat ke liye sarvaadhik wicket lene vaale khilaadi

Karnataka ka ek chhota sa jila kodagu bhaarateeya hockey team ke liye sarvaadhik yogadaan deta hai. yahaan se anek khilaadiyon ne antarraashtreeya star par hockey mein Bhaarat ka pratinidhitv kiya hai.[117] vaarshik kodav hockey utsav vishv mein sabse bada hockey toornaament hai.[118] bangaluru shahar mein mahila tennis sangh (dablu.ti.A ka ek tennis ivent bhi hua hai, tatha 1997 mein shahar Bhaarat ke chaturth raashtreeya khel sammelan ka bhi aatitheya raha hai.[119] isi shahar mein Bhaarat ke sarvochch kreeda sansthaan, bhaarateeya khel praadhikran tatha naaike tennis academy bhi sthit hain. anya raajyon ki tulana mein tairaaki ke bhi uchch aanak bhi Karnataka mein hi milte hain.[120]

raajya ka ek lokapriya khel cricket hai. raajya ki cricket team chh: baar Ranji trophy jeet chuki hai aur jeet ke aankadon mein maatr Mumbai cricket team se peechhe rahi hai.[121] bangaluru sthit chinnaasvaami stadium mein antarraashtreeya cricket maichon ka aayojan hota rahata hai. saath hi ye 2000 mein aarambh hui raashtreeya cricket academy ka bhi kendra raha hai, jahaan academy bhavishya ke liye antararaashtreeya khilaadiyon ko taiyaar karti hai. raajya cricket team ke kai prasiddh cricket khilaadi raashtreeya evam antarraashtreeya star par agrani rahe hain. 1990 ke dashak mein hue ek antarraashtreeya cricket match mein yaheen ke khilaadiyon ka baahulya raha tha.[122][123] Karnataka Premier league raajya ka ek antarkshetreeya tventi-tventi cricket tournament hai. royal chailenjars Bangalore bhaarateeya Premier league ka ek frainchaaiji hai jo bangaluru mein hi sthit hai.

raajya ke anchalik kshetron mein kho kho, kabaddi, chinnai daandu tatha kanche ya goli aadi khel khoob khele jaate hain.

raajya ke ullekhaneeya khilaadiyon mein 1980 ke all England badminton championship vijeta prakaash paadukon ka naam sammaan se liya jaata hai. inke alaava pankaj Advani bhi ullekhaneeya hain, jinhonne 20 varsh ki aayu se hi badminton spardhaaen aarambh kar di theen tatha tatha kyoo sports ke teen upaadhiyaan dhaaran ki hain, jinmein 2003 ki vishv snooker championship evam 2005 ki vishv biliyrds championship aati hain.[124][125]

raajya mein cycling spardhaaen bhi joron par rahi hain. Bijapur jile ke kshetr se raashtreeya star ke agrani saayaklist hue hain. Malaysia mein aayojit hue parlis open '99 mein premalata surebaan bhaarateeya pratinidhiyon mein se ek theen. jile ki saaikling pratibha ko dekhte hue unke utthaan hetu raajya sarkaar ne jile mein भारतीय रुपये ₹ 40 lakh ki laagat se yahaan ke bi.aar anbedakar stadium mein saayakling track banavaaya hai.[126]

paryatan

inhein bhi dekhein: Karnataka ka sthaapatya
keshav mandir, somanaathapur

apne vistrut bhoogol, praakrutik saundarya evam lambe itihaas ke kaaran Karnataka raajya badi sankhya mein paryatan aakarshanon se paripoorn hai. raajya mein jahaan ek or praacheen shilpakala se paripoorn mandir hain to vaheen aadhunik nagar bhi hain, jahaan ek or naisargik parvatamaalaaen hain to vaheen anaanveshit van sanpada bhi hai aur jahaan vyast vyaavasaayik kaaryakalaapon mein ulajhe shahari maarg hain, vaheen doosari or lambe sunahare reteele evam shaant saagaratat bhi hain. Karnataka raajya ko Bhaarat ke raajyon mein sabse prachalit paryatan gantavyon ki soochi mein chautha sthaan mila hai.[127] raajya mein uttar pradesh ke baad sabse adhik raashtreeya sanrakshit udyaan evam van hain,[128] jinke saath hi yahaan raajya puraatattv evam sangrahaalaya nideshalaya dvaara sanrakshit 752 smaarak bhi hain. inke alaava anya 25,000 smaarak bhi sanrakshan praapt karne ki soochi mein hain.[129][130]

Bijapur ka gol gumbaj, baaijaintaain saamraajya ke haijiya sofiya ke baad vishv ka doosra sabse bada gumbad hai.

raajya ke Mysore shahar mein sthit mahaaraaja pailes itna aaleeshaan evam khoobsoorat bana hai, ki use sabse vishv ke das kuchh sundar mahalon mein gina jaata hai.[131][132] Karnataka ke pashchimi ghaat mein aane vaale tatha dakshini jilon mein prasiddh paaristhitiki paryatan sthal hain jinmein kudremukh, madikeri tatha agumbe aate hain. raajya mein 25 vanya jeevan abhayaaranya evam 5 raashtreeya udyaan hain. inmein se kuchh prasiddh hain: baandeepur raashtreeya udyaan, baneraghaata raashtreeya udyaan evam naagarahol raashtreeya udyaan. hampi mein vijyanagar saamraajya ke avashesh tatha pattadakal mein praacheen puraataattvik avashesh yunesko vishv dharohar chune ja chuke hain. inke saath hi baadaami ke gufa mandir tatha aihol ke paashaan mandir baadaami chaalukya sthaapaatya ke adbhut namoone hain tatha pramukh paryatak aakarshan bane hue hain. beloor tatha hailebidu mein hoyasaal mandir kloritik sheest (ek prakaar ke sopaston) se bane hue hain evam yunesko vishv dharohar sthal banane hetu prastaavit hain.[133] yahaaain bane gol gumbaj tatha Ibrahim rauja dakkhan saltanat sthaapatya shaili ke adbhut udaaharan hain. shravanabelagola sthit gomateshvar ki 17 meter oonchi moorti jo vishv ki sarvochch ekaashm pratima hai, vaarshik mahaamastakaabhishek utsav mein sahasron shraddhaalu teerthaayaatriyon ka aakarshan kendra banti hai.[134]

Mysore pailes, Mysore ka raatri drushya

Karnataka ke jal prapaat evam kudremukh raashtreeya udyaan "vishv ke 1001 praakrutik aashcharya" mein gine gaye hain.[135] jog prapaat ko Bhaarat ke sabse oonche ekadhaareeya jal prapaat ke roop mein gokak prapaat, unchalli prapaat, magod prapaat, ebbe prapaat evam shivsamudram prapaat sahit anya prasiddh jal prapaaton ki soochi mein shammilit kiya gaya hai.

yahaan anek khoobsoorat saagaratat hain, jinmein murudeshvar, gokarn evam karavar saagaratat pramukh hain. inke saath-saath Karnataka dhaarmik mahattv ke anek sthalon ka kendra bhi raha hai. yahaan ke prasiddh hindu mandiron mein udupi Krishna mandir, sirsi ka marikanba mandir, dharmasthal ka shri manjunaath mandir, kukke mein shri subrahmanyam mandir tatha shrungeri sthit shaaradaamba mandir hain jo desh bhar se dheron shraddhaaluon ko aakarshit karte hain. lingaayat mat ke adhikaansh pavitra sthal jaise kudaalasangam evam basavanna baagevaadi raajya ke uttari bhaagon mein sthit hain. shravanabelagola, mudabidri evam karkala jain dharm ke aitihaasik smaarak hain. is dharm ki jade raajya mein aaranbhik madhyakaal se hi majaboot bani hui hain aur inka sarvaadhik mahattvapoorn kendra hai shravanabelagola

Mysore shaili ka ek tail chitr

haal ke kuchh varshon mein Karnataka svaasthya raksha paryatan hetu ek sakriya kendra ke roop mein bhi ubhara hai. raajya mein desh ke sarvaadhik sveekrut svaasthya pranaaliyyaaain aur vaikalpik chikitsa upalabdh hain. raajya mein aaiesao pramaanit sarkaari chikitsaalayon sahit, antarraashtreeya star ki chikitsa suvidha upalabdh karaane vaale niji sansthaanon ke mile-jule yogadaan se varsh 2004-05 mein svaasthya-raksha udyog ko 30% ki badhottari mili hai. raajya ke aspataalon mein lagbhag 8,000 svaasthya sambandhi sailaani aate hain.[46]

Karnataka mein puraataattvik sthal evam sangrahaalaya is sandook ko: dekhein samvaad

khudaai : sannati•akanaganahalli
durg : gajeindragadhsaundattibellaaripaarasagadh durgkittoorchitradurgbelagaambeedargulabargbasavakalyaankoppal

MysorePalacePano.jpg
smaarak: Mysorelakkundisudibaadaamiaiholpattadakalhangalhalasibanavaasihailebidbeloorsomanaathapuramahaadev mandir, itagihoolisannatihampiainegundimaskigalaganaath • chaudaiyaadaanaapur • beedargulabargBijapurraayachoor

praacheen : lakkundisudibaadaamiaiholMysorepattadakalhangalhalasibanavaasihailebidbeloormahaadev mandir, itagihoolisannatihampiainegundimaskikoppal

inhein bhi dekhein

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