Kapil

Kapil praacheen Bhaarat ke ek prabhaavashaali muni the. inhein saankhyashaastr (yaani tatv par aadhaarit gyaan) ke pravartak ke roop mein jaana jaata hai jiske maanya arthon ke anusaar vishv ka udbhav vikaasavaadi prakriya se hua hai. kai log inhein aneeshvaravaadi maanate hain lekin geeta mein inhein shreshth muni kaha gaya hai. Kapil ne sarvapratham vikaasavaad ka pratipaadan kiya aur sansaar ko ek kram ke roop mein dekha. sansaar ko svaabhaavik gati se utpann maankar inhonne sansaar ke kisi ati praakrutik karta ka nishedh kiya. sukh du:kh prakruti ki den hai tatha purush ajnyaaan mein baddh hai. ajnyaaan ka naash hone par purush aur prakruti apne-apne sthaan par sthit ho jaate hain. ajnyaaanapaash ke liye gyaan ki aavashyakta hai at: karmakaand nirrthak hai. jnyaaanamaarg ka yeh pravartan bhaarateeya sanskruti ko Kapil ki den hai. yadi buddh, mahaaveer jaise naastik daarshanik Kapil se prabhaavit hon to aashcharya naheen. aastik daarshanikon mein se vedaant, yog aur pauraanik spasht roop mein saankhya ke trigunavaad aur vikaasavaad ko apnaate hain. is prakaar Kapil pravartit saankhya ka prabhaav praaya: sabhi darshanon par pada hai.

Kapil ne kya upadesh diya, is par vivaad aur shodh hota raha hai. tatvasamaasasootr ko uske teekaakaar Kapil dvaara rachit maanate hain. sootr chhote aur saral hain. iseeliye maiksamoolar ne unhein bahut praacheen batalaaya. 8veen shataabdi ke jain granth 'bhagavadajjukeeyam‌' mein saankhya ka ullekh karte hue kaha gaya hai–

ashtau prakrutaya:, shodash vikaara:, aatma, panchaavayava:, traigunyam, man:, sanchar:, pratisancharashch,
(aath prakrutiyaaain, solah vikaar, aatma, paaainch avayav, teen, gun, man, srushti aur pralaya) ye saankhyashaastr ke vishay hain.

'tatvasamaasasootr' mein bhi aisa hi paath milta hai. saath hi tatvasamaasasootr ke teekaakaar bhaavaaganesh kehte hain ki unhonne teeka likhte samay panchashikh likhit teeka se sahaayata li hai. Richard gaarve ke anusaar panchashikh ka kaal pratham shataabdi ka hona chaahiye. at: bhagavajjukeeyam‌ tatha bhaavaaganesh ki teeka ko yadi pramaan maanein to 'tatvasamaasasootr' ka kaal isa ki pehli shataabdi tak le jaaya ja sakta hai. iske poorv iski sthiti ke liye sabal pramaan ka abhaav hai. saankhyapravachanasootr ko bhi kuchh teekaakaar Kapil ki kruti maanate hain. kaumudeeprabha ke karta svapneshvar 'saankhyapravachanasootr' ko panchashikh ki kruti maanate hain aur kehte hain ki yeh granth Kapil dvaara nirmit isliye maana gaya hai ki Kapil saankhya ke pravartak hain. yahi baat 'tatvasamaas' ke baare mein bhi kahi ja sakti hai. parantu saankhyapravachanasootr ka vivran maadhav ke 'sarvadarshanasangrah' mein naheen hai aur na to gunaratn mein hi iske aadhaar par saankhya ka vivran diya hai. at: vidvaan‌ log ise 14veen shataabdi ka granth maanate hain. lekin geeta (10.26) mein inka zikr aane se ye aur praacheen lagte hain.

anukram

parichay

inke samay aur janmasthaan ke baare mein nishchaya naheen kiya ja sakta. bahut se vidvaanon ko to inki aitihaasikta mein hi sandeh hai. puraanon tatha mahaabhaarat mein inka ullekh hua hai. kaha jaata hai, pratyek kalp ke aadi mein Kapil janm lete hain. janm ke saath hi saari siddhiyaaain inko praapt hoti hain. iseeliye inko aadisiddh aur aadividvaan‌ kaha jaata hai. inka shishya koi aasuri naamak vansh mein utpann varshasahasrayaaji shrotriya braahman batalaaya gaya hai. parampara ke anusaar ukt aasuri ko nirmaanachitt mein adhishthit hokar inhonne tatvajnyaaan ka upadesh diya tha. nirmaanachitt ka arth hota hai siddhi ke dvaara apne chitt ko svechha se nirmit kar lena. isse maaloom hota hai, Kapil ne aasuri ke saamane saakshaat‌ upasthit hokar upadesh naheen diya apitu aasuri ke gyaan mein inke pratipaadit siddhaanton ka sfuran hua, at: ye 'aasuri' ke guru kahalaae. mahaabhaarat mein ye saankhya ke vakta kahe gaye hain. inko agni ka avataar aur brahma ka maanasaputr bhi puraanon mein kaha gaya hai. shreemadbhagavat ke anusaar Kapil vishnu ke pancham avataar maane gaye hain. kardam aur devahooti se inki utpatti maani gayi hai. baad mein inhonne apni maata devahooti ko saankhyajnyaaan ka upadesh diya jiska vishd varnan shreemadbhagavat ke teesare skandh mein milta hai.

kapilvastu, jahaaain buddh paida hue the, Kapil ke naam par basa nagar tha aur sagar ke putr ne saagar ke kinaare Kapil ko dekha aur unka shaap paaya tatha baad mein vaheen ganga ka saagar ke saath sangam hua. isse maaloom hota hai ki Kapil ka janmasthaan sambhavat: kapilvastu aur tapasyaakshetr gangaasaagar tha. isse kam-se-kam itna to avashya kah sakte hain ki buddh ke pehle Kapil ka naam fail chuka tha. yadi ham Kapil ke shishya aasuri ka shatapath braahman ke aasuri se abhinn maanein to kah sakte hain ki kam-se-kam braahmanakaal mein Kapil ki sthiti rahi hogi. is prakaar 700 varsh E.poo. Kapil ka kaal maana ja sakta hai.

saankhyashaastr ka uddeshya tatvajnyaaan ke dvaara moksh praapt karna hai. braahman granthon mein yajnyaakarm ke dvaara apavarg ki praapti batalaai gayi hai. karmakaand ke vipreet jnyaaanakaand ko mahatva dena saankhya ki sabse badi visheshata hai. upanishdon mein gyaan ko karm se shreshth maana gaya hai. yadyapi adhikaansh upanishdon mein brahm ko charam satta aur sansaar ko usi ka parinaam ya vivrt batalaaya gaya hai; tathaapi kuchh upanishdon mein, mukhya roop se [[shvetaashvatar upanishd] mein saankhya ke siddhaanton ka pratipaadan milta hai. parantu yeh pratipaadan kramabaddh roop mein naheen hai, keval kuchh aise siddhaanton ki or sanket karta hai jiska aage chalakar saankhya siddhaant mein samaavesh ho gaya. Kapil ko aadisiddh athva siddhesh kehne ka arth yeh hai ki sambhavat: Kapil ne hi sarvapratham dhyaan aur tapasya ka maarg batalaaya tha. unke pehle karm hi ek maarg tha aur gyaan keval charcha tak seemit tha. gyaan ko saadhana ka roop dekar Kapil ne tyaag, tapasya evam samaadhi ko bhaarateeya sanskruti mein pehli baar pratishthit kiya.


saankhya darsh

saankhya mein prakruti aur purush ye do tatv maane gaye hain. prakruti ko satv, rajas‌ aur tamas‌ in teen gunon se nirmit kaha gaya hai. trigun ki saamyaavastha, prakruti aur inke vaishamya se srushti hoti hai. srushti mein kuchh naya naheen hai, sab prakruti se hi utpann hai. sansaar prakruti ka parinaam maatr hai. satkaaryavaad aur parinaamavaad ke pravartak ke roop mein saankhya ki prasiddhi hai. purush ke sannidhi maatr se prakruti mein vaishamya hone se srushti hoti hai. prakruti jad hai-purush chetan, prakruti karta hai-purush nishkriya. laingade aur andhe ke sanyog ki tarah purush aur prakruti ka sanyog hai. purush chetan hai aur apna binb prakruti mein dekhkar apne ko hi karta samajhta hai aur isi ajnyaaan ke bandhan mein padkar du:kh bhogata hai, moh ko praapt hota hai. jis samay purush ko gyaan ho jaata hai ki vah karta naheen hai, nirlipt, kootasth saakshi maatr hai, prakruti ka naataya uske liye samaapt ho jaata hai. ajnyaaanajanya karmabandh se mukt hokar apne keval roop ko jaan lena kaivalya ya moksh hai aur yahi param purushaarth hai. mukt hone par mukt purush ke liye prakruti mahatvaheen hai parantu anya sansaari purush ke liye vah satya hai kyonki prakruti ka naash naheen hota. yahi kaaran hai ki saankhya mein naana purush maane gaye hain. puraanon tatha 'saankhyapravachanasootr' ke anusaar purushon ke oopar ek purushottam bhi maana gaya hai. yeh purushottam ya ishvar purush ko moksh deta hai. parantu praacheenatam upalabdh saankhya granth 'saankhyakaarika' ke anusaar ishvar ko saankhya mein sthaan naheen hai. spashtat: Kapil bhi nireeshvaravaadi the, seshvar saankhya (ishvaravaadi saankhya) ka vikaas baad mein hua.

saankhya mein pachees tatv maane gaye hain. purush, purush ki sannidhiyukt prakruti se mahat‌ ya buddhi, buddhi se ahankaar, ahankaar se paaainch tanmaatraaeain athva sookshm bhoot aur man, paaainch tanmaatraaon se paaainch jnyaaaneindriyaaain, paaainch karmedriyaaain aur paaainch sthoolabhoot utpann hote hain. inmein se prakruti kisi se utpann naheen hai, mahat‌ ahankaar aur tanmaatraaeain, ye saat prakruti se utpann hain aur doosare tatvon ko utpann bhi karte hain. baaki solah tatv keval utpann hain, kisi nae tatv ko janm naheen dete. at: ye solah vikaar maane jaate hain, prakruti avikaari hai, mahat‌ aadi saat tatv swayam vikaari hain aur vikaar utpann bhi karte hain.


sandarbh granth

  • vijnyaaanabhikshu :saankhyapravachanabhaashya (Richard gaarve dvaara sanpaadit);
  • ishvarakrushn : saankhyakaarika;
  • sureindranaath daasagupt : history ov Indian filaasafi, bhaag 1;
  • S. raadhaakrushnan‌ : Indian filaasafi, bhaag 2;
  • chakravarti : orijin aind develapameint ov saankhya;
  • A.bi. keeth : saankhya;
  • udayaveer shaastri : saankhya shaastr ka itihaas

baahari kadiyaaain