Kabul nadi

jalaalaabaad mein Kabul nadi ke oopar bahasood pul
Kabul nadi par bauddh shilpakaari se bhari gufaaeain
Kabul nadi mein saal ke adhiktar bhaag mein pravaah kam rahata hai - nadi ke ek ansh par bana ek kachcha pul
afgaanistaan mein Kabul nadi par bana sarobi jal-vidyut baaaindh

Kabul nadi (pashto: کaaاaaبaaل سaaیaaنaaد, Kabul seend; faarasi: دaaرaaیaaاaaی کaaاaaبaaل, dariya-A-Kabul; angreji: Kabul River) ek 700 kimi lambi nadi hai jo afgaanistaan mein hindu kush parvaton ki sangalaakh shrunkhala se shuroo hokar Pakistan ke atak shahar ke paas sindhu nadi mein vilay ho jaati hai. Kabul nadi poorvi afgaanistaan ki mukhya nadi hai aur iska jalasambhar helamand nadi ke jalasambhar kshetr se unai darre dvaara vibhaajit hai. yeh afgaanistaan ki Kabul, chahaarabaag​ aur jalaalaabaad shaharon se gujrakar torakhm se 25 kimi uttar mein sarhad paar kar ke Pakistan mein daakhil ho jaati hai. afgaanistaan ki rajdhani Kabul aur uske ird-gird ke Kabul praant ka naam isi nadi par pada hai.[1]

anukram

upanadiyaaain

Kabul nadi ki kai upanadiyaaain hain jinmein logar nadi, panjasheer nadi, kunar nadi, aaleengaar nadi, baada nadi aur svaat nadi shaamil hain. saal ke adhiktar bhaag mein Kabul nadi mein pravaah bahut kam hota hai lekin garmiyon mein hindu-kush ki pighlati barf se yeh bhar jaati hai. kunar nadi iski sab se badi upanadi hai aur yeh Pakistan ke khaibar-pakhtoonakhva soobe ke chitraal jile mein sthit chiyaantar himaani (gleshiyr) mein shuroo hoti hai aur fir dakshin ki taraf bahakar afgaanistaan mein chali jaati hai jahaaain yeh nooristaan se aane waali baashgal nadi se milti hai. jalaalaabaad mein kunar nadi ka Kabul nadi se sangam hota hai. haalaanki kunar ka paani Kabul nadi se adhik hota hai fir bhi yahaaain se aage is mili-juli nadi ko Kabul nadi hi kaha jaata hai kyonki 'Kabul' naam ki saanskrutik, aitihaasik aur raajanaitik ahamiyt zyaada hai.[2][3]

baaaindh

Kabul nadi par kai baaaindh bane hue hain. Kabul praant mein nagloo baaaindh, nangarahaar praant mein darunta baaaindh aur Kabul shahar se poorv mein sthit sarobi baaaindh inmein shaamil hain. Pakistan mein peshaavarase 20 kimi pashchimottar mein sthit varasak baaaindh bhi ispar bana ek mukhya baaaindh hai.

itihaas mein

itihaas mein Kabul nadi ka kai jagah zikr milta hai.

sanskrut aur avastaai bhaashaaoain mein

sanskrut aur praacheen avastaai bhaasha mein is nadi ko 'kubha' bulaaya jaata tha jo aage chalakar 'Kabul' mein parivrtit ho gaya. is 'kubha' shabd ka srot sahi maaloom naheen hai lekin 19veen sadi ke british itihaasakaar alekajaindar kaningham (Alexander Cunningham) ke anusaar yeh skithi bhaasha ke 'ku' shabd se aaya hai, jiska matlab 'paani' tha. is vishay mein kaha gaya hai ki -

kubha aadhunik Kabul nadi thi jo atak se jra uttar mein sindhu mein vilay hoti hai aur us se pehle praang mein apni svaat (suvastu) aur Gauri upanadiyon se jal leti hai.[4]


rigved ke puraane hisson mein bhaarateeya log Bhaarat ki pashchimottari sarhad par base hue milte hain, yaani Punjab kshetr mein aur Punjab se bhi aage kubha nadi ki seema par Kabul mein. in logon ka is sthaan se poorv ki taraf sarasvati nadi se paar aur Hindustan mein ganga nadi tak failana charan-charan par vedon ki baad ki likhaaiyon mein dekha ja sakta hai.[5]


sikandar mahaan ka aakraman

praacheen yoonaani itihaasakaar aariyaan (Arrian) ne apne 'sikandar mahaan ka abhiyaan aur Iran par kbje ka itihaas' naamak itihaas-granth mein Kabul nadi ko 'kofen' (Cophen) ka naam diya tha.[6] iske aadhaar par anya Europeeya lekhakon ne is nadi ko 'kofes' (Cophes) naam se bhi bulaana shuroo kar diya tha.

al birooni

arab lekhak al-birooni ne Kabul nadi ko 'goravanda​ ki nadi' bulaaya tha.[1]

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. a aa Cliffoed Edmund Bosworth, "Kabul". Encyclopaedia of Islam (CD-ROM Edition v. 1.0 ed.). 1999. Leiden, The Netherlands: Koninklijke Brill NV
  2. "Kāabul River". britainika. (2012). britannica.com.
  3. dagalas dablyoo॰ barabaink; Robert esa॰ Anderson. Tectonic Geomorphology (2 san॰). John vaaile end sons. pa॰ 258–259. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1444345036.
  4. The History and Culture of the Indian People : The Vedic age. By Ramesh Chandra Majumdar, Achut Dattatrya Pusalker, A. K. Majumdar, Dilip Kumar Ghose, Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, Vishvanath Govind Dighe Published by Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan, 1962 Page 247, ... The Kubha is the modern Kabul river which flows into the Indus a little above Attock and receives at Prang the joint flow of its tributaries the Swat (Swastu) and Gauri ...
  5. Original Sanskrit Texts on the Origin and History of the People of India By John Muir page 352, ... In the older parts of the Rigved the Indian people appear to be settled on the north western border of India, in the Punjab and even beyond the Punjab on the borders of the Kubha river the Kowpher in Kabul. The gradual diffusion of these people from this point towards the east, beyond the Saraswati and Hindustan as far as the Ganges, can be traced almost step by step in the later portions of the Vedic writings ...
  6. Arrian's History of the expedition of Alexander the Great: and conquest of Persia, J. Davis, 1813, Page Chronology%20of%20the%20expedition%20of%20Alexander%20the%20Great%20into%20Asia&f=false, Accessed 2009-10-06,... Apr 329 - Cophen River (Kabul River, Afghanistan) ―aGandara ...