John draaiden

John draaiden

John draaiden (John Dryden ; 9 August 1631 – 12 May 1700) aangl kavi, saahityik samaalochak tatha naatakakaar tha. 1668 mein use raashtrakavi (Poet Laureate) banaaya gaya.[1]

parichay

John draaiden ka janm 9 August 1931 i0 ko naarthapatanashaayar ke aldavinkil naamak sthaan mein hua tha. usaka shaishav tikmaarsh mein vyateet hua jahaaain uske naana revareind henari pikring ki sampatti thi. usaki praarambhik shiksha vikhyaat dau॰ busvi dvaara sanchaalit vestamistar ( Westminster) school mein hui aur triniti kaalej, keinbrij se usane 1654 mein bee0 e0 ki upaadhi grahan ki. usi varsh uske pita ka dehaavasaan hua. san 1657 se vah London mein rahane laga tha. draaiden raajakavi aur itihaas lekhak gheshit kiya gaya tatha ek sau pound ki peinshan bhi use sveekrut hui. 1683 mein usaki niyukti London ke ek bhoo-bhaag mein collector ॲaav custom ke pad par hui. 1685 mein James dviteeya ke raajyaarohan par draaiden ne England ke church ka bahishkaar kar kaithelik dharm ki sveekaar kiya. 1668 ki kraanti mein kaithelik dharm chhodne tatha William truteeya ke prati raajabhakti ki shapath lene se asveekaar karne par draaideg raajya ka kopabhaajan bana aur uske sabhi pad aur peinshanein chheen li gayi. usaka dahaant 1700 ke May diwas par gathiya rog se hua aur vestamistar abe mein use dafnaaya gaya.

angreji kaavya ko draaiden ki pratham den ek kavita thi, jiski rachana usane san 1649 mein apne sahapaathi yang laard hestigs ki smruti mein ki thi. us samay vah keval 18 varsh ka tha. yeh kavita dan (Donne) aur kleevalaind ki aadhyaatmik kavitaaon ki paddhati ka anusaran kar likhi gayi hai. kintu 1659 mein prakaashit kraamavel ki mrutyu par rachit uske heeroik stejon mein pravaah ki kuchh kami hote hue bhi saahityik saushthav hai. usaki restoreshan vishyak prashasti kavitaaeain jinka 1660 mein 'astreiya ridks' se praarambh hokar 1667 mein 'enanas miraabilis' se ant hota hai, padya shaili par uske abhootapoorv evam aashcharyajanak aadhiptya ko pradarshit karti hain. kuchh asvaabhaavik chitron tatha anaavashyak alankrut shabd vinyaas ke hote hue bhi ennas miraabilis apni sashakt dhvani, kaavyochit abhivyakti evam sangeetaatmak gunon ke kaaran ek vilkshan kruti hai.

draaiden anek varsho tak naataya rachana mein vyast raha. usane swayam sveekaar kiya hai ki is prakaar ki rachanaaon ko vah ghrunit samajhta tha aur keval aarthik laabh ke liye vah vaisi rachana karta tha. 1663 aur 1694 ke beech, arthaat apni pratham kaamedi di wild gaileint aur apne antim naatak love temfeint milaakar draaiden ne sab saat kaamedi, paaainch veerata vishyak naatak, chaar traagadi kaamedi aur chaar traagadi ki rachanaaeain keen. ukt krutiyon mein, heeroik kapalets mein likha hua pramukh naatak kaansvest ov grenaada (1670), sarvaadhik ullaasapoorn kaamedi mairej-A-la mod (1672) tukayukt kapalet mein likhit usaki antim traagadi aurangajeb (1675), blainkavars mein nirmit usaka pratham aur sarvashreshth naatak aal faar love (1677), tatha usi padyapaddhati par rachit usaki Don sivaastiyn (1689) naamak traagadi usaki (draaiden ki) shreshth rachanaaeain hain. Don sivaastiyn uske sarvotkrusht naatak aal for love ke samakaksh rakha ja sakta hai, balki kathaanak ki gahanata aur gathan ki drushti se yeh usase bhi shreshth hai.

yadyapi naatak ke kshetr mein draaiden ne nissandeh mahatvapoorn kaarya kiya kintu usaki poorn sarjanaatmak shakti uske 50vein varsh mein prakaashit granth avasaalam aind ekeetaafel mein prasfutit hui jo apne teekshn buddhi vilaas, jaajvalyamaan shabdayojana, prahaaraatmak aakshep evam vyangaatmak chitran ke liye ek adbhut rachana hai aur angreji bhaasha mein sabse mahaan raajaneetik vyangyakaavya hai. iske pashchaat hi 1682 mein 'di medal' prakaashit hua jo jananaayakavaadi neeti par seedha prahaar hai. taduparaant usi varsh maik 'fleknon prakaash' mein aaya, jo angreji bhaasha ke vyaktipradhaan vyangakaavyon mein apna sheershasth sthaan rakhata hai. ismein taumas shedavel dvaara rachit 'di medal ov jaan veyas' mein apni pustak di medal ke pati kiye gaye aaropon ka ojasvi aur katu uttar hai. 'heeroik kapalets' se vilsit vyangakaavya mein niyojit kaavya-katha ka yeh pratham udaaharan hai aur Pope ke 'danasiyd' ka sanket prastut karta hai. 1682 mein hi releejiolaaiso ka prakaashan hua jismein inglaid ke protesteint chach ka drudh samathan aur ishvaravaad ke virooddh spasht aur teebr tak prastut kiye gaye hain. 'di haaind aind di painthar' jismein draaiden ke ketholik dharm ki or parivrtit vichaaradhaara ka nyaayochit nideshan hai, draaiden ka suprasiddh dhaarmik ghoshanaapatr hai aur apni spashtata, tarkapaddhati evam nishkapatata ke liye iski adhik khyaati hai. angreji bhaasha mein yeh sarvotkrusht dhaarmik vyang hai. adviteeya dakshata aur jvalant shakti se ot prot aakshep, uttejana aur tak ki uddeshyapoorti ke liye in sabhi kavitaaon ki rachana tukamukt heeroik kapalet mein hi hui hai.

draaiden ki kaavyapratibha geetaatmak tatvon ki upeksha hai. uske naatakaantargat geeton mein asaadhaaran vaividhya aur aakarshan hai. uske 'ods tu di paayas menari ov misej eni kileegrayoo' (1686), 'A saang for seint seseeliya de' (1687) aur 'alekjeindar feest' (1697) mein shaaleenata aur pravaah ka achha nirvaah hua hain.

kraanti ke baad praaya: das varsho tak draaiden uchch koti ke granthein ko anoodit karne mein laga raha aur usane varjil tatha juvenaal ka mahatvapoon anuvaad prastut kiya. tee0esa0 ilyit ne likha hai, draaiden ne apni anoodit aur maulik rachanaaon se angreji bhaasha ke nirmaan tatha vruddhi mein yog diya hai. san 1700 mein apni mrutyu ke kuchh hi samay pehle usane 'febul ensheint aind maardan' ki rachana ki jismein homar, aavid bokaishiyo aur chausar ki kahaaniyon ko padyabaddh prastut kiya gaya hai. yadyapi ye kahaaniyaaain draaiden ki vruddhaavastha, asvasthata aur pratikool paristhiti mein likhi gayi hain, fir bhi inke kaaran usaki ganana angreji padya mein kahaani likhnevaale shreshth kathaakaaron mein hoti hai.

draaiden ki gadyarachana mein mukhyat: uske nibandh aur bhoomikaaeain hain jo kaavya aur naataya sambandhi vividh samasyaaon se sambandhit hain. yeh pratham mahaan angrej aalochak aadhunik angreji gadya ke sansthaapakon mein se hai. barnaard sha ko chhodkar yeh bhoomikaaon ka sarvashreshth lekhak hai.

'esse ov draimetik poyeji' (1668) draaiden ki naatya vishyak uchch koti ki aalochna hai. chaar paatron ke paarasparik samvaad ke roop mein likhi gayi is sameekshaapusttak mein, jismein ek paatr swayam draaiden hai, praacheen aur arvaacheen saahityakaaron tatha mukt chhand aur tuk yukt chhand ke saapekshik gun-dosh ka vivechan hai. aadi se ant tak yeh pustak aise sthalon se paripoorn hai jo lekhak ki apoorv yogyata aur saahityik moolyaankan sambandhi uske sookshm nireekshan ko vyakt karte hain. draaiden apne yug ka sarvashreshth bauddhik aur sarvatomukhi pratibhaasanpann ojasvi pratinidhi hai.

krutiyaaain

  • Astraea Redux (1660)
  • The Indian Emperor (1665)
  • Annus Mirabilis (1667)
  • An Essay of Dramatick Poesie (1668)
  • Tyrannick Love (1669)
  • Marriage A-la-Mode (1672)
  • The Conquest of Granada (1670)
  • Amboyna, or the Cruelties of the Dutch to the English Merchants (1673)
  • All for Love (1678)
  • Oedipus (1679)
  • Absalom and Achitophel (1681)
  • The Medal (1682)
  • Religio Laici (1682)
  • The Hind and the Panther (1687)
  • Amphitryon (1690)
  • Don Sebastian (1690)
  • King Arthur (1691)
  • Amboyna
  • The Works of Virgil (1697)
  • Fables, Ancient and Modern (1700)

sandarbh

  1. ["John Dryden (British author) - Encyclopedia Britannica". Britannica.com. Retrieved 2014-05-13.]