Japani saamraajya

[[Category:1868 [1]mein sthaapit desh ya kshetr|saamraajnyaaya Japan, 1868 [1]]][[Category:1947 [2]mein visthaapit desh ya kshetr|saamraajnyaaya Japan, 1947 [2]]]

daai nippon teikokoo
Japani saamraajya
bruhadatar Japani saamraajaaya
1868–1947
ध्वज कुल चिन्ह
dhvaj saamraajnyayiya mohar
aadarsh vaakya
五aa箇aa条aaのaa御aa誓aa文
"Charter Oath"
("The Oath in Five Articles")
raashtragaan
  • "Kimigayo"
  • 君aaがaa代
("His Imperial Majesty's Reign")
Location of साम्राज्ञय जापान
The Empire of Japan in 1942.
  • █a█ Empire of Japan 1870–1905
  • █a█ Acquisitions 1905–30
  • █a█ Trusteeship, concession, occupied territories
rajdhani tokiyo
bhaasha(eain) Japani
dharm kathaagat: koi naheen
tathyagat: shinto dharm

anya: bauddh dharm

sarkaar Daijō-kan[3]
(1868–1885)
Constitutional monarchy
(1890–1947)[2]
One-party state Military dictatorship (1940–1945)
samraat
- 1868–1912 meeji (mutshito)
- 1912–1926 taaisho (yoshiheeto)
- 1926–1947 shova (hiroto)
pradhaanamantri
- 1885–1888 Itō Hirobumi (first)
- 1946–1947 Shigeru Yoshida (last)
vidhaayika Imperial Diet
- Upper house House of Peers
- Lower house House of Representatives
aitihaasik yug meeji, taaisho, shova
- meeji punarsthaapan January 3,
- samvidhaan ka paravartan November 29, 1890
- roos-Japan yuddh February 10, 1904
- prashaant yuddh 1941–1945
- Japan ka aatmasamarpan sitmbar 2, 1945
- puranarsthaapit May 2,
kshetr
- 1942 estimate 74,00,000 km² (28,57,156 sq mi)
janasankhya
- 1920 est. 77
- 1940 est. 105
mudra Japanese yen,
Korean yen,
Taiwanese yen,
Japanese military yen
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Flag of the Tokugawa Shogunate.svg Tokugawa Shogunate
Flag of Ryukyu.svg Ryūakyū
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Flag of the Qing dynasty (1889-1912).svg China
Flag of Russia.svg Russia
Flag of Korea (1882-1910).svg Korea
German new guinea flag.svg German New Guinea
Flag of the Netherlands.svg Dutch East Indies
Occupied Japan Flag of Japan (1870-1999).svg
Military Government of the Ryukyu Islands US flag 48 stars.svg
China Flag of the Republic of China.svg
Military Government in Korea US flag 48 stars.svg
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Sakhalin Oblast Flag of the Soviet Union (1923-1955).svg
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands US flag 48 stars.svg
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vartamaan mein

saaaincha:Contains Japanese text

apne charamotkarsh par Japani saamraajya (1942 mein)

03 January 1868 se lekar 3 May 1947 tak Japan ek vishvashakti tha, jise Japani saamraajya (Japani:大aa日aa本aa帝aa國 Dai Nippon Teikoku?, shaabdik arth : 'mahaan Japani saamraajya'") kaha jaata hai.

Japan ne 'desh ko dhanavaan banaao, sena ko shaktimaan banaao' (富aa国aa強aa兵) ke naare ke tahat kaam karte hue badi teji se audyogeekaran aur sainyeekaran kiya jiske falasvaroop vah ek vishvashakti bankar ubhara. aage chalakar vah 'aksh gathajod' ka sadasya bana aur Asia-prashaant kshetr ke bahut bade bhaag ka vijeta ban gaya. 1942 mein jab Japani saamraajya apne charamotkarsh par tha tab 7,400,000 varg kilometer kshetr iske adheen iske adheen tha jiske hisaab se vah itihaas mein sabse bada saamudrik saamraajya tha.

anukram

meiji punarsthaapan

meiji punarsthaapan (明aa治aa維aa新, meiji ishin) unneesavi shataabdi mein Japan mein ek ghatnaakram tha jis se san 1868 mein samraat ka shaasan fir se bahaal hua. is se Japan ke raajanaitik aur saamaajik vaataavaran mein bahut mahatvapoorn badlaav aaye jinse Japan teji se aarthik, audyogik aur sainya vikaas ki or badhne laga. is kraanti ne Japan ke edo kaal ka ant kiya aur meiji kaal ko aarambh kiya. is punarsthaapan se pehle Japan ka samraat keval naam ka shaasak tha aur vaastav mein shogun (将aa軍) ki upaadhi vaale sainik taanaashaah raaj karta tha.

Japan ka aadhunikeekaran

unneesaveen shataabdi ke antim charan mein Japan ka utkarsh evam yooropeeyakaran Asia tatha naveen saamraajyavaad ke itihaas mein ek yugaantarakaari ghatna maana jaaega. meiji pun:sthaapana ne desh mein ek naya jaagaran paida kiya aur Japan mein pashchimeekaran tatha sudhaaron ki ek lahar daud padi. kuchh hi varshaan mein Japan dekhte-dekhte ek atyaadhunik raashtra ban gaya. ab kasi bhi samunnat Europeeya raajya se usaki talana ki ja sakti thi.

Japan ne shuroo mein apna aadhunikeekaran aatmaraksha ke uddeshya se kiya tha. yeh us anubhav ka parinaam tha ki jab tak Japan swayam apne ko Europeeya raajyon ko samakaksh naheen bana lega, tab tak parishcham ke anya desh use chain se naheen rahane deinge aur usaki svatantrata bhi samaapt kar deinge. lekin, unneesavi sadi ke ant mein Japan ka vah uddeshya samaapt ho gaya. ab Japan mein har kshetr mein paashchaatya jagat ka anukaran karne ki laalasa jagi. yeh laalasa raashtreeya jeevan mein parivartan tak seemit na rahi, varan saamraajyavaadi jeevan ki or bhi badh gayi, jiske falasvaroop Europeeya deshon tatha America ki tarah vah bhi saamraajyavaadi desh ho gaya.

Japan ke aadhunikeekaran ka sabse mahatvapoorn pahaloo usaka apoorv audyogik vikaas tha. Japan mein bade-bade kal-kaarkhaane khule aur bahut bade paimaane par vastuon ka utpaadan praarambh hua. is tarah, Japan ka audyogikeekaran hua aur vah ek udyog pradhaan desh ban gaya. aadhunik udyogeekaran saamraajyavaad ka sarvaadhik mahatvapoorn prarek tv raha hai. ek audyogik desh ko kai tahar ki cheejon ki aavashyakta hoti hai. udyog dhandhe chalaane ke liye sarvapratham kachche maal ki aavashyakta hoti hai. fir, kachche maal se saamaan taiyaar kar unhein bechne ke liye baajaar ki bhi aavashyakta hoti hai. Japan ek chhota sa desh hai aur uske audyogik saadhan atyant seemit hain. apne udyog dhandhon ke liye vah swayam apne desh mein praapt kachche maal se san tusht naheen ho sakta tha; kyonki vah bahut hi aparyaapt tha. kachche maal ke liye vah doosare dashon par aashrit tha. yahi baat audyogik cheejon ko bechne k liye baajaar ke saath bhi thi. jab utpaadan bade paimaane par hone laga to cheejon ke khapat ki samasya I. in donon baaton ke liye Japan ko doosare deshon par nirbhar karna tha.

kachche maal aur baajaar ki upalabdhi ke liye saamraajyavaadi jeevan ka praarambh aavashyak ho gaya. in donon cheejon ki praapti baahari pichhde deshon par raajaneetik prabhuta kar hi ki ja sakti hai. koi bhi desh chaahe kitni bhi pichhda kyon na ho, is tarah svechhaapoorvak apna aarthik shoshan naheen hone dega. aisi sthiti mein pichhde deshon ko apna baajaar banaane ke liye aur vahaaain ke kachche maal dvaara apne vyavasaaya ko badhaane ke liye un par raajaneetik prabhutv sthaapit karna aavashyak ban gaya. raajaneetik prabhutv sthaapit karne ka ek upaaya tha - yuddh. ataev, is paristhiti mein Japan ko yuddh ka sahaara lena pada aur is tarah uske saamraajyavaadi jeevan ka aarambh hua.

Japan mein sainyavaad ka udaya

Japani saamraajyavaad ke vikaas ka doosra kaaran vahaaain sainyavaad ka vikaas tha. meiji pun:sthaapana ke baad Japan badi teji se aadhunikta ki or agrasar hua. is aadhunikta ko lahar mein Japan ke sainik punargathan par vishesh dhyaan diya gaya. iske poorv Japan ka sainik sangathan saamantavaadi vyavastha par aadhaarit tha. lekin, meiji pun:sthaapana ke uparaant Japan ke sainik sangathan mein aamool parivartan hua. sena ke saamantavaadi svaroop ka ant ka diya gaya. jab Japan mein anivaarya sainik seva laagoo ki gayi aur ek raashtreeya sena ka sangathan hua. is sena ko prashikshit karne ke liye prasha se sainik visheshagya bulaae gaye, jinhonne Japani jalasena aur sthalasena ka sangathan aadhunik prashiyn dhang se kiya. sena ko niyamit roop se vetan milne laga aur sainikon par prashiyn anushaasan kaayam hua.

shuroo se hi Japan ke log sainik manovrutti ke the. nae yug mein unki is pravrutti ko aur protsaahan mila. nai sangathit sena mein kuchh bade hi mahatvaakaankshi vyakti afsaron ke pad par aaseen the. ve aakraamak Japan ko ugr aur aakraamak sainik videsh neeti ka avalanban karna chaahiye. unhein Japan ki sainik shakti par atyaadhik bharosa tha aur iske bal par ve Japan ke raajya ka vistaar karna chaahate the. unka vishvaas tha ki Japan ki sainik shakti Ajay hai aur uske bal par apna raajya vistaar kar sakte hain. sainik afsaron ka yeh shaktishaali gut desh ki raajaneeti par bada prabhaav rakhata tha. in logon ne Japan ki sarkaar ko ugr aakraamak neeti ka anusaran karne ke liye baadhya kiya. ise lekar nikat pados ke deshon par Japan ka aakraman shuroo hua. Japani saamraajyavaad ka vikaas yaheen se maanana chaahiye.

Japani saamraajyavaad ke kaaran

pashchimi saamraajyavaad se raashtreeya suraksha ki aavashyakta

unneesaveen shataabdi ke ant mein Europeeya saamraajyavaad ka Asia aur Africa mein charam vikaas ho chuka tha. us samay Europe ke vividh raajya aur sanyukt raajya America donon hi Japan ke aaspaas ke kshetron mein apne saamraajya ka vistaar kar chuke the athva karne mein vyast the. cheen ko lootane-khasotane ka kaam praarambh ho gaya tha. ataev, apni suraksha ke liye yeh aavashyak ho gaya ki Japan bhi ugr aakraamak neeti ka avalanban kare.

prajaatantreeya samaanata ki aakaanksha

Japani log apne ko shreshth prajaati ka maanate the. ve apne desh ko devalok tatha apne samraat ko ishvar ka roop maanate the. unka vishvaas tha ki shesh sansaar ke log jangali aur asabhya hai aur shreshth prajaati hone ke kaaran unka adhikaar hai ki ve doosari jaatiyon par shaasan karein. Japan poorv ke deshon mein pehla desh tha jo Europe ke kisi bhi desh ki baraabari kar sakta tha. at: apni sainyashakti ke bal par Japan Europeeya samaaj mein pravisht hone ka prayaas karne laga.

Japan ki aantarik raajaneeti

meiji samvidhaan ke anusaar Japan mein July, 1890 mein pehla chunaav hua aur sansad ka sangathan hua. lekin, jaise hi sansad ki baithak shuroo hui ki sarkaar se unki nonk-jhonk shuroo ho gain sansad vaalon ne samvidhaan mein sanshodhan ki maaaing ki, taaki sarkaar sansad ke prati uttaradaayi ho. is baat ka gatirodh utpann ho gaya. pradhaanamantri maatasookaata maasaayaasi is prastaav ka kattar virodhi tha. ataev, 1891 E. mein usane sansad ko bhang kar diya aur doosare chunaav ka aadesh diya. is ashaant aantarik raajaneetik ne Japani raajaneetijnyaon ne vichaar kiya ki yadi Japan aakraamak neeti ka anusaran karne lage to sanbhavataya desh ki raajaneetik mein kuchh sudhaar ho aur logon ka dhyaan desheeya ghatnaaon se hatkar videshon mein lag jaae. ataev Japani adhikaariyon ne ugr evam aakraamak neeti ka avalanban karne ka nishchaya kiya. Japani saamraajyaavaad ke udbhav ke mool mein desh ki aakraamak videsh neeti bhi thi.

inhein bhi dekhein