Japani bhaasha

Japani bhaasha (Japani : 日aa本aa語 neehongo) Japan desh ki mukhyabhaasha aur raajabhaasha hai. dviteeya mahaayuddh se pehle Korea, faarmosa aur sakhaaleen mein bhi Japani boli jaati thi. ab bhi Korea aur faarmosa mein Japani jaananevaalon ki sankhya paryaapt hai, parantu dheere dheere unki sankhya kam hoti ja rahi hai. bhaashaavid ise 'ashlisht-yogaatmak bhaasha' maanate hain. Japani bhaasha cheeni-tibbati bhaasha-parivaar mein naheen aati. bhaashaavid ise khud ki Japani bhaasha-parivaar mein rakhate hain (kuchh ise Japani-Koreai bhaasha-parivaar mein maanate hain). ye do lipiyon ke mishran mein likhi jaati hain : kaanji lipi (cheen ki chitr-lipi) aur kaana lipi (akshari lipi jo swayam cheeni lipipr aadhaarit hai). is bhaasha mein aadar-soochak shabdon ka ek bada tantr hai aur bolne mein "pitch-system" zaroori hota hai. ismein kai shabd cheeni bhaasha se liye gaye hain.

Japani bhaasha kis bhaasha kul mein sammilit hai is sambandh mein ab tak koi nishchit mat sthaapit naheen ho saka hai. parantu yeh spasht hai ki Japani aur Koreai bhaashaaon mein ghanishth sambandh hai aur aajkal anek vidvaanon ka mat hai ki Koreai bhaasha alataaik bhaashaakul mein sanmilit ki jaani chaahiye. Japani bhaasha mein bhi uchchaaran aur vyaakaran sambandhi anek visheshataaeain hai jo anya alataai bhaashaaon ke samaan hain parantu ye visheshataaeain ab tak itni kaafi naheen samajhi jaati raheen jinmein ham nishchit roop se kah sakein ki Japani bhaasha alataaik bhaashaakul mein ai ek hai. haaiku iski pramukh kaavya vidha hai.

anukram

itihaas

praacheen kaal (8 veen shataabdi tak)

Japani bhaasha kab se aarambh hoti hai is sambandh mein pramaan na hone ke kaaran nishchit roop se kuchh bataaya naheen ja sakta. teesari shataabdi mein likhi gayi ek cheeni pustak mein Japan ke kuchh sthaanon aur logon ke naam milte hain jinse anumaan kiya ja sakta hai ki us samay Japani bhaasha ka vikaas ho chuka tha. 7 veen-8veen shataabdi me Japani logon ne cheeni bhaasha aur lipi seekhi aur cheeni bhaasha mein itihaas, bhoogol aadi likhe gaye. dheere dheere cheeni lipi mein Japani bhaasha likhne ka upaaya khoj nikaala gaya. Japan mein sabse puraani kavitaaon ka sangrah maanayoshyoo (lag. 778 E.) isi upaaya se likha gaya tha. cheeni bhaasha ke shabd ekamaatrik hote hain. is kaaran uske ek-ek lipichihn (shabd) se Japani bhaasha ka uchchaaran prakat karna atyant saral tha. is prakaar ki lipiyon ko "maanyo" lipi kehte hain. in lipiyon ke adhyayan se gyaat hua hai ki us samay ki Japani bhaasha mein aath prakaar ke svar aur shabdon mein svar anuroopata hoti thi. ab bhi kokoro (hrudaya), ataama (sir) aadi shabdon ki bhaaainti ek hi svar se bane anek shabd hai.

uttar praacheen kaal (9-12 veen shataabdi)

cheen ke saath gamanaagaman band ho jaane ke kaaran Japan ki api sanskruti ka vikaas hua. bhaasha mein svar anuroopata ka lop ho gaya aur svaron ki sankhya keval paaainch rah gayi. cheeni lipi-chihnon ko saral karke Japan ki apni do prakaar ki lipiyaaain "hiraagaana" aur "kaataakaana" ban gain. hiraagaana cheeni lipi ko saral karke banaai gayi. aarambh mein yeh lipi visheshataya striyon mein lokapriya hui. cheeni lipi ko na milaakar keval usi lipi mein bhaasha likhi jaati thi. kaataakaana cheeni bhaasha mein likhi pustak ko Japani ki bhaaainti padhne ki drushti se banaai gayi. praaya: cheeni lipi chinh ka ek bhaag lekar usaka nirmaan hua tha. aarambh se hi yeh lipi cheeni lipiyon ke saath milaakar likhi jaati thi. is samay cheen ke maadhyam se Japan mein sanskrut bhaasha aur lipi ka adhyayan bhi aarambh ho gaya tha. nai Japani lipiyon ki varnamaala sanskrut ki varnamaala ke anukaran mein banaai gayi. (9-10 veen shataabdi) is samay ka raajaneetik kendra pashchimi Japan tha. poorvi Japan ke sainikon ke aane se bhaasha mein visheshakar uchchaaran mein parivartan aa gaya.

madhya kaal (13-16 veen shataabdi)

is samay senaapatiyon ki shakti badh gayi aur kuchh samay tak tokyo ke nikat kaamaakura raajaneetik kendra raho. is kaal mein anek ladaaiyaaain hone ke kaaran praacheen bhaasha ki parampara tootane lagi aur uchchaaran tatha vyaakaran me bada parivartan aa gaya.

is kaal ke antim bhaag mein Europe ke log lage aur isaai mat ke prasaar ke uddeshya se unhonne Japani bhaasha ka adhyayan kiya. unke likhe vyaakaran aur shabdakosh upalabdh hain. unki likhi anek pustakon se us samay ki Japani bhaasha ka haal achhi bhaaainti jaana jaata hai.

isi samay chhapaai ka vikaas hua aur bauddh dharm, kanafyoocheevaad, mein bhi chikitsa shaastr aadi ki pustakein chhaapi gayi. parantu cheeni bhaasha mein likhi pustakein adhik chhaapi gain aur Japani mein likhi pustakon ki sankhya kam rahi. is kaal tak praacheen bhaasha ka kaal kah sakte hain; parantu is samay ke ant mein bhaasha ka roop badalkar aadhunik bhaasha ka roop dhaaran karne laga.

poorv aadhunik kaal (17-19 veen yataabdi)

is prakaar mein samraat ke sthaan par tokugaava parivaar ke log raajya karne lage, tokyo rajdhani ho gaya tatha jaageeradaari paddhati drudh ho gayi. aarambh mein osaaka saanskrutik kendra tha parantu 18 veen shataabdi ke antim bhaag se "edo" (aajkal ka tokyo) saanskrutik kendra bana. saahitya adhiktar edo ki boli mein hi likha jaane laga. desh jaageeron mein vibhaajit hone ke kaaran aur logon ke jaageeron ke baahar aane jaane ka avsar bahut kam hone ke kaaran is kaal mein anek boliyon ka vikaas hua. uchchaaran aadhunik bhaasha ki bhaaainti ho gaya aur vyaakaran mein kriya ke roopaparivrtan ke niyamon ka saral hona praarambh hua. aarambh mein edo mein bhinn bhinn boliyaaain bolanevaale ikatthe hue the parantu dheere dheere edo nagar ki apni boli ka vikaas hua. yeh aur bhi viksit hokar aajkal ki sarvamaanya bhaasha ban gayi hai. is samay praacheen Japani bhaasha tatha saahitya ka adhyayan bahut adhik kiya jaane laga. is samay se hiraakaana mein cheeni lipiyon ko adhik milaakar likhne ki paddhati pasand ki jaane lagi.

aadhunik kaal (20 veen shataabdi)

is kaal mein samraat swayam raajya karne lage or tokyo rajdhani bana. yahaaain ki boli sarvamaanya bhaasha maani jaane lagi. Europe ke saath sampark sthaapit hua tatha Europe ke anek shabd cheeni lipi mein anudit hokar janasaadhaaran mein prachalit hone lage. cheeni lipiyon ke atyadhik prayog mein aa jaane ke kaaran ek hi uchchaaranavaale anek shabd ban gaye. Europe ke saahitya ke anuvaad se bhaasha mein nai shailiyon ka vikaas hua. 1887 se bolachaal ki bhaasha mein saahitya sheeghrata ke saath lokapriya hota gaya. gyaan vigyaan ki pustakein ab tak ki lekhan shaili mein oopar se neeche ki or likhi jaane ke badle baain se daain or likhi jaane lageen. yeh pravrutti aajkal aur bhi badh rahi hai aur dviteeya mahaayuddh ke baad sarkaari aajnyaaapatr bhi baain se daain or likhe jaate hain.

ab patrapatrika, radio, telivijn aadi saadhanon se sarvasaamaanya bhaasha ka prachaar atyant teevragati se badh raha hai aur desh ke kone kone mein tokyo ki boli samajhi tatha boli jaane lagi.

meji kaal ke aarambh mein adhik prayog mein I cheeni lipiyon ko kam karna, cheeni lipi ko laghu roop mein likhna, hiraakaana aur kaataakaana ke prayog mein ekaroopata se aana, roman lipi prayog ka adhyayan karna aadi aadi upaayon se bhaasha ko yathaasanbhav saral banaane ke liye prayatn kiya ja raha hai. 1946 mein jab Japan ka naya samvidhaan hiraakaana aur cheeni lipiyon ko milaakar likha gaya tha us samay se praaya: samast patrapatrikaaon mein bhi yahi upaaya apnaaya ja raha hai. videshi shabdon ke uchchaaran ki nakal karte samay kaataakaana ka prayog hota hai. kuchh log taaiparaaitar ke liye kaataakaana ka prayog karte hain parantu yeh ab tak lokapriya naheen ho saka hai.

boliyaaain

Japani samaaj mein bhaarateeya samaaj jaisi visheshataaon ke hone tatha bhaasha ke bahut puraani hone ke kaaran Japani bhaasha mein anek boliyaaain hain. jin mein mukhya kyooshyoo hai. pashchimi Japan tatha poorvi Japan ki boliyo mein, visheshakar unke uchchaaran mein spasht antar hai. meji kaal se shiksha ke prachaar ke kaaran har kshetr mein sarvamaanya bhaasha tokyo ki boli, samajhi jaati hai. kshetreeya boliyon ke atirikt peshe, stri purush, uchch varg nimn varg aadi ke bhed se bhinn bhinn boliyaaain boli jaati hain. oopar ke har prakaar ke bhedon ke saath saath pratyek Japani ko sunaanevaale ke bade chhote ke bhedon ke saath saath pratyek Japani ko sunanevaale ke bade chhote ke bhed se teen prakaar ki shaili mein bolna padta hai. apne se chhote ya baraabar ke logon se bolte samay da (hai) prakaar ka vaakya, kuchh bade se bolte samay desu prakaar ka tatha bahut aadar se baatein karte samay gojaaimaasu (hai) prakaar ka vaakya banaana padta hai. likhit bhaasha mein bhi aroo (saadhaaran) aur arimaasu (aadar - soochak) donon shailiyaaain hain.

uchchaaran

svar : a i u A (hrasv) O (hrasv)

vyanjan : sada svar ke saath hokar uchcharit hone ke kaaran keval vyanjan prakat karanevaali lipi naheen hai. vyanjan svar waali lipi nimnalikhit hai :

k ki ku ke ko kyu kyo

g gi gu gay go gya gyu gyo

s shi su se so shya shyu shyo

j ji ju J jo jya jyu jyo

t chi tsu te to ch chyu jyo

the de do

na ni nu ne no nya nyu nyo

h hi hu he ho ha hyu hyo

(1) saghosh ke liye vishesh lipi chinh nahi hain. aghosh lipi chinh par hi do nukate lagaae jaate hain.

(2) jab Japani lipi bani, kyakyu kyo jaise uchchaaran naheen the. ye baad me cheeni bhaasha ke prabhaav se apanaae gaye hain. isaliye ye mool lipi ke baad chhote akshar lagaakar prakat kiye jaate hain. oopar likhit uchchaaran ke atirikt do aur hain :

(a) n ke liye

(aa) jab pakka, achha jaisa shabd ho k ch k ch ko bhi ek maatra samajhte hain. is maatra ki prakat karne ke liye chhote akshar tasu likhte hain.

svaraaghaat :

Japani shabd sangeetaatmak svaraaghaat ke hain. svaraaghaat ke prakaar bahut kam hain. chaar maatraavaale shabdon mein nimnalikhit keval chaar prakaar ke bhed hain.

Japani bhaasha mein ek hi uchchaaran aur vibhinn arthavaale anek shabd hain. svaraaghaat mein bhi un shabdon mein bhed bataane ki shakti naheen hai. kami (kaagaj) aur kami (baal) ke uchchaaran, svaaraaghaat mein koi antar naheen hai. ham keval unki cheeni lipi ko dekhne se hi donon ka bhed jaan sakte hain. parantu yeh svaraaghaat vaakya mein shabdasamooh ko achhi bhaaainti bataata hai.

nivaano sakuro mo minna chitte shimtta

vyaakaran

vaataakushi va nihongo no (main Japani bhaasha ka) benkyo O (adhyayan) shite (kar) orimaasu (raha hooain)

is prakaar ek vaakya mein shabdon ka sthaan sanyog se hindi se bahut milta hai. parantu Japani bhaasha ke sanyogaatmak na hokar yogaatmak hone ke kaaran kuchh visheshataaeain dhyaan dene yogya hain.

sanjnyaa

sanjnyaa mein vibhktiyon ka prayog naheen hota. vaakya mein sanjnyaa ka sambandh bataane ke liye sahaayak shabd ya sahaayak kriyaaeain lagaai jaati hain. oopar ke vaakya mein "main" ko prakat karne ke liye "vaataakushi" mein koi roopaparivrtan naheen hua hai. karta kaarak ko vyakt karne ke liye sahaayak shabd "va" lagaaya hai. sanjnyaa mein lingabhed naheen hai, parantu manushya, jaanavar aadi chetan aur achetan vastuon mein kuchh bhed hai. sanjnyaa ke roop mein koi bhed naheen hota parantu baad mein aanevaali kriya mein, ekavachan bahuvachan ke roop mein bhed aa jaate hain.

aadar athva namrata prakat karne ke liye sanjnyaa mein upasarg "O" lagaaya jaata hai.

jaise : tegaami ........ patra

otegaami ....... aapka patra

purushavaachak sarvanaam

aadaraaspad se, baraabaravaale se, chhote darje ke logon se athva namrata se kehne ke liye bhinn bhinn shabd hain. in shabdon ka samuchit prayog karna bahut kathin hai jaise main ke liye. vaataakushi hru visheshakar striyaaain kehti hain. purush bhi badon ke saamane namrata prakat karne ke liye is shabd ka prayog karte hain.

vaataashi (kuchh badon ke saamane)

vashi, boku, ore, (baraabar athva chhote se)

ataai : chhoti ladkiyaaain

kriya

kriya mein roopaparivrtan hota hai. ek shabd do ya adhik maatraaon ka hota hai1

kriya mein ek visheshata miyeru (dikhaai dena) kikoeru (sunaai dena) jaise shabd hain jo keval achetan vastuon ke sambandh mein prayukt kiye jaate hain. hindi ki bhaaainti sanjnyaa mein suru (karna) lagaakar kriyaaeain banaai jaati hain jaise-

shippatsu suru (prasthaan karna) parantu is prakaar ki kriyaaon ke sambandh mein ek visheshata yeh hai ki jab aisi kriya vaakya ke ant mein aati hai, kabhi kabhi "suru" (karna) lagaakar vaakya poorn kiya jaata hai. jaise rokuji kisho. shichiji shippatsu. (chh: baje uthata hoon. saat baje prasthaan karta hooain).

visheshan

kuroi (kaala), akai (laal), jaise ikaraant or shijukaana (shaant), genkina (svaasthya), jaise nakaaraant do prakaar ke shabd hain. visheshanon mein bhi kriya ki bhaaainti roopaparivrtan hota hai.

ank

manushya, jaanav aadi jeev jantu aur achetan vastuon ke ginne ki reeti bhinn bhinn hai :

  • purushon ko ginne ke liye- hatori, futaari, saannin
  • jaanvaron ke liye - ippiki, nihiki, sanviki
  • saadhaaran achetan vastu - hitotsu, futaatsu, mitsu
  • kaagaj aadi patali cheejein - ichimi, nimi, sanmai
  • kalam aadi lambi cheejein - ipapon, nihon, sanbon

sahaayak shabd

sahaayak shabd mein roop parivartan naheen hota. shabdon ke roop bahut chhote hote hain hru adhiktar ek maatraavaale. teen maatraaon se adhik lambe shabd bahut kam hain. ye shabd hindi ke sanbandhabodhak tatha samuchchayabodhak shabd ki vibhkti aur kriyaavisheshan ka kaam karte hain.

sanbandhabodhak g O ni no de paaain shabd hain :

Ram g yuki masu.


tegami O yomu

(Ram) (jaata) (hai)


(patra ko) (padhta hai)

roku ni ni oriru


(6 baje ko) (uthata hooain)


samuchchyabodhak kar, (ttththaddhathth) g (dhthth) keredomo, shi, chaar shabd hain.

aasa va haayaai shi, yoru va osoi shi,

(praat:kaal ko) (savere) (bhi) (Ram ko der mein bhi) taihenda

takaleef hai (... bahut sabere jaate bhi ho aur raat ko bahut der mein vaapas aate bhi ho, bahut hi takaleef hogi)

shabdasamooh

svatantr shabd aur paratantr shabd (sahaayak kriya, sahaayak shabd) mein vibhaajit hote hain. paratantr shabd adhiktar ek se chaar maatraaon ke hote hai parantu do teen paratantr shabd ek saath bhi lagaae ja sakte hai.

svatantr shabdon mein chaar maatraavaale adhik hain aur mool bhaag cheeni lipi mein tatha roop parivartan karanevaale bhaag hiraakaana mein likhe jaate hain. cheeni lipiyon ko adhik lagaakar bahut bade, bade, kabhi kabhi 10-15 maatraaon ke shabd bhi banaae ja sakte hain. parantu teen chaar maatraaon ke shabd adhik pasand kiye jaane ke kaaran cheeni lipiyon ke kisi kisi hisse ko kaatkar laghu shabd banaana pasand kiya jaata hai, jaise"nihon kyoshokuin kumiai" ke sthaan par "nikkyoso" is prakaar ke anek shabd banaae jaane ke kaaran ek hi uchchaaran ke evam anek arth prakat karanevaale shabd bahut milte hain.

cheeni shabd aur anya videshi shabd

cheeni shabd athva cheeni lipiyon ko jodkar Japan mein bane shabd Japani bhaasha mein atyant mahatva ka sthaan rakhate hain. aajkal ke samaachaarapatron mein prayukt shabdon mein se koi 10 pratishat aise shabd hain. cheeni lipiyon mein likhe shabdon ko padhne mein ek badi kathinaai yeh hai ki ek ek lipi ke liye teen bhinn uchchaaran hain. kaaran yeh hai ki cheen mein "kaan" raajakul, "go" raajakul aur "to" raajakul ke shaasanakaalon mein cheeni lipiyon ke uchchaaran bhinn the aur in teenon kaalon mein cheeni bhaasha ka prabhaav Japani bhaasha par padta raha. is prakaar cheeni uchchaaran ke anusaar padhne ke liye teen bhed hain. iske atirikt jab ye lipiyaaain Japan ke apne mool shabdon ke liye prayukt ki jaati hain ye cheeni lipiyaaain apne apne arth ke anusaar Japani uchchaaran mein padhi jaati hain. is prakaar kabhi kabhi ek cheeni lipi saat aath prakaar se padhi jaati hai.

meji kaal mein jab Japan mein videshiyon ka prabhaav padne laga, club, baket, blainket, romaintik, tobaako jaise shabd ya to unke uchchaaran ko lekar ya unke artho ko lekar cheeni lipi mein likhe jaane lage. parantu aajkal aise shabd adhiktar kaataakaana mein likhe jaane lage hain. aadhunik Japani bhaasha mein kul shabdon ke paaainch prati shat aise videshi shabd hain. in videshi shabdon mein udyog-vyavasaaya ke yantron ke naam, kapde aadi rahan-sahan sambandhi shabd aur khel kood ke shabd adhik hain. inmein aaingreji aur aajkal Amreeki shabd sabse adhik hain. chikitsa, tatvajnyaaan, pahaadon ki chadhaai ke sambandh mein Germany se, kala ke sambandh mein fraanseesi se, sangeet ke sambandh mein itaaleed se adhik shabd liye gaye hain.

cheeni bhaasha ko milaakar videshi shabdon mein roopaparivrtan naheen hote. jab kriya banaani hoti hai, aise shabdon ke baad suru (karna) lagaaya jaata hai, jaise sign suru (sign karna, sanket karna).

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain