Jammu (shahar)

Jammu (shahar)
jambu
Jammu tavi
raajya ki rajdhani
Jammu nagar evam tavi nadi ka dॄshya
upanaam: mandiron ka shahar
जम्मू (शहर) is located in जम्मू एवं कश्मीर
Jammu (shahar)
nirdeshaank : 32°a44′aN 74°a52′aE / 32.73°aN 74.87°aE / 32.73; 74.87Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 32°a44′aN 74°a52′aE / 32.73°aN 74.87°aE / 32.73; 74.87
raashtra Flag of India.svg India
raajya Jammu evam Kashmir
jila Jammu
sthaapit 2900 E.poo.
sansthaapak rai jambulochan
shaasan
• pranaali nagar mahaapaalika
• sabha Jammu nagar mahaapaalika evam Jammu vikaas praadhikran
kshetr
• kul 167
ooainchaai 327
janasankhya (2011)
• kul 503
• darja 2
• ghanatv 5,697
bhaashaaen
• aadhikaarik urdu, dogari
samay mandal IST (UTC +5:30)
pinkod 180001
vaahan panjeekaran JK 02
jaalasthal www.jammu.nic.in

Jammu shahar Jammu kshetr ka sabse bada shahar hai aur saath hi Bhaarat ke uttaratam raajya Jammu evam Kashmir ki sheetakaaleen rajdhani bhi hai. yeh nagaramahaapaalika wala shahar tavi nadi ke tat par basa hai. nagar mein dheron puraane va naye mandiron ke baahulya ke kaaran ise mandiron ka shahar bhi kaha jaata hai. teji se failati shahari aabaadi evam badhte avasanrachana ke kaaran ye sheetakaaleen rajdhani raajya ka doosra sabse bada shahar hai.[1]

anukram

bhoogol

Jammu nagar 32°a44′aN 74°a52′aE / 32.73°aN 74.87°aE / 32.73; 74.87 nirdeshaank par sthit hai[2]. mein sthit hai. yahaan ki saagar satah se ausat oonchaai 327 mi (1,073 feet) hai. yeh nagar shivaalik parvatamaala ki nichli asamaan pahaadiyon va teelon ke beech basa hai. uttar, poorv evam dakshin-poorv mein yeh shivaalik se ghira hai aur uttar-pashchim disha mein trikuta range hai. raashtreeya rajdhani Delhi se yeh shahar lagbhag 600 ki.mi (370 mi) doori par uttar disha mein sthit hai. nagar tavi nadi ke kinaaron par basa aur aage faila hua hai tatha puraana shahar daaen tat par uttar disha par basa hua hai tatha naya basa shahar nadi ke dakshini tat se laga (baayeen or) hai. tavi nadi chaar bade setuon dvaara paar ki ja sakti hai aur paanchavaan setu abhi nirmaanaadheen hai. nagar ki bhoomi samaan na hokar kaheen kaheen oonchi tatha kaheen neechi in teelon par faili hui hai. nadi ke ek tat par baahu ka kila evam puraana shahar hai to doosare par royal Dogra pailes bana hai, jo nagar ke uchchatam sthaan hain. nagar ka vimaanakshetr satabaadi mein sthit hai.

naamakaran

Jammu nagar ka naam iske sthaapak ke naam par pada hai. rai jambulochan ne iski sthaapana ki aur naam rakha jambupura jo kaalaantar mein bigad kar Jammu ho gaya. kai itihaasakaaron evam sthaaneeya uktiyon ke anusaar nagar ki sthaapana rai jambulochan ne 14veen shataabdi E.poo. mein ki thi. raaja ek baar aakhet karte hue tavi nadi ke tat par ek sthaan par pahuncha jahaan usane dekha ki ek sher va bakari ek saath ek hi ghaat par paani pi rahe hain. paani peekar donon jaanavar apne apne raaste chale gaye. raaja aashcharyachakit rah gaya aur aakhet ka vichaar chhodkar apne saathiyon ke paas pahuncha va saari katha vistaar se bataayi. sabne kaha ki yeh sthaan shanti va sadbhaav bhara hoga jahaan sher va bakari ek saath paani pi rahe hon. tab usane aadesh diya ki is sthaan par ek kile ka nirmaan kiya jaaye va uske nikat hi shahar basaaya jaaye. is shahar ka naam hi jambupura ya jambunagar pada aur kaalaantar mein Jammu ho gaya.[3]</ref>[4]

itihaas

Jammu shahar aitihaasik nagar hai aur poorv Jammu praant ki rajdhani rah chuka hai aur baad mein bhi Bhaarat ke Jammu evam Kashmir raajya ki sheetakaaleen rajdhani rah chuka hai. rai jambulochan raaja baahulochan ka chhota bhaai tha. (1846–1952) mein baahulochan ne tavi nadi ke tat par baahu kila banavaaya tha aur jambulochan ne jambupura nagar basavaaya tha. nagar ke naam ka ullekh mahaabhaarat mein bhi milta hai. Jammu shahar se 32 kilometer (20 meal) doorasth akhanoor mein puraataattvik khudaai ke baad is Jammu nagar ke hadppa sabhyata ke ek bhaag hone ke saakshya bhi mile hain. Jammu mein maurya, kushaan, kushaanashaah aur gupt vansh kaal ke avashesh bhi praapt hue hain. 480 E. ke baad is kshetr par efthalaaitis ka adhikaar ho gaya tha aur yahaan kapees aur Kabul se bhi shaasan hua tha. inke uttaraadhikaari kushaano-hefthaalaait vanshahue jinka adhikaar 565 se 670 E. tak raha. tadoparaant 670 E. se lekar 11veen shataabdi keaaranbh tak shaahi raajavansh ka raaj raha jise gjnavi ke adheenasthon ne chheen liya. Jammu ka ullekh taimoor ke vijay abhiyaanon ke abhilekhon mein bhi milta hai. is kshetr ne sikhon evam mugalon ke aakramanon ke saath ek baar fir se shakti-parivartan dekha aur antat: british raaj ka niyantran ho gaya. yahaan 840 E. se 1860 E. tak Dave vansh ka shaasan bhirha tha. tab nagar anya bhaarateeya nagaron se alag-thalag pad gaya aur unase pichhad gaya tha. usakeuparaant Dogra shaasak aaye aur Jammu shahar ko apni khoi hui aabha va shaan vaapas mili. unhonneyahaan bade bade mandiron va teerthon ka nirmaan kiya va puraane sthaanon ka jeernoddhaar karavaaya, saath hi kai shaikshik sansthaan bhi banavaaye. us kaal mein nagar ne kaafi unnati ki. 1897 mein ek 43 ki.mi lambi rel line dvaara Jammu ko siyaalakot se joda gaya tha[5] kintu 1947 mein Bhaarat ke vibhaajan ke baad yeh rel line band kar di gayi kyonki siyaalakot se aavaajaahi ki kadi hi toot gayi thi. uske baad Jammu shahar mein 1971 tak koi rel seva naheen thi. tabhi bhaarateeya rel ne pathaanakot-Jammu tavi braud gej rel line daali aur antat: 1975 mein ek baar firse naye Jammu-tavi railway station ke saath Jammu shesh Bhaarat se rel dvaara jud gaya. varsha2000 mein puraane railway station ka adhikaansh bhaag dhvans kar vahaan ek kala kendra banaaya gaya.[6]

jalavaayu

shesh uttar-pashchim Bhaarat ki bhaanti hi, Jammu mein bhi aardr uposhnakatibndheeya jalavaayu (Köappen: Cwa) hi hai. yahaan greeshmakaal mein adhiktam taapamaan 46 °ase (115 °afai), evam sheetakaaleen maahon mein nyoonatam taapamaan himaank se neeche bhi ja sakta hai. June greeshmatam maah hota hai jiska ausat uchch taapamaan 40.6 °ase (105.1 °afai) rahata hai, jabki January sheetalatam maah hota hai jismein ausat nyoonatam taapamaan 7 °ase (45 °afai) tak rahata hai. ausat vaarshik varsha lagbhag 42 inch (1,100 mimi) hoti hai, jismein se adhiktam varsha June se sitmbar ke beech varsha ritu mein hoti hai, jab Bhaarat mein monsoon aata hai, haalaanki sheetakaal mein bhi kuchh varshaaen ho jaati hain. sardiyon ke mahinon mein gahan kohara evam kuhaasa (smaug) logon ko kaafi asuvidha karta hai aur taapamaan 2 °ase (36 °afai) tak gir sakta hai. greeshmakaal mein visheshakar May tatha June maah mein, tej dhoop ke saath-saath achhi garm havaaen paare ko 46 °ase (115 °afai) tak pahuncha deti hain, kintu is tej garmi se raahat dene wala varsha-kaal monsoon havaaon ke sang tej baarish tatha tadit va aandhi lekar aata hai. is samay aardratam maahon ki kul varsha 669 mileemeetar (26.3 inch) tak pahunch sakti hai.

Jammu ke liye mausam jaankaari
maheena January fravari March April May June July August sitmbar October November December varsh
ankit adhik °aC (°aF) 26
(79)
31
(88)
36
(97)
41
(106)
45
(113)
46
(115)
44
(111)
41
(106)
37
(99)
36
(97)
31
(88)
26
(79)
46
(115)
ausat adhiktam °aC (°aF) 18.8
(65.8)
21.9
(71.4)
26.6
(79.9)
32.9
(91.2)
38.3
(100.9)
40.6
(105.1)
35.5
(95.9)
33.7
(92.7)
33.6
(92.5)
31.7
(89.1)
26.8
(80.2)
21.1
(70)
30.1
(86.2)
ausat nyoonatam °aC (°aF) 7.4
(45.3)
9.6
(49.3)
13.6
(56.5)
19.0
(66.2)
24.4
(75.9)
26.8
(80.2)
24.5
(76.1)
24.0
(75.2)
23.0
(73.4)
18.4
(65.1)
12.6
(54.7)
8.5
(47.3)
17.7
(63.9)
ankit nyoon. °aC (°aF) -2
(28)
-3
(27)
3
(37)
6
(43)
7
(45)
13
(55)
13
(55)
8
(46)
12
(54)
4
(39)
2
(36)
-3
(27)
-3
(27)
varshaapaat mm (inches) 52.4
(2.063)
79.0
(3.11)
74.9
(2.949)
47.1
(1.854)
34.8
(1.37)
87.3
(3.437)
371.5
(14.626)
370.2
(14.575)
140.9
(5.547)
25.1
(0.988)
10.1
(0.398)
38.3
(1.508)
1,331.6
(52.425)
Source #1: BBC mausam
Source #2: bhaarateeya mausam vibhaag

sandarbh

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