Jammu

Jammu
جaaمaaوaaں
prashaasanik mandal
Jammu shahar evam tavi nadi ka dॄshya
Jammu (raani rang mein, 1-5) Kashmir ke maanachitr mein dikhaaya gaya hai
जम्मू is located in जम्मू एवं कश्मीर
Jammu
Jammu prabhaag mein Jammu nagar ka sthaan
nirdeshaank : 32°a44′aN 74°a52′aE / 32.73°aN 74.87°aE / 32.73; 74.87Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 32°a44′aN 74°a52′aE / 32.73°aN 74.87°aE / 32.73; 74.87
raashtra Bhaarat
raajya Jammu evam Kashmir
jila jammu, doda, kathuaa, raamaban, riyaasi, kishtavaar, punchh, raajauri, udhamapur, saanba
sthaapana 14veen shataabdi, E.poo.
sansthaapak raaja jamboo lochan
mukhyaalaya Jammu
shaasan
• pranaali kendreeya
• sabha raajya sarkaar
kshetr
• kul 222
ooainchaai 305
janasankhya
• kul 13
bhaashaaen
• aadhikaarik varnakramaatmak vyavasthit
samay mandal IST (yooteesi +5:30)
pinkod 0191
vaahan panjeekaran JK02-
jaalasthal www.jammu.nic.in

Jammu /ˈɑaaːmʊ/ (urdoo: جaaمaaوaaں , punjabi: ਜaaੰaaਮaaੂ), Bhaarat ke uttaratam raajya Jammu evam Kashmir mein teen mein se ek prashaasanik khand hai. yeh kshetr apne aap mein ek raajya naheen varan Jammu evam Kashmir raajya ka ek bhaag hai. kshetr ke pramukh jilon mein doda, kathuaa, udhamapur, raajauri, raamaban, riyaasi, saanba, kishtavaar evam punchh aate hain. kshetr ki adhikaansh bhoomi pahaadi ya pathareeli hai. ismein hi peer panjaal range bhi aata hai jo Kashmir ghaati ko vruhat himaalaya se poorvi jilon doda aur kishtavaar mein pruthak karta hai. yahaam ki pradhaan nadi chenaab (chandrabhaaga) hai.

Jammu shahar, jise aadhikaarik roop se Jammu-tavi bhi kehte hain, is prabhaag ka sabse bada nagar hai aur Jammu evam Kashmir raajya ki sheetakaaleen rajdhani bhi hai. nagar ke beech se tavi nadi niklati hai, jiske kaaran is nagar ko yeh aadhikaarik naam mila hai. Jammu nagar ko "mandiron ka shahar" bhi kaha jaata hai, kyonki yahaan dheron mandir evam teerth hain jinke chamakate shikhar evam damakate kalash nagar ki kshitijrekha par suvarn binduon jaise dikhaai dete hain aur ek pavitra evam shaantipoorn hindu nagar ka vaataavaran prastut karte hain.

yahaan kuchh prasiddh hindu teerth bhi hain, jaise vaishno devi, aadi jinke kaaran Jammu hindu teerth nagaron mein gina jaata hai. yahaam ki adhikaansh janasankhya hindu hi hai. [1] haalaanki doosare sthaan par yahaan sikh dharm hi aata hai. vruhat avasanrachana ke kaaran Jammu is raajya ka pramukh aarthik kendra bankar ubhara hai.[2]

anukram

itihaas

inhein bhi dekhein: Jammu evam Kashmir
bhaarateeya raajya Jammu evam Kashmir mein Jammu kshetr Kashmir ghaati ke pados mein evam dakshin-pashchim mein sthit hai. is kshetr mein doda, kathuaa, Jammu, uthamapur, raajauri evam punchh jile aate hain.
Jammu mein laama nrutya

kai itihaasakaaron evam sthaaneeya logon ke vishvaas ke anusaar Jammu ki sthaapana raaja jambulochan ne 14veen shataabdi E.poo. mein ki thi aur naam rakha jambupura jo kaalaantar mein bigad kar Jammu ho gaya. rai jambulochan raaja baahulochan ka chhota bhaai tha. (1846–1952) mein baahulochan ne tavi nadi ke tat par baahu kila banavaaya tha aur jambulochan ne jambupura nagar basavaaya tha. raaja ek baar aakhet karte hue tavi nadi ke tat par ek sthaan par pahuncha jahaan usane dekha ki ek sher va bakari ek saath ek hi ghaat par paani pi rahe hain. paani peekar donon jaanavar apne apne raaste chale gaye. raaja aashcharyachakit rah gaya aur aakhet ka vichaar chhodkar apne saathiyon ke paas pahuncha va saari katha vistaar se bataayi. sabne kaha ki yeh sthaan shanti va sadbhaav bhara hoga jahaan sher va bakari ek saath paani pi rahe hon. tab usane aadesh diya ki is sthaan par ek kile ka nirmaan kiya jaaye va uske nikat hi shahar basaaya jaaye. is shahar ka naam hi jambupura ya jambunagar pada aur kaalaantar mein Jammu ho gaya.[3][4] aaj bhi yahaan baahu ka kila ek aitihaasik evam darshaneeya sthal hai.

nagar ke naam ka ullekh mahaabhaarat mein bhi milta hai. Jammu shahar se 32 kilometer (20 meal) doorasth akhanoor mein puraataattvik khudaai ke baad is Jammu nagar ke hadppa sabhyata ke ek bhaag hone ke saakshya bhi mile hain. Jammu mein maurya, kushaan, kushaanashaah aur gupt vansh kaal ke avashesh bhi praapt hue hain. 480 E. ke baad is kshetr par efthalaaitis ka adhikaar ho gaya tha aur yahaan kapees aur Kabul se bhi shaasan hua tha. inke uttaraadhikaari kushaano-hefthaalaait vansh hue jinka adhikaar 565 se 670 E. tak raha. tadoparaant 670 E. se lekar 11veen shataabdi keaaranbh tak shaahi raajavansh ka raaj raha jise gjnavi ke adheenasthon ne chheen liya. Jammu ka ullekh taimoor ke vijay abhiyaanon ke abhilekhon mein bhi milta hai. is kshetr ne sikhon evam mugalon ke aakramanon ke saath ek baar fir se shakti-parivartan dekha aur antat: british raaj ka niyantran ho gaya. yahaan 840 E. se 1860 E. tak Dave vansh ka shaasan bhirha tha. tab nagar anya bhaarateeya nagaron se alag-thalag pad gaya aur unase pichhad gaya tha. uske uparaant Dogra shaasak aaye aur Jammu shahar ko apni khoi hui aabha va shaan vaapas mili. unhonne yahaan bade bade mandiron va teerthon ka nirmaan kiya va puraane sthaanon ka jeernoddhaar karavaaya, saath hi kai shaikshik sansthaan bhi banavaaye. us kaal mein nagar ne kaafi unnati ki.

Dogra shasakon se Jammu ka shaasan 19veen shataabdi mein mahaaraaja Ranjit Singh ji ke niyantran mein aaya aur is prakaar Jammu sikh saamraajya ka bhaag bana. mahaaraaja Ranjit Singh ne gulaab Singh ko Jammu ka shaasak niyukt kiya. kintu ye shaasan adhik samay naheen chal paaya aur mahaaraaja Ranjit Singh ke dehaant ke baad hi sikh saamraajya kamjor pad gaya aur mahaaraaja daleep Singh ke shaasan ke baad hi british sena ke adhikaar mein aa gaya aur daleep Singh ko company ke aadeshaanusaar England le jaaya gaya. kintu british raaj ke paas Punjab ke kai bhaagon par adhikaar karne ke kaaran us samay pahaadon mein yuddh karne laayak paryaapt saadhan naheen the. at: unhonne mahaaraaja gulaab Singh ko sataluj nadi ke uttari kshetr ka sabse shaktimaan shaasak maanate hue Jammu aur Kashmir ka shaasak maan liya. kintu iske evaj mein unhonne mahaaraaj se भारतीय रुपया75 lakh nakad liye. yeh nagad bhugataan mahaaraaja ke sikh saamraajya ke poorv jaageeradaar rahe hone ke kaaran vaidh maana gaya aur is sandhi ke daayittvon mein bhi aata tha. is prakaar mahaaraaja gulaab Singh Jammu evam Kashmir ke sansthaapak ke roop mein pratishthit hain.

unheen ke vanshaj mahaaraaja harisinh Bhaarat ke vibhaajan ke samay yahaan ke shaasak the aur Bhaarat ke adhikaansh anya rajavaadon ki bhaanti hi unhein bhi Bhaarat ke vibhaajan adhiniyam 1947 ke antargatt ye vikalp mile ki ve chaahein to apne nirnaya anusaar Bhaarat ya Pakistan se mil jaayein ya fir svatantr raajya le lein; haalaanki rajavaadon ko ye salaah bhi di gayi thi ki bhaugolik evam sanjaateeya paristhitiyon ko dekhte hue kisi ek adhiraajya (domeeniyn) mein vilay ho jaayein. antat: Jammu praant bhaaratiya adhiraajya(tatkaaleen) mein hi vilay ho gaya.

janasaankhyiki

jaateeyata ke star par dekhein to, Jammu mukhyat: Dogra bahul hai aur yahaan ki 67% se adhik aabaadi dogari hai. inke alaava panjaabiyon ki apekshaakrut kaafi kam kintu ullekhaneeya ginti hai, jinmein adhikaansh hindu ya sikh hain. Jammu raajya ka akela hindu bahul ilaaka hai, jahaan inke alaava 27% musalmaan aur shesh sikh basate hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]Jammu ke adhikaansh hindu Dogra, Kashmiri pandit tatha kotali evam meerapur ke pravaasi hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] hindu janasankhya praay: Jammu shahar aur udhamapur mein aur nikat hi milti hai. bahut se sikh parivaar Pak adhikrut Kashmir ke mujffraabaad aur punchh sector ke Pakistan dvra 1947 mein adhikrut kiye gaye kshetron se aaye hue hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

Jammu ke log mukhyat: dogari, punchhi, gojari, kotali, meerapuri potavaari, hindi, punjabi tatha kuchh urdu bhaasha bhi bolte hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

Jammu kshetr ke hindu kai jaatiyon se hain, jinmein braahman evam rajput jaati ka baahulya hai. 1941 ki janaganana ke anusaar tab 30% braahman, 27% rajput, 15% thakkar, 4% jaat evam 8% khatri the.[5] is kshetr mein raajauri, punchh, doda, kishtavaar mein hi muslim aabaadi adhik hai, anyatha shesh sabhi jilon mein hindu baahulya hai. musalmaanon mein pramukh jaatiyaan hain Dogra, goojar, bakaravaal aur ye Kashmiri musalmaanon se bhinn jaatiyaan evam bhaashaaen bolne vaale hain. Jammu kshetr ke adhikaansh muslimon ke Bhaarat se alag hone ke vichaar naheen rakhate hain. Jammu kshetr Kashmir se muslim aatankvaadiyon dvaara 1990 mein bhagaaye gaye lagbhag 1 lakh se adhik sharanaarthi bhi hain. inke camp Jammu shahar ke nikat hi bane hain.

inhein bhi dekhein: Jammu evam Kashmir ke shaharon ki soochi

bhoogol evam jalavaayu

Jammu ke uttari or Kashmir hai, poorv mein Laddakh evam dakshin mein Punjab aur Himachal pradesh raajya hain. pashchim disha mein niyantran rekha ise Pak adhikrut Kashmir se vibhkt karti hai. uttar mein Kashmir ghaati aur dakshin mein daman koh ke maidaanon ke beech sthit Jammu kshetr ka adhikaansh bhaag himaalaya ke shivaalik range mein aata hai. peer panjaal range, trikuta parvat evam kam oonchaai ke tavi nadi besin ke dvaara Jammu ilaake ki sundarata aur vividhta mein aur nikhaar aa jaata hai. peer panjaal range Jammu ko Kashmir ghaati se alag karta hai. jammooki adhikaansh janasankhya dogari hai aur ye dogari bhaasha hi bolte hain, jo uttar Bhaarat evam Pakistan mein boli jaane waali hindi-hindustaaniurdu bhaashaaon ka mila-jula rup hi hai. kshetr ka mausam yahaan ki oonchaai ke sang hi badalta hai. Jammu nagar mein evam paas ke ilaakon kaamausam niktavarti Punjab ke kshetr jaisa hi hai jismein ushn greeshmakaal, baarishon wala varshaakaal aur thande sheetakaal hote hain. haalaanki Jammu nagar vishesh mein himpaat naheen hota hai, kintu is kshetr ke oonche parvateeya kshetron mein kam se kam sardiyon mein himaachhaadit shikhar mil jaate hain. desh bhar evam videshi sailaani yahaan ke prasiddh parvateeya paryatan sthal (hil-station) pataneetaup ghoomane aate hain jahaan jaadon ki barf sulabh hoti hai. prasiddh teerth vaishno devi gufa kshetr sheetakaal mein himaachhaadit rahata hai aur yahaan himpaat bhi hota hai. Jammu kshetr ko Kashmir kshetr se jodne wala banihaal darra praay: bhaari himpaat ke kaaran sheetakaal mein band hota rahata hai.


Jammu (1971-2000) ke liye mausam jaankaari
maheena January fravari March April May June July August sitmbar October November December varsh
ausat adhiktam °aC (°aF) 18.9
(66)
21.6
(70.9)
25.9
(78.6)
32.0
(89.6)
37.2
(99)
38.7
(101.7)
34.0
(93.2)
33.1
(91.6)
33.1
(91.6)
31.2
(88.2)
26.6
(79.9)
21.2
(70.2)
29.6
(85.3)
ausat nyoonatam °aC (°aF) 7.8
(46)
9.8
(49.6)
13.9
(57)
18.9
(66)
23.3
(73.9)
26.0
(78.8)
25.3
(77.5)
24.8
(76.6)
23.1
(73.6)
18.1
(64.6)
13.0
(55.4)
9.0
(48.2)
17.9
(64.2)
varshaapaat mm (inches) 52.4
(2.063)
79.0
(3.11)
74.9
(2.949)
47.1
(1.854)
34.8
(1.37)
87.3
(3.437)
371.5
(14.626)
370.2
(14.575)
140.9
(5.547)
25.1
(0.988)
10.1
(0.398)
38.3
(1.508)
1,331.6
(52.425)
srot: bhaarateeya mausam vibhaag[6]

jile

chitr:Jammu division with districts as on Nov 2012.pdf
Jammu mandal, sabhi jilon (raal rang mein) evam up-jilon (sahit), November 2012. keval Bhaarat-adhikrut kshetr hi dikhaaye gaye hain.

varsh 2012 ke anusaar Jammu mandal mein kul 10 jile hain:

jile ka naam mukhyaalaya kshetrafl (ki.mee²) janasankhya
2001 janaganana
janasankhya
2011 janaganana
kathuaa jila kathuaa 2,651 5,50,084 6,15,711
Jammu jila Jammu 3,097 13,43,756 15,26,406
saanba jila saanba 2,45,016 3,18,611
udhamapur jila udhamapur 4,550 4,75,068 5,55,357
riyaasi jila riyaasi 2,68,441 3,14,714
raajauri jila raajauri 2,630 4,83,284 6,19,266
punchh jila punchh 1,674 3,72,613 4,76,820
doda jila doda 11,691 3,20,256 4,09,576
raamaban jila raamaban 1,80,830 2,83,313
kishtavaar jila kishtavaar 1,90,843 2,31,037

Bhaarat (aur Jammu evam Kashmir) ke vibhaajan evam svatantrata se poorv mahaaraaja ke shaasan ke samay nimn jile bhi Jammu kshetr ke hi bhaag the: bheemabar, kotali, meerapur, punchh (pashchimi bhaag), haveli, bhaag aur sudhanati. vartamaan sthiti mein ye Pak adhikrut Kashmir ke bhaag hain aur Bhaarat dvaara daava kiye jaate hain.

raajaneeti

kshetraki mahattvapoorn raajanaitik paartiyon mein bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress, bhaarateeya janta party, Jammu Kashmir national kaanfreins, Jammu end Kashmir peepals democratic party aur Jammu end Kashmir national painthars party hain. Jammu ke kuchh hindu aur sthaaneeya bhaajapa shaakha Jammu ko vartamaan Kashmir raajya se vilg kar ek alag raajya banaakar bhaarateeya sangh mein vilay kar dene ki maang karte rahe hain. iska kaaran hai ki sabhi neetiyaan Kashmir-kendrit hone ke kaaran Jammu kshetr ki anadekhi hoti ja rahi hai.

darshaneeya sthal

Jammu apni praakrutik sundarata vaale sthaanon sahit praacheen mandiron, hindu teerthon, mubaarak mandi mahal, amar mahal jo ab sangrahaalaya ban gaya hai, baag-bageechon aur kilon ke liye prasiddh hai. yahaan do bade evam prasiddh hindu teerth hain: amaranaath gufa (ye asal mein Kashmir ghaati mein sthit hai) aur vaishno devi gufa, jahaan prativrsh laakhon yaatri aate hain. donon ke liye hi mukhya padaav Jammu ban jaata hai. vaishno devi ke bahut se yaatri saath mein Jammu ghoomane ki yojana bana kar aate hain. inke alaava Jammu ki naisargik sundarata ke kaaran ye uttar Bhaarat mein edvenchar toorijm ke liye bhi chaheta sthaan raha hai.[7][7] Jammu ke aitihaasik smaarakon mein praacheen hindu vaastukala dikhti hai.

puramandal

puramandal, jise chhota kaashi bhi kah diya jaata hai, Jammu shahar se lagbhag 35 ki.mi door sthit hai. yeh ek praacheen teerth sthaan hai jahaan Shiv aur anya devi devataaon ke dheron mandir hain. shivraatri ke avsar par yahaan teen dinon ka mela lagta hai aur shahar ki raunak evam bheed dekhte hi banti hai.

vaishno devi gufa

mukhya lekh : vaishno devi

prasiddh hindu teerth vaishno devi prativrsh dasiyon lakh yaatriyon ko aakarshit karta hai.

Jammu ke nikat hi katara hai, jahaan se vaishno devi ki paidal chadhaai aarambh hoti hai. yeh gufa trikuta parvat par 1700 mi. ki oonchaai par sthit hai, jahaan maan vaishno devi ki pavitra gufa sthit hai. Jammu shahar se katara ki doori maatr 30 ki.mi hai aur vahaan se dufa ki chadhaai doori 13 ki.mi hai. ye gufa 30 mi. lambi aur maatr 1.5 meter oonchi hai. band gufa ke ant mein maata ke svaroop ki prateek teen pindiyaaain rakhi hain jo kramash: mahaakaali, mahaalakshmi aur mahaasarasvati devi ki prateek hain. ye teenon deviyaan hi mil kar vaishno devi ke roop mein bhairon naamak paapi ke daman hetu avatarit hui theen. teerth yaatri neeche katara se hi paidal hi toliyon mein 13 ki.mi lambi yaatra karte hain aur saath saath maata ke jayakaare ghosh lagaate hain. beech raaste mein ardhakuvaanri (gufa), haathi mattha aur saanjhi chhat madhyaantar padte hain aur ant mein jaakar mukhya gufa aati hai jahaan pravesh se poorv yaatri sheetal jal mein snaan karte hain aur sankare munh waali gufa mein pravesh karte hain. gufa mein neeche sheetal jal dhaara bahti hai jise charanaganga kaha jaata hai. kehte hain ki maata bhairon se chhipne hetu is gufa mein aayeen theen aur bhairon ke aane par usaka sanhaar kar diya tha. bhairon ne marate hue maanta se kshama maangi aur unki sharan mein aa gaya, to maan ne use kshama kar diya kintu trishool se kata usaka sir ek anya oonchi pahaadi ke oopar ja gira aur dhad yaheen gufa ke mukh par gir gaya jo ab patthar ban gaya hai. usi par chadh kar gufa mein pravesh karte hain.[8]

bhairon mandir

vaishnon devi gufa se kuchh aur oopar ek anya pahaadi ke oopar bhairon ka sir jaakar gira tha. maata ki sharan mein aa jaane se saral-hrudaya maata ne use kshama kar diya aur kaha ki meri gufa ki yaatra tabhi poori hogi jab yaatri uske baad bhairon mandir bhi jaayeinge. adhikaansh yaatri maata ki gufa ke darshan ke baad hi vaheen se seedhe oopar bhairon mandir mein darshan kar seedhe neeche utarate hain aur yaatra poorn karte hain.

nandini vanya jeevan abhayaaranya

nandini vanya jeevan abhayaaranya teetar evam anya pakshiyon ki vibhinn prajaatiyon ke liye jaana jaata hai, jahaan ghane jangalon ko gherakar vanya jeevan prajaatiyon ko sanrakshan diya gaya hai. yeh apni teetaron va anya samaan pakshi prajaatiyon ke liye prasiddh hai jinmein se kuchh vishesh hain: maina, bhaarateeya mor, blue rock kabootar, red jangalafo, cheeyar ijeint aur chakor. abhayaaranya lagbhag 34 ki.mi2 mein faila hai aur yahaam pashuon ki bhi dheron prajaatiyaan hain. in prajaatiyon mein se jangali jaanvaron mein teinduaa, jangali sooar, rhesas bandar, bharaal aur kaala langoor bhi aate hain.

maanasar sarovar

mukhya lekh : maanasar sarovar Jammu se 62 ki.mi door sthit maanasar jheel ek sundar sarovar hai jisko jangalon se dhanke pahaad ghere hue hain. yeh jheel lagbhag 1 meal lambi aur aadha meal chaudi hai. 32°a41′a46″aN 75°a08′a49″aE / 32.69611°aN 75.14694°aE / 32.69611; 75.14694 Jammu se niktasth sthit shahar se baahar ke bhraman ke liye ek lokapriya sthaan hai. is sthaan ki hindu dharm mein maanyata bhi hai aur iski pavitrata aur kathaaen maanasarovar jheel se judi hui hain.

maanasar jheel ke poorvi tat par ek sheshanaag ko samarpit mandir hai, yeh vo naag hai jo Bhagwan vishnu ke liye shesh shayya banaata hai aur iske kai sir kahalaate hain. is sthaan par ek bada shilaakhand hai jiske oopar kai lohe ki janjeerein bandhi hui hain. ye sanbhavat: sheshanaag ke svaagat mein prateekshaarat chhote saanpon ke prateek hain. navavivaahit yugal ko is jheel ki teen parikrama karna shubh aur laabhadaayak maana jaata hai.

isi parisar mein do anya praacheen mandir bhi hain jo umaapati mahaadev aur nrusinh Bhagwan ko samarpit hain aur kuchh doori par ek devi durga ka mandir bhi hai jahaan bahut se darshanaarthi shruddhaalu aate hain. tyohaaron ke avsar par log jheel mein dubaki bhi lagaate hain. kai hindu parivaar yahaan apne ladkon ka mundan sanskaar bhi karavaane aate hain. maanasar jheel mein rjya paryatan vibhaag dvaara naukaayan ki suvidha bhi upalabdh hai.

maanasar jheel ek anya sadak se bhi judti hai, jo pathaanakot ko seedhe udhamapur se jodti hai. udhamapur raashtreeya raajamaark 1a par basa saamarik drushti se mahattvapoorn shahar hai. maanasar ya saanba se udhamapur ka ek chhota maarg bhi hai jo Jammu shahar ke baahar se nikal jaata hai aur maanasar jheel se niklata hai. ek anya chhota sarovar bhi maanasar jheel se juda hai, surinsar sarovar. yeh Jammu shahar se 244 ki.mi door usi baayapaas maarg par sthit hai.

baahoo ka kila

mukhya lekh : baahoo ka kila

Jammu ke tyohaar

lohadi (13 January)

lohadi jalaate hue

yeh tyohaar vasant ke aagaman ka soochak hota hai jise bade aur mukhya roop se makar sankraanti naam se manaaya jaata hai. Bhaarat ke alag-alag raajyon mein ise lohadi, bhogaali-bihu, khichdi, pongal aadi naamon se manaate hain. Punjab va Jammu kshetr mein ise lohadi ke naam se manaaya jaata hai. poore kshetr mein is din ek khushi ki lahar si daud jaati hai. hajaaron log nadiyon mein pavitra dubaki lagaakar snaan karte hain aur mandiron mein havan aur yagya hote hain. gaanvon aur shahari kshetr mein bhi nav-vivaahit yugal ya navajaat bachche ke maata-pita ke liye ye tyohaar vishesh mahattv wala maana jaata hai. is avsar par ek vishesh nrutya chhajja bhi kiya jaata hai. ladkon ko jaloos aadi mein sadkon par rangeen kaagaj aur foolon se saje chhajje lekar naachate hue vahaan lubhaavana dॄshya dekhte hi banta hai. is avsar par poore Jammu kshetr mein navajeevan ka sanchaar ho jaata hai.

baisaakhi (13 ya 14 April)

baisaakhi naam vikram samvat ke maah vaishaakh se liya hua hai. baisaakhi yahaan ke ek pramukh tyohaar mein aata hai. pratyek varsh kark sankraanti ke avsar par desh bhar mein yeh tyohaar alag alag naamon se manaaya jaata hai, jaise bohaag-bihoo ya rangaali-bihu, aadi. yahi tyohaar Punjab evam Jammu kshetr mein baisaakhi naam se manaaya jaata hai. yeh tyohaar shasyotsav yaani fsal katane ke tyohaar ke roop mein manaaya jaata hai aur vivaah aadi ke liye iska vishesh mahattv maana jaata hai. log is avsar par nadi, talaabon mein pavitra snaan karte hain. bahut se log nav-varsh aagaman utsav ko dekhne prasiddh naagabani mandir bhi jaate hain. is avsar par kai sthaanon par mele bhi lagte hain, jahaan log mast hokar bhaangada evam gidda nrutya karte hain. sikhon ke dasvein guroo, guru govind Singh ji ne isi din 1699 mein khaalsa ki sthaapana ki thi. sikh logon se is din gurudvaare bhare rahate hain, jahaan keertan, shabad aur langar hote hain tatha kadaah prasaad bantata hai.

baahu mela (March-April evam September-October)

varsh mein do baar baahu ke kile mein sthit kaali maata mandir mein bade mele ka aayojan hota hai.

chaitre chaudas (March-April)

chaitre chaudash uttar bahani aur puramandal mein manaaya jaata hai jo Jammu shahar se kramash: 25 ki.mi aur 28 ki.mi door sthit hain. uttar bahani ka naam vahaan bahne waali devika nadi se pada hai[9], kyonki vah yahaan uttar-vaahini (uttar disha ki or bahne waali) hoti hai. uttar-vaahini se bigad kar apabhransh shabd uttar-bahani ho gaya hai.

puramandal mela (fravari-March)

puramandal Jammu shahar se 39 ki.mi door hai. shivraatri ke avasaar par is kasbe mein shobha dekhte hi banti hai.[10] log is avsar par yahaan Bhagwan Shiv ka maan paarvati se vivaah samaaroh manaate hain[11]. Jammu ke log bhi is avsar par shahar se nikal kar aate hain aur peer-khoh gufa mandir, ranabeereshvar mandir aur panjabhaktar mandir jaate hain. asal mein yadi koi shivraatri ke avsar par Jammu aaye to use har jagah tyohaar ka maahaul hi dikhaai dega.

jheeri mela (October-November)

yeh tyohaar ek sthaaneeya krushak Baba jeetu ke sammaan mein manaaya jaata hai, jisne sthaaneeya jmeendaar ke saamane apni mehnat ki upaji fsal ko baantane ki galat maang ke saamane jhukane se mar jaana behtar samjha. usane apne aap ko jheeri gaanv mein maara tha, jo Jammu shahar se lagbhag 14 ki.mi door hai. yahaan Baba aur unke bhakton ki maanyata ki kai kinvadantiyaan prachalit hain, jinko maankar uttar Bhaarat se bahut se log yahaan ekatrit hote hain.

navaraatri (March-April evam September-October)

haalaanki prasiddh teerth maata vaishnon devi ke darbaar ki yaatra varsh bhar chalti rahati hai, kintu is yaatra ka navaraatri mein vishesh mahattv hota hai. kshetr ki sanskruti, viraasat aur paranparaaon ko ujaagar karne evam paryatan ko badhaava dene hetu raajya sarkaar ke paryatan vibhaag ne shaaradeeya navaraatri ke nau dinon ko vaarshik aayojan ke roop mein ghoshit kiya hua hai. is samay varsh bhar ki yaatriyon ka sabse badaaa pratishat vaishno devi yaatra ke liye aata hai. iske alaava March-April mein aane vaale chaitreeya navaraatron mein bhi bhakton ki badi maatra aati hai.

Jammu raajaaon ki soochi

Jammu evam Kashmir ke mahaaraaja

aavaagaman

sadak maarg

Jammu se gujarane wala raashtreeya raajamaarg 1a Jammu shahar aur kshetr ko Kashmir ghaati se jodta hai. iske alaava raashtreeya raajamaarg 1b ise punchh shahar se jodta hai. Jammu kathuaa se sadak maarg dvaara maatr 80 kilometer (50 meal) ki doori par hai aur udhamapur se 68 kilometer (42 meal) ki doori par hai. yahaan se hindu teerth vaishno devi ka niktavarti padaav katara 49 kilometer (30 meal) ki sadak doori par hai.

sthaaneeya parivhan

shahar mein mini bas dvaara nagar bas seva upalabdh hai jiske nishchit maarg shahar bhar mein parivhan sulabh karaate hain. inke alaava maitaador bhi upalabdh hain. bason ke sivaaya autorickshaw aur sthaaneeya taxi seva bhi milti hai. chhoti doori tay karne hetu cycle riksha bhi sada upalabdh rahati hain.

vaayu maarg

Jammu vimaanakshetr Jammu shahar se maatr 7 kilometer (4 meal) ki doori par satabaadi naamak kshetr mein bana hai. yahaan se shreenagar, leh, Delhi, Chandigarh, Mumbai, bangaluru aadi kai bade shaharon ki seedhi vaayu seva upalabdh hai.

rel maarg

Jammu kshetr ke railway station[12]
kram san. koot station ka naam sthaan
1 BBMN baadi braahman baadi braahman
2 BDHY budhi budhi
3 CKDL chakadayaala chakadayaala
4 GHGL ghagavaal ghagavaal
5 HRNR heera nagar heera nagar
6 JAT Jammu tavi Jammu tavi
7 SMBX saanba saanba
8 VJPJ vijyapur Jammu vijyapur Jammu
9 UHP udhamapur udhamapur
10 KTHU kathuaa kathuaa
11 RMJK raamanagar Jammu raamanagar Jammu

jammookshetr mein kul 11 railway station hain, jinmein pramukh station Jammu tavi (steshanakoot JAT) hai. yeh station Bhaarat ke pramukh nagaron se bhali-bhaanti juda hua hai. siyaalakot ko jaane waali puraani railway line ab Bhaarat ke vibhaajan ke samay se band ho chuki hai aur tabhi se 1971 tak Jammu mein koi rel-seva naheen rahi thi. 1975 mein bhaarateeya rel ne Jammu-pathaanakot railway line ka kaarya poorn kiya aur Jammu ek baar fir se desh se rel maarg dvaara juda. Kashmir railway keaaranbh ho jaane se Jammu tavi railway station ka mahattv dohara ho gaya hai. Kashmir ghaati ko jaane waali sabhi railgaadiyaan is station se hokar hi jaati hain. Kashmir ghaati railway pariyojan ka kaarya teji se aage badh raha hai aur iska track udhamapur tak pahunch chuka hai. Jammu tavi ki kai gaadiyaan udhamapur tak vistrut ki ja chuki hai aur aage katara tak vistaar ki jaayegi. 2013 mein udhamapur-katara railway line ke kaarya poore ho jaane se Jammu line katara tak vistrut ho jaayegi. Jalandhar- pathaanakot rel line ka dohareekaran ho chuka hai aur ka vidyutikran kaarya 2013 tak poora hona niyojit hai. ek nai peer-panjaal rel surang (jise banihaal kaajeegund surang bhi kehte hain) taiyaar ho chuki hai aur prachaalan mein bhi di ja chuki hai. iske dvaara banihaal ki bichleri ghaati ko Kashmir ghaati ke kaajeegund kshetr se jod gaya hai. surang ki khudaai ka kaarya 2011 tak poora ho chuka tha aur ismein rel line sthaapan agale varsh poora ho gaya. usi varsh arthaat 2012 ke ant tak pareekshan rel bhi aarambh ho gayi thi evam June 2013 ke ant tak yahaaain yaatri gaadiyaaain bhi chalne lageen.[13]

is rel kadi ke saath peer-panjaal rel surang ka udghaatan 23 June 2013 ko hua tha. is kadi ke dvaara banihaal aur kaajeegund ke beech ki doori 17 ki.mi kam ho gayi hai. yeh surang Bhaarat mein sabse lambi aur Asia ki teesari lambi railway surang hai. is surang ka nirmaan samudra satah se 5770 feet (1760 mi.) ki ausat oonchaai par aur vartamaan sadak maarg ki surang se 1440 feet (440 mi.) neeche hua hai. iska nirmaan Hindustan construction company ne irakaun ke udhamapur-shreenagar-baaraamula rel link pariyojana ke ek bhaag ke liye kiya hai. is rel kadi ke taiyaar ho jaane se yaataayaat mein kaafi suvidha ho gayi hai, visheshakar sardiyon ke mausam mein jab bheeshan thand aur himpaat ke kaaran Jammu-shreenagar raajamaarg ki surang kai baar band karni pad jaati hai. 2018 tak is pariyojana ki udhamapur-banihaal kadi bhi poori ho jaayegi aur poora Jammu-shreenagar maarg rel-maarg dvaara sulabh ho jaayega. tab tak logon ko banihaal tak sadak dvaara jaana padta hai aur vahaan se shreenagar ki rel milti hai.

inhein bhi dekhein: Kashmir railway

Jammu se jaane waali railgaadiyaan

train sankhya train naam[14] gantavya
04034 kusheenagar ekspres prayaag
11078 Jhelum ekspres Pune jankshan
11450 Jammu tavi jabalapur ekspres jabalapur
12208 kaathagodaam gareeb rath kaathagodaam
12238 begamapura ekspres Varanasi jankshan
12266 Duranto ekspres Delhi saraaya rohilla
12332 himgiri ekspres haavada jankshan
12356 archana ekspres raajeindr nagar Bihar
12414 Jammu Ajmer ekspres Ajmer jankshan
12426 Jammu rajdhani ekspres nai Delhi
12445 uttar sampark kraanti udhamapur

sandarbh

  1. BBC news
  2. Jammu evam Kashmir ki arthavyavastha/jasbeer Singh
  3. jeraath, ashok (2000). forts end pailesej of vaistarn himaalayaaj. indas pablishing. pp. 59-65. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-7387-104-3. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=l2oZiyOqReoC&pg=PA59&dq=Bahu+fort&hl=en&ei=5Gy9S9GtJY24rAeMusjJBw&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CDkQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Bahu%20fort&f=false. (angreji)
  4. silaas, sandeep (2005). diskavar indiya bye rel. starling pablishrs pra.li.. pa॰ 47. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-207-2939-0. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=gL7pGaL3vooC&pg=PT157&dq=Bahu+Fort&hl=en&ei=4XK3S-H7CYS0rAe_yv3DCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=3&ved=0CEMQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=Bahu%20Fort&f=false. abhigman tithi: 7 April 2010.
  5. Imperial Gazetteer2 of India, Volume 15, page 99 – Imperial Gazetteer of India – Digital South Asia Library
  6. "Monthly mean maximum & minimum temperature and total rainfall based upon 1971–2000 data" (HTML). India Meteorological Department. http://www.imd.gov.in/section/climate/jammu2.htm. abhigman tithi: 2013-01-06.
  7. a aa Bhaderwah: Welcome to the Heaven of Earth!!!
  8. "bhairon mandir, Jammu". http://www.maavaishnodevi.net.in/. http://www.maavaishnodevi.net.in/attractions-around-vaishno-devi/bhairon-mandir.htm. abhigman tithi: 30 August 2013.
  9. puramandal va utaravaahini mein umade shraddhaalu|jaagaran. 12 April 2013. abhigman tithi: 28 August 2013
  10. puramandal mein do divseeya chaitr-chaudash mela aarambh|jaagaran. 10 April 2013. abhigman tithi: 28 August 2013
  11. "puramandal va utaravaahini mein umade shraddhaalu". jaagaran. 12 April 2013. http://hindi.yahoo.com/%E0%A4%AA-%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%AE-%E0%A4%A1%E0%A4%B2-%E0%A4%B5-%E0%A4%89%E0%A4%A4%E0%A4%B0%E0%A4%B5-%E0%A4%B9-%E0%A4%A8-%E0%A4%AE-183334432.html. abhigman tithi: 28 August 2013.
  12. "Jammu and Kashmir Railway Stations - Jammu and Kashmir Train Stations and Railway Station Codes". http://www.prokerala.com/travel/indian-railway/jammu-and-kashmir-stations/. abhigman tithi: 29 August, 2013.
  13. "banihaal - kaajeegund rel link". maips of indiya. http://www.mapsofindia.com/maps/jammuandkashmir/jammuandkashmirrails.htm. abhigman tithi: 29 August 2013.
  14. bhaarateeya rel ke aadhikaarik jaalasthal par Jammu tavi railway station se jaane waali railgaadiyon ki soochi. abhigman tithi: 29 August 2013. bhaarateeya rel