James klark Maxwell

James klark maaksavel

James Clark Maxwell (James Clerk Maxwell) skautalaind (UK) ke ek vikhyaat ganitjnya evam bhautik vaigyaanik the. inhonne 1865 E. mein vidyut chumbakeeya siddhaant ka pratipaadan kiya jisse radio aur television ka aavishkaar sambhav ho saka. klaasikl vidyut chunbakeeya siddhaant, chunbakatv aur prakaashiki ke kshetr mein diye gaye siddhaanton ke liye unhein pramukhata se yaad kiya jaata hai. Maxwell ne kraantikaari vichaar rakha ki prakaash vidyut chunbakeeya tarang hai aur yeh maadhyam se svatantr hai. skautish bhautikvid James Clark Maxwell ne is siddhaant se kraanti la di. nyootan ke baad vidyutachunbakatv ke kshetr mein Maxwell dvaara kiye gaye kaarya ko bhautiki ke kshetr mein doosra sabse bada ekeekaran kaarya maana jaata hai. yeh kai kshetron se juda hai.

anukram

jeevani

Maxwell ka janm edinrbag (skautalaind) mein 13 November san 1831 ke hua tha. aapne edinbarg vishvavidyaalaya tatha keinbrij mein shiksha pai. 1856 se 1860 tak aap aibardeenake maarshal kaalej mein praakrutik darshan (Naturalphilosophy) ke professor rahe. san 1860 se 68 tak aap London ke King kaalej mein bhautiki aur khagolamiti ke professor rahe. 1868 i0 aapne avakaash grahan kiya, kintu 1871 mein aapko pun: keinbrij mein praayogik bhautiki vibhaag ke adhyaksh ka bhaar saunpa gaya. aapke nirdeshan mein inheen dinon suvikhyaat kainbeindish prayogashaala ki roopaparekha nirdhaarit ki gayi. aapki mrutyu san 1879 mein hui.

anusandhaan kaarya

18 varsh ki avastha mein hi aapne gidnabarg ki royal society ke samaksh pratyaasthata (elasticity) vaale thos pindon ke santulan par apna nibandh prastut kiya tha. isi ke aadhaar par aapne shyaanataavaale (viscous) drav par sparsharekheeya pratibl (tangential stress) ke prabhaav se kshan maatr ke liye utpann honevaale duhare apavartan ki khoj ki. san 1859 mein aapne shani ke valaya ke sthaayitv par ek gaveshanapoorn nibandh prastut kiya. gas ke gatij siddhaant (Kinetic Ttheory) par mahatvapoorn shodhakaarya karke, gas ke anuon ke veg ke vistaran ke liye aapne sootr praapt kiya, jo "Maxwell ke niyam" ke naam se jaana jaata hai. Maxwell ne vishesh mahatva ke anusandhaan vidyut ke kshetr mein kiye. ganit ke sameekaranon dvaara aapne dikhaaya ki sabhi vidyut aur chunbakeeya kriyaaeain bhautik maadhyam ke pratibl tatha usaki gati dvaara praapt ki ja sakti hain. inhonne yeh bhi batalaaya ki vidyuchchunbakeeya tarangein tatha prakaashatarangein ek se hi maadhyam mein banti hain, at: inka veg hi us nishpatti ke baraabar hona chaahiye jo vidyut parimaan ki vidyutachunbakeeya ikaai tatha usaki sthit vidyut ikaai ke beech vartamaan hai. nissandeh prayog ki kasauti par Maxwell k yeh nishkarsh poornataya khara utara.

Maxwell ne sabse pehle prayog ke maadhyam se bataaya ki vidyut aur chunbakeeya kshetr antariksh mein tarangon ke roop mein prakaash ki gati se chalte hain. varsh 1864 mein Maxwell ne vidyut chunbakatv ki gati ka siddhaant diya aur pehli baar bataaya ki prakaash vaastav mein usi maadhyam mein tarang hai jisse vidyut aur chunbakeeya tarang paida hoti hai.

unhonne vidyut chunbakatv ke kshetr mein ekeekrut model diya, jise bhautiki mein ek bada yogadaan maana jaata hai. Maxwell ne Maxwell vitran ka vikaas kiya jise gaison ki gatij urja ka sabse mahatvapoorn pahaloo maana jaata hai.

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