Italy ka itihaas

praacheen rom ki prateek maada bhediya

Italy ka itihaas isa poorv 9veen shataabdi se aarambh hota hai. isi samay vartamaan Italy ke kendreeya bhaag mein itaalavi janajaatiyon ke astitv ke pramaan milte hain. bhaashaai roop se ve mukhyat: teen bhaashaaeain bolte the- oskaan (Oscan), ambriaan (Umbrian) tatha laatin (Latin). kaalaantar mein 350 isaapoorv jab rom shaktishaali nagar-raajya ke roop mein ubhara to laatin sanskruti ka varchasv sthaapit hota gaya. roman poorv kaal mein 8veen shati isaapoorv vruhat yoonaan (Magna Graecia) naamak sabhyata bhi thi jab yoonaani log Italy ke dakshini bhaagon mein basane lage the.

baad mein roman saamraajya ka poore pashchimi yorap tatha bhoomadhya kshetr par kai shataabdiyon tak varchasv raha. 476 E ke aaspaas jab roman saamraajya ka patan hua to Italy lagbhag ek hajaar varshon tak chhote-chhote nagar-raajyaaain ke roop mein bikhra raha aur antat: vibhinn videshi shaktiyon ke adheen aa gaya. Italy ke kuchh bhaagon par speniyon ka adhikaar ho gaya, kuchh par aastriyaai tatha [[naipoliyn pratham ke saamraajya ka adhikaar ho gaya. kintu 'holi si' ka rom par niyntran bana raha. antat: unneesaveen shataabdi mein Italy praayadeep mukt hua aur iska ekeekaran kiya gaya.

sabhyata ka foolana falana kala ki pragati se bahut sambandh rakhata hai aur kala par us desh ki jalavaayu ka bahut gahra asar padta hai. Europe ke kisi doosare desh ne aaj tak kala aur visheshakar chitrakala mein itni keerti praapt naheen ki jitni Italy ne. iska kaaran yeh hai ki Italy mein sada saaf neele aasmaan, khili hui dhoop aur chhitki hui chaaaindani ke darshan hote hain. italeevaalon ka rang vaisa hi hota hai jaisa gore rang ke bhaaratavaasiyon ka. unki aaainkhe aur baal bhaarateeyon ki hi tarah kaale hote hain.

anukram

praacheen itihaas

praacheen itihaas ke anusaar naveen sadi E. poo. mein Asia kochak ki ek riyaasat leediya ke raaja atti ka beta tirhen leediya ki aadhi janasankhya ke saath jahaajon mein baithakar Italy ke pashchimi kinaare par utara. apne sardaar ke naam par ye aagantuk apne ko "tirheni" kehne lage. in logon ne samudra ke kinaare kai bastiyaaain basaain. tirheni usi vakt ke the jis nasl ke vaidik aarya the. tirheniyon ki bhaasha aur sanskrut bhaasha mein kaafi saamya paaya jaata hai. tirheni dheere dheere badhte hue Italy ke laatiym praant mein, samudra se 16-17 meal door, teeber nadi ke kinaare teen chhoti chhoti pahaadiyon par base hue ek chhote se gaaainv roma ya rom mein pahuainche. tirheniyon ke adheen dheere-dheere rom Italy ka ek bada nagar banane laga. aage chalakar is shahar ne itihaas mein vah naam paaya jo aaj tak Europe ke aur kisi doosare desh ko naseeb naheen hua. tirheniyon ne rom mein joopitr (vaidik-dyauspitr) ka ek vishaal mandir banaaya.

itihaas ke lekhakon ke anusaar teesari sadi E. poo. mein pehli baar poore desh ka naam itaaliya pada. itaalaya se hi aajkal ka itaali ya Italy shabd bana. itaaliya naam ek itaaliyaai shabd ke yoonaani roop "vaaitaaliya" se liya gaya hai jiska arth hai "charaagaah". yoonaani Italy ko "itaaliym" arthaat "charaagaah" kehte the.

Italy mein jooliys sareejr ki bahan ke pote aur roman saamraajya ke pehle samraat ogustan seejr ka shaasanakaal svarnayug kahalaaya. usase kuchh kuchh pehle peechhe aur samakaaleen laateeni ke pramukh kavi lookreti, varjil, hores aur ovid hue. lookreti ne mrutyu ke baad ke jeevan ko dhokha bataaya hai aur dhaarmik roodhiyon ka upahaas udaaya hai. varjil ka kaavya "inid" Italy ka raashtreeya mahaakaavya samjha jaata hai. Italy ki prashansa karte hue varjil apne is mahaakaavya ki panktiyon mein likhta hai :

Iran apne sundar aur ghane vanon sahit,
athva ganga apni jalaplaavit laharon sahit,
athva haramush nadi, jiske kanon mein sona milta hai,
inmein se koi Italy ki samata naheen kar sakte,
Italy, jahaaain sada basant rahata hai,
jahaaain bhedein varsh mein do baar bachche deti hain aur
jahaaain vruksh varsh mein do baar fal dete hain.

jooliys seejr ke samay ke itaaliyaai gadya lekhakon mein sisron ka naam bahut prasiddh hai. sisron ki bhaasha mein yoonaani prabhaav dikhaai deta hai. seejr ki hatya ke baad sisro ki bhi hatya kar di gayi.

roman saamraajya ka asar Italy par padna svaabhaavik tha. pehli sadi E. ke lagbhag Italy mein svatantr naagrikon ki apeksha gulaamon ki sankhya kai guna badh gayi thi. doosari sadi mein maarakas aureeliys ke shaasanaprabandh se Italy ka raajaneetik aur saanskrutik hraas kuchh dinon ke liye ruka, kintu usaki mrutyu ke baad teesari sadi E. ka ek itihaasakaar likhta hai -""saamraajya bhar mein aur swayam Italy mein shaanti aur samruddhi naam ki koi cheej naheen rah gayi thi. ladaaiyon, mahaamaariyon aur aae din ke dushkaalon ne Italy ki janasankhya ko behad kam kar diya tha. jameen ki paidaavaar ghat gayi thi khetiyaaain veeraan padi theen. shahar aur kasbe ujadte ja rahe the. taikson ka bojh din-pratidin badhta ja raha tha. maarakas aureeliys ki mrutyu ke 200 varsh ke andar na keval rom saamraajya ke balki swayam Italy ke tukade-tukade ho gaye the."" par vah kahaani roman saamraajya ki hai. roman saamraajya ke patan ke baad se aadhunik samay tak raashtra ki haisiyat se Italy mein na to kabhi raajaneetik ekta rahi, na svaadheenata aur na sangathit raashtra. san 476 E. mein Italy mein naya raajaneetik parivartan hua. gauth aur bandal kaumon ke logon ne Italy ki faujon aur rom ke darbaar tak par kabja kar rakha tha. san 475 E. mein ek chhota sa balava hua. antim rogi samraat jooliys nepo gaddi se utaar diya gaya. usaki jagah Italy mein gauthon ki hukoomat kaayam ho gayi. lagbhag 100 varshon ke shaasan ke baad san 565 E. mein gauthik shaasan samaapt hokar Italy mein lonbaardiyon ka shaasan praarambh hua.

madhya kaal

san 774 E. mein Charles mahaan (shaarlamaan) apne shvashur antim lonbaard naresh deseedarias ko padachyut kar swayam Italy ka samraat ban gaya. Charles ne lonbaardo ki badi-badi jameendaariyaaain samaapt karke unhein chhoti-chhoti jameendaariyon mein baaaint diya aur isaai dharmaadhyakshon ke adhikaar ko badha diya. is Charles raajakul ke aath nareshon ne san 888 E. tak Italy par shaasan kiya. 10veen shataabdi mein magayaar kabeele ki senaaon ne uttari Italy par aakraman kar uske upajaaoo pradeshon ko veeraan bana diya. magayaaron ke aakramanon ke baad Italy par nirantar uttar se hoonon ke aur dakshin se arabon ke aakraman hote rahe. 10veen shataabdi ke ant mein Italy ke dharmaachaaryon ke aagrah par Germany ke saiksan samraat otto ne Italy par vidhivt jarman satta ki ghoshana kar di. tab se 15veen shataabdi ke ant tak Germany ke badalate hue raajagharaane Italy ke samraat bante rahe.

15veen shataabdi ke ant mein alp kaal ke liye Italy videshi shaasan se mukt hua, kintu 16veen shataabdi ke aarambh mein vah fir Europeeya raajaneeti ke shikanje mein jakad gaya. speni satta apne charam utkarsh par thi. France ke saath uske yuddh chal rahe the. Spain, France aur aastriya teenon mein rom ke pradeshon par adhikaar karne ke liye pratispardha chalne lagi. yeh sthiti nepoliyn ke aakraman ke samay tak bani rahi.

18 May san 1804 E. mein nepoliyn ne Italy ke oopar aadhiptya ki ghoshana ki aur 26 May 1805 E. ko Milan ke girjaaghar mein nepoliyn ne Italy ke lonbaard nareshon ka lauhamukut dhaaran kiya.

Italy ke oopar nepoliyn ka shaasan yadyapi kshanik raha, fir bhi nepoliyn ke shaasan ne italeevaalon mein ek raashtra ki aisi bhaavana bhar di aur unamein aisa sangathan aur anushaasan paida kar diya jo unhein nirantar svaadheen hone ki prerana deta raha. nai sandhi ke anusaar Italy ke oopar aastriya ka sanrakshan laad diya gaya. andar hi andar is sanrakshan ko hataane ke prayatn hote rahe.

san 1831 E. mein Italy ke prasiddh deshbhakt josaf maatseeni ne maarsei mein nirvaasit itaaliyn deshabhakton ki ek "jiovaane itaaliaa" (naujavaane itaaliaa) naamak sanstha ka nirmaan kiya jiska uddeshya Italy ko svaadheen karna tha.

maasteeni ki svaadheenata ki ghoshana ko April, san 1846 mein general gaareebaaldi ne moort roop diya. gaareebaaldi ke netrutv mein hajaaron naujavaanon ne French, speni, aastriyaai aur nepulsi senaaon ka veerata ke saath saamana kiya. yadyapi deshabhakton ki sena chaar-chaar videshi senaaon ke saamane na thahar saki aur gaareebaaldi ko maatrubhoomi chhod amareeka mein sharan leni padi, fir bhi is asafal svaadheenataasangraam ne itaaliyaai janta ki deshbhakti ki aakaanksha atyadhik badha di.

10 varsh baad 11 May san 1859 ko gaareebaaldi chune hue deshabhakton ke saath amareeka se apni maatrubhoomi lauta. usane janta ki sahaayata se pehle sisli par adhikaar kiya. sisli vijay ke baad 20 hajaar sena ke saath gaareebaaldi ne dakshin Italy mein pravesh kiya. 18 fravari san 1860 ko Italy ki nai paarlaameint ki baithak hui aur vidhivt Victor imaanual ko Italy ka raaja ghoshit kar diya gaya.

san 1914-18 ke pratham vishvayuddh mein Italy mitraraashtron ke paksh mein August, san 1916 mein yuddh mein shareek hua. us samay vishvayuddh mein Italy ke chhah lakh sainik maidaan mein kaam aae aur lagbhag 10 lakh buri tarah jakhmi hue. mahaayuddh ke baad raajaneetik paristhitiyon ne aisa roop dhaaran kiya ki 30 October san 1922 ko Italy mein musolini ke netrutv mein faasist satta ke mantrimandal ki sthaapana hui.

doosare vishvayuddh mein Italy ne dhureeraashtron ka saath diya. mitraraashtron ki vijay ke pashchaat Italy se faasist satta ka ant hua.

ganatantr shaasan ki sthaapana

appeal ki adaalat dvaara ghoshana kar diye jaane par ki 2 June 1946 E. ko hue matadaan mein bahumat ne desh mein ganatantr shaasan ki sthaapana ke paksh mein mat diya, Italy 10 June 1946 E. ko ganatantr raashtra ke roop mein pratishthit ho gaya. 18 June ko tatkaaleen asthaayi sarkaar ne "aardar ov the de" naamak ek patrak jaari karke kaanooni tatha sarkaari bayaanon evam kaagaj patron mein pehle se chale aa rahe sabhi saamraajyaparak sandarbhon tatha avasheshon ko poornat: samaapt karne ki aajnyaa di; yahaaain tak ki Italy ke raashtradhvaj par bane "house ov sevaaya" ki dhaal (shield) ke chinh ko bhi hata diya gaya. is praakar lagbhag gat paune das shataabdiyon se chale aa rahe Italy mein ekatantr shaasan ka ant ho gaya.

samvidhaan sabha ne 22 December 1947 ko naya samvidhaan 62 ke mukaabile 453 maton se paarit kar diya aur 1 January 1948 ko yeh samvidhaan laagoo ho gaya. ismein 139 anuchhed tatha 18 sankramanakaaleen dhaaraaeain hain.

samvidhaan mein Italy ka ullekh shram par aadhrut janataantrik ganatantr ke roop mein kiya gaya hai. sansad ke antargat pratiniyukton (diptiyon) ka sadan tatha sinet hain. sadan ke sadasyon ka chunaav prati paaainchavein varsh vayask mataadhikaar ke maadhyam se pratyaksh nirvaachan paddhati dvaara kiya jaata hai. deputy ke pad ke pratyaashi ko kam se kam 25 varsh ka hona chaahiye. usaka nirvaachan matadaan dvaara 80,000 vyakti karte hain. senate ke sadasyon ka chunaav chhah varsh ke liye kshetreeya aadhaar par kiya jaata hai. pratyek kshetr mein kam se kam chhah senator chune jaate hain aur har ek senator do lakh matadaataaon ka pratinidhitv karta hai. kintu vaal the"osta kshetr se keval ek hi senator ka nirvaachan hota hai. raashtrapati paaainch aise vyaktiyon ko jeevan bhar ke liye senate ke sadasya manoneet kar sakta hai jo samaajavijnyaaan, kala, saahitya aadi ke kshetr mein prakhyaat evam jaane maane hon. kaaryakaal samaapt ho jaane par Italy ka raashtrapati jeevan bhar ke liye senate ka sadasya ban jaata hai kintu yeh tabhi jab vah sadasya banane se inkaar na kare. sadan tatha senate ke sanyukt adhiveshan mein do tihaai bahumat se raashtrapati ka nirvaachan kiya jaata hai kintu yeh tabhi jab vah sadasya banane se inkaar na kare. sadan tatha senate ke sanyukt adhiveshan mein do tihaai bahumat se raashtrapati ka nirvaachan kiya jaata hai jismein pratyek kshetreeya parishd se teen-teen sadasya bhi matadaan karte hain (vaal the"osta keval ek) kintu teen baar matadaan ke baad bhi yadi raashtrapati pad ke kisi bhi ummeedavaar ko do tihaai mat naheen mil paate to poorn bahumat paanevaale pratyaashi ko raashtrapati chun liya jaata hai. raashtrapati ki aayu 50 varsh se oopar rahati hai. usaka kaaryakaal saat varsh ka hota hai. senate ka adhyaksh raashtrapati ke deputy ki haisiyat se kaarya karta hai. raashtrapati sansad ke sadanon ka vightan kar sakta hai lekin kaaryakaal samaapti ke poorv ke chhah maheenon mein use yeh adhikaar naheen rahata.

Italy mein 15 nyaayaadheeshon ka ek samvaidhaanik nyaayaalaya hota hai jiske paaainch nyaayaadheeshon ko raashtrapati, paaainch ko sansad (donon sadanon ke sanyukt adhiveshan mein) tatha paaainch ko desh ke sarvochch nyaayaalaya (vidhi tatha prashaasan sambandhi) niyukt karte hain. Italy ke samvaidhaanik nyaayaalaya ko lagbhag vaise hi adhikaar praapt hain, jaise amareeka ke sarvochch nyaayaalaya ko.

inhein bhi dekhein