Irani bhaasha parivaar

Irani bhaashaaoain ka vruksh, jismein usaki upashaakhaaeain dikhaai gayi hain
aadhunik Irani bhaashaaoain ka failaav

Irani bhaashaaeain hind-Irani bhaasha parivaar ki ek upashaakha hain. dhyaan rahe ki hind-Irani bhaashaaeain swayam hind-Europeeya bhaasha parivaar ki ek upashaakha hain. aadhunik yug mein vishv mein lagbhag 15-20 karod log kisi Irani bhaasha ko apni maatrubhaasha ke roop mein bolte hain aur ऍthnaulaug bhaashaakosh mein san 2011 tak 87 Irani bhaashaaeain darj theen.[1][2] inmein se faarasi ke 6.5 karod, pashto ke 5-6 karod, kurdi bhaasha ke 1.8 karod, balochi bhaasha ke 70 lakh aur loori bhaasha ke 23 lakh bolne vaale the. Irani bhaashaaeain Iran, afgaanistaan, taajikistaan, Pakistan (balochistaan aur khaibar-pakhtoonakhva praant), Turkey (poorv mein kurdi ilaake) aur iraak (uttar mein kurdi ilaake) mein boli jaati hain. paarasi dharm ki dhaarmik bhaasha, jise avastaai kehte hain, bhi ek praacheen Irani bhaasha hai.

anukram

vivran

hind-Europeeya bhaasha-parivaar ki shaakha hind-Irani bhaasha parivaar ki upashaakha, Irani bhaasha parivaar hind-aarya upashaakha ki bhaaainti hi mahatvapoorn hai. praacheen kaal mein yeh praacheen faarasi (paarasi) ke roop mein ek raajakeeya bhaasha thi aur avastaai ke roop mein dhaarmik bhaasha thi. madhya Irani kaal mein do prabhoot janabhaashaaeain viksit huin, poorv pradesh mein sogdi aur pashchimi pradesh mein pahalavi. inke atirikt faarasi bahut samay tak Asia ke bade bhoobhaag mein sanskruti ki bhaasha rahi.

praacheen faarasi Iran ke dakshin-pashchimi kone ki bhaasha thi. usaka parichay hamein keelaaksharon mein khude hue hakhmaani baadashaahon ke abhilekhon se milta hai. inki lipi sambhavat: akkadi lipi se sambaddh hai. sabse puraana lekh ariya-ragn (610-580 E.poo.) ka bataaya jaata hai, kintu sabse mahatva ke lekh baadshah daara (520-486 E.poo.) ke hein jo uske saamraajya mein sarvatr paae jaate hain. inmein bhi bihistoon ka abhilekh sarvaprasiddh hai. praacheen faarasi ke atirkt ye lekh anya do bhaashaaon (elami aur bebeeloni) mein bhi paae jaate hain.

avastaai dharmagranth ki bhaasha hai aur vaidik sanskrut ke bahut kreeb hai. avesta ahuramajd ke upaasak paarasi logon ka dharmagranth hai. ismein bhinn-bhinn kaalon mein rachit upaasana aur praarthana ke sookt paae jaate hain. rigved ki bhaaainti avesta bhi shrutipranpara par hi nirbhar thi aur yeh pahalavi varnamaala mein saasaani baadashaahon ke samay mein lekhabaddh ki gayi. vidvaan‌ iske praacheen bhaagon ka kaal E.poo. aathavi sadi nirdhaarit karte hain. yeh Iran ke poorvi bhaag ki bhaasha thi. praacheen Irani ka avesti aur praacheen faarasi ko chhodkar hamein aur koi lekh naheen milta.

madhya Irani ke do samudaaya hain:

  • pashchimi madhya Irani ko pahalavi kehte hain. is shabd ka sambandh pahalaveek‌ jaati se samjha jaata hai. yeh saasaani saamraajya (226 E.poo.-652 E.) ki raajabhaasha thi aur ismein likhit bahut se dhaarmik tatha anya granth milte hain. inki lipi arameeni se prabhoot tatha prabhaavit maaloom hoti hai. madhya Irani ki kai bhaashaaon ke abhilekh bhaashaaon ke abhilekh aur pustakein abhi 50-60 varsh poorv turfaan (poorvi turkistaan) mein praapt hui hain. inmein paarathi bhaasha ullekhaneeya hai. madhyakaaleen faarasi bhi isi samudaaya ki hai. ismein saasaani baadashaahon ke abhilekh milte hain. yahi bhaasha pajnd naam se avesti dharm ki pustakon ke liye bhi prayog mein I hai.
  • poorvi madhya Irani mein poorvi turkistaan mein praapt hue saahitya ki bhaashaaeain hain. inmein bukhaara aur samarakand ke kshetr ki praacheen bhaasha sogdi hai jo Asia ke madhyavarti vistrut kshetr ki bhaasha rahi hogi. yeh mangoliya se lekar Tibet ke seemaapraant tak faili hui thi. ismein bauddh dharmagranth (bahudha cheeni bhaasha se anoodit), isaai dharmagranth (seereeyaai bhaasha se anoodit tatha maulik) aur maneechi granth milte hain. sabse puraane granthon ka samay isavi chauthi shati hoga. sogdi ke atirikt is samudaaya ki doosari mahatva ki bhaasha khotaani hai. ise 'shak' bhi kehte hain. ismein bahut se dharmagranth aathaveen se 10veen shati ke likhe hue praapt hue hain. inmein bahut se bauddhadharm sambandhi hain. lipi sabki braahmi hai aur shabdaavali mein praakrut ke bahut se shabd milte hain.

aadhunik Irani ki sabse mahatvapoorn bhaasha faarasi hai. yeh arabi-faarasi lipi mein likhi jaati hai. yeh afgaanistaan se lekar pashchim ke kaafi bade bhoopradesh mein sanskruti ki pratinidhi bhaasha hai. ismein aathaveen shati E. se lekar prabhoot saahitya ka srujan hua hai. gathan ki drushti se paameeri bhaashaaeain, kurdi, balochi aur pashto bhi Irani upashaakha ke antargat hain. vistaar ki drushti se hind-Irani shaakha ki teen bhaashaaon ne mahatva praapt kiya - sanskrut, paali aur faarasi aur ye teenon sabhyata aur sanskruti ki prachaarak raheen.[3]

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain

sandarbh

  1. The Iranian languages, Gernot Windfuhr, Routledge, 2009, ISBN 978-0-7007-1131-4
  2. Report for Iranian languages, Raymond Gordon, Jr. (ed.), Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th edition, SIL International, Dallas, 2005
  3. Les langues du monde, Volume 2, Antoine Meillet, Sociéaté de linguistique de Paris, Champion, 1952