Iran ki islaami kraanti

Iran ki islaamik kraanti (faarasi: inklaab-A-islaami) san 1979 mein hui thi jiske falasvaroop Iran ko ek islaamik ganaraajya ghoshit kar diya gaya tha. is kraanti ko France ki raajyakraanti aur bolshevik kraanti ke baad vishv ki sabse mahaan kraanti kaha jaata hai. iske kaaran pahalavi vansh ka ant ho gaya tha aur ayaatollaah khomaini Iran ke pramukh bane the.. Iran ka naya shaasan ek dharmatantr hai jahaaain sarvochch neta dhaarmik imaam (ayaatollaah) hota hai par shaasan ek nivraachit raashtrapati chalaata hai. gauratalab hai ki Iran ek shiya bahul desh hai.

is kraanti ke pramukh kaaranon mein Iran ke pahalavi shaasakon ka pashchimi deshon ke anukaran tatha anugaman karne ki neeti tatha sarkaar ke asafal aarthik prabandh the. iske turat baad iraak ke nae shaasak saddaam husain ne apne desh mein Iran samarthit shiya aandolan bhadkane ke dar se Iran par aakraman kar diya tha jo 8 saal tak chala aur anirneet samaapt hua.

anukram

prushthabhoomi

aisa kaha jaata hai ki san 1941 mein angrejon tatha roosiyon ne Iran par adhikaar kar liya tha - yadyapi sainik tatha likhit roop se aisa kuchh naheen hua tha. raja shaah khud jarman naajiyon ko samarthan karne laga tha. mitr raashtron ko dar tha ki yadi ve aage na aae to Iran Germany ke saath chala jaaega. sainik roop se Iran bahut mahatvapoorn tha kyonki yahaaain na sirf tel ka bhandaar tha balki yeh bhaugolik roop se Asiaee soviyt roos aur british Bhaarat ke beech padta tha. aaङal - soviyt khalal ke pehle Iran mein kisi bhi jarman ne sainik aatank naheen failaaya tha. kaukeshas (aaj ka ajrabaijaan, jaurjiya aur aaspaas ke kshetr, faarasi mein kooh-A-kaaf) ke tel-kshetron par Germany ne 1942 mein hi dabaab banaana aarambh kiya tha. hainlaanki raja shaah ne shuru (1930 ke dashak mein) mein jarmanon ka samarthan kiya tha par baad mein vo jarman adhiptya ki bhaavi sambhaavana ko dekhkar unke khilaaf ho gaya tha. idhar hitlar dvaara roos par aakraman (June 1941) kar dene se roos tatha Britain mitr ho gaye the at: donon ne milkar Iran ki satta par August 1941 tak adhiptya kaayam kar liya. shaah ne ek tarah se yeh sab hone de diya.

lagbhag isi samay iraak mein british-virodhi aandolan hue. jarman sena uttari Africa mein bhi aa gayi thi. Europe mein Germany ke kabje waali jameen se roos-Britain ka sahayog hona band ho gaya to unhein Iran ek nae raaste ke roop mein dikhne laga aur unhonne Iran par August 1941 tak adhikaar kar liya. Iran ke shaah ne pehle to naajiyon ke aaryeekaran par sahayogi ki bhoomika bataai thi par baad mein ve naajiyon ya saamyavaadiyon (roos) ke shaasan ke khilaaf ho gaya tha at: unhonne Britain ko sahaayak jaisa ek vikalp chuna. shaah ne apne putr mohammad raja (faarasi mein reeja) ko vaaris banaakar gaddi chhod di aur mitr raashtra yuddh ke khatm hone tak Iran mein bane rahe.

Iran mein angrejon ki upasthiti se sampoorn raashtra apne ko lajjaaspad drushti se dekh raha tha. sharmaavanat raashtra ke gusse par tha - nae shaah raja ka shaasan. 1949 mein shaah ke hatya ki saajish ki gayi jo vifal rahi. pradhaanamantri mosaddik ko 60 ke dashak mein sattaapalat ke jurm mein najrakaid ki saja sunaai gayi aur 1967 mein usaki mrutyu ho gayi. vo ek yogya vyakti tha aur uske is hashr ke baad bhi logon ka gussa shaah ke khilaaf bhadka. soviyton ke khilaaf Iran mein ameriki upasthiti 1968 se badhti gayi.

ruholla khumaini

khomaini ka janm san 1902 mein khumain (isfhaan aur Tehran ke beech ek chhota shahar) mein hua tha. vo saiyyadon ke parivaar se the jo paigmbar ke vanshaj maane jaate hain. unke baalyakaal mein hi maata-pita ka viyog ho gaya tha aur unki shiksha kom mein hui thi. iske flasvaroop unke man mein ulema ke prati aadar-bhaav tha jo ki shaah ke shaasanakaal mein kam hota ja raha tha. san 1963-64 mein ve mosaddik ke saath shaah ki mukhaalift (virodh) karne vaale pramukh netaaon mein se ek ho gaye.

varg-antar

tel ke kaaran shaharon (khaasakar Tehran) mein janajeevan vilaasita poorn hota gaya aur gaaainv mein greebi badhti gayi. logon ke shaasan se kshubdh hone ka yeh bhi ek kaaran tha. san 1971 mein takht-A-jamashaid (parsepolis) mein praacheen Iran ke hakhaamani shaasakon dvaara sthaapit vishv ke us samay ke sabse shaktishaali saamraajya ki sthaapana ke 2500 varsh poore hone ke upalakshya mein shaah ne ek bade sammelan ka aayojan kiya ta. ismein sabhi bade raashtraadhyakshon tatha unke pratinidhiyon ko nimantrit kiya gaya tha aur ismein apaar dhanavyaya hua tha. par gaanvon mein faili gareebi ne shaah ke is kharch ko dikhaave ki had ke roop mein dekha. janta ka rosh badhta chala gaya.

Tehran jaise shaharon mein ameriki tatha pashchimi pahanaave tatha rihaayash badh gayi thi. log pashchimi vastron mein pepsi-kola peete hue dite the. daraasal vahaaain vilaasita itni badh gayi thi ki unka rahan-sahan Europe ke logon se kaheen behtar ho gaya tha. sarkaar dvaara nirvaasan milne ke baad khumaini ne videshon se Irani janta ko shaah ke khilaaf bhadkaana aarambh kiya.

kraanti

kraanti ki shuruaat se pehle Iran par shaah raja pahalavi ki hukoomat thi. satta unke kreebi rishtedaaron aur doston tak hi seemit thi. sattar ke dashak mein Iran mein ameeri aur greebi ke beech ki khaai apni charamaseema par pahuainch gayi. shaah ki aarthik neetiyon se logon ka avishvaas badhne laga aur shaahi taur-tareekon se logon ki naaraajgi ne aag mein ghi ka kaam kiya. virodh karne vaale dal pairis mein nirvaasan ka jeevan bita rahe shiya dhaarmik neta aayatullaah khumaini ke ird-gird jama hone lage. saamaajik aur aarthik sudhaaron ka vaayada karte hue aayatullaah ne paaramparik islaami moolyon ko bhi apanaae jaane ki baat kahi jo aam Irani ke dil ki hi aavaaj thi.

sattar ke dashak ke ant tak poore Iran mein bade paimaane par hinsa se bharpoor shaah-virodhi pradarshanon ki shuruaat ho gayi. aam hadtaalon ka aisa silsila shuroo hua ki desh bhar mein asthirta ki sthiti paida ho gayi aur Iran ki arthavyavastha ek tarah se thap ho gayi. January 1979 mein shaah ek 'lambi chhutti' par Iran se baahar chale gaye. Iran se palaayan se turant pehle shaah ne ek kaam yeh kiya ki pradhaanamantri shaahapur bakhtiyaar ko apni gairamaujoodagi mein desh ka sanchaalan karne ke liye reejeinsi kaaunsil ka adhyaksh bana diya. bakhtiyaar ne lagaataar badh rahe virodh ka mukaabala karne ki thaani. unhonne aayatullaah khumaini ke ek nai sarkaar ka gathan karne ke iraade par rok laga di, vah fir naheen laute. Iran bhar mein khumaini ke samarthakon ne shaah ki pratimaaon ko nestanaabood kar diya.

pehli fravari, 1979 ko aayatullaah khumaini naatakeeya roop se nirvaasan se vaapas laut aae. tab tak raajaneetik aur saamaajik asthirta badh chuki thi. khumaini-samarthak pradarshanakaariyon, saamraajyavaad ke himaayatiyon aur police ke beech galiyon aur sadkon par muthabhedein ek aam baat ho gayi. gyaarah fravari ko Tehran ki sadkon par tank nazar aane lage aur sainya takhta palat ki afvaahein tej ho gain. lekin jaise-jaise din aage badha yeh saaf ho gaya ki sena ka satta par kbja karne ka koi iraada naheen hai. kraantikaariyon ne Tehran ke mukhya radio station par dhaava bol diya aur ailaan kiya, "yeh Irani janta ki kraanti ki aavaaj hai". pradhaanamantri bakhtiyaar ne isteefa diya.

do maheene ke baad aayatullaah khumaini ne raashtreeya raayashumaari mein bhaari kaamayaabi haasil ki. unhonne ek islaami ganatantr ka ailaan kar diya aur unhein jindagi bhar ke liye Iran ka raajaneetik aur dhaarmik neta niyukt kar diya gaya.

parinaam

1 fravari 1979 ko khumaini air France ke yaatri vimaan se Tehran pahuainche jahaaain unka joradaar svaagat kiya gaya.


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