Iran ka itihaas

susa mein daarush (daara) ke mahal ke baahar bane "amar senaani". yeh upaadhi kuchh chuninda sainikon ko di jaati thi jo mahal raksha tatha saamraajya vistaar mein pramukh maane jaate the.

Iran ka puraana naam faaras hai aur iska itihaas bahut hi naatakeeya raha hai jismein iske pados ke kshetr bhi shaamil rahe hain. Irani itihaas mein saamraajyon ki kahaani isa ke 600 saal pehle ke hakhaamani shaasakon se shuru hoti hai. inke dvaara pashchim Asia tatha misr par isaapoorv 530 ke dashak mein hui vijay se lekar athaarahaveen sadi mein naadirshaah ke Bhaarat par aakraman karne ke beech mein kai saamraajyon ne faaras par shaasan kiya. inmein se kuchh faarasi saanskrutik kshetr ke the to kuchh baahari. faarasi saaskrutik prabhaav vaale kshetron mein aadhunik Iran ke alaava Iraq ka dakshini bhaag, ajrabaijaan, pashchimi Afghanistan, taajikistaan ka dakshini bhaag aur poorvi Turkey bhi shaamil hain. ye sab vo kshetr hain jahaaain kabhi faarasi saasakon ne raaj kiya tha aur jiske kaaran unapar faarasi sanskruti ka prabhaav pada tha.

saataveen sadi mein Iran mein islaam aaya. isse pehle Iran mein jaradosht ke dharm ke anuyaayi rahate the. Iran shiya islaam ka kendra maana jaata hai. kuchh logon ne islaam kabool karne se mana kar diya to unhein yaatanaaen di gayi. inmein se kuchh log bhaag kar Bhaarat ke Gujarat tat par aa gaye. ye aaj bhi Bhaarat mein rahate hain aur inhein paarasi kaha jaata hai. soofeevaad ka janm aur vikaas Iran aur sambandhit kshetron mein 11veen sadi ke aaspaas hua. Iran ki shiya janta par damishk aur bagdaad ke sunni khleefaaon ka shaasan koi 900 saal tak raha jiska asar aaj ke arab-Iran rishton par bhi dekha ja sakta hai. solahaveen sadi ke aarambh mein safvi vansh ke turk mool logon ke satta mein aane ke baad hi shiya log satta mein aa sake. iske baad bhi desh par sunniyon ka shaasan hua aur un shaasakon mein naadir shaah tatha kuchh afgaan shaasak shaamil hain. aupaniveshak daur mein Iran par kisi Europeeya shakti ne seedha shaasan to naheen kiya par angrejon tatha roosiyon ke beech Iran ke vyaapaar mein dakhal pada. 1979 ki islaamik kraanti ke baad Iran ki raajanaitik sthiti mein bahut utaar-chadhaav aata raha hai. iraak ke saath yuddh ne bhi desh ko islaamik jagat mein ek alag jagah par la khada kiya hai.[1][2]

anukram

aaryon ka aagaman aur faaras

maana jaata hai ki Iran mein pehle puraapaashaanayug kaaleen log rahate the. yahaaain par maanav nivaas ek lakh saal puraana ho sakta hai. lagbhag 5000 isaapoorv se kheti aarambh ho gayi thi. mesopotaamiya ki sabhyata ke sthal ke poorv mein maanav bastiyon ke hone ke pramaan mile hain.

Irani log (aarya) lagbhag 2000 isaapoorv ke aaspaas uttar tatha poorab ki disha se aae. inhonne yahaaain ke logon ke saath ek mishrit sanskruti ki aadhaarashila rakhi jisse Iran ko usaki pehchaan mili. aadhinuk Iran isi sanskruti par viksit hua. ye yaayaavar log Irani bhaasha bolte the aur dheere dheere inhonne krushi karna aarambh kiya.

aaryon ka kai shaakhaae Iran (tatha anya deshon tatha kshetron) mein I. inmein se kuchh meedi, kuchh paarthiyn, kuchh faarasi, kuchh sogadi to kuchh anya naamon se jaane gaye. midi tatha faarasiyon ka zikr aseeriyaai sroton mein 836 isaapoorv ke aaspaas milta hai. lagbhag isi samay jarathustr (jradosht ya joroestar ke naam se bhi prasiddh) ka kaal maana jaata hai. haalaaainki kai logon tatha Irani lokakathaaon ke anusaar jradosht bas ek mithk tha koi vaastavik aadmi naheen. par chaahe jo ho usi samay ke aaspaas uske dharm ka prachaar us poore pradesh mein hua.

aseeriya ke shaah ne lagbhag 720 isaapoorv ke aaspaas isaraayal par adhiptya jama liya. usane yahoodiyon ko apne dharm ke kaaran yaatanaaeain di. unke soloman (yaani sulemaan) mandir ko tod daala gaya aur kai yahoodiyon ko vahaaain se hata kar meedi pradeshon mein laakar basaaya gaya. 530 isaapoorv ke aaspaas bebeelon ka kshetr faarasi niyantran mein aa gaya. faaras ke shaah artekhashatr (465 isaapoorv) ne yahoodiyon ko unke dharm ko pun: apnaane ki ijaajt di aur kai yahoodi vaapas isaraayal laut gaye. is dauraan jo yahoodi meedi mein rahe unapar jradosht ke dharm ka bahut asar pada aur iske baad yahoodi dharm mein kaafi parivartan aaya. baaibal ke puraane granth (pehla ahadanaama) mein paarasiyon ke is kram ka zikr milta hai.

hakhaamani

praacheen Iran ka hakhaamani saamraajya 500 isaapoorv ke aaspaas

is samay tak faaras meedi saamraajya ka ang aur sahaayak raha tha. lekin isaapoorv 549 ke aaspaas ek faarasi Rajkumar Cyrus (aadhunik faarasi mein kurosh) ne meedi ke raaja ke khilaaf vidroh kar diya. usane meedi raaja estiyej ko padachyut kar rajdhani ekbataana (aadhunik hamaadaan) par niyantran kar liya. usane hakhaamani vansh (ekemenid) ki sthaapana ki aur meediya aur faaras ke rishton ko palat diya. ab faaras satta ka kendra aur meediya usaka sahaayak ban gaya. par kurosh yahaaain naheen ruka. usane Lydia, Asia maainar (Turkey) ke pradeshon par bhi adhikaar kar liya. usaka saamraajya Turkey ke pashchimi tat (jahaaain par uske dushman greek the) se lekar afgaanistaan tak fail gaya tha. uske putr kambojiya (kembaises) ne saamraajya ko misr tak faila diya. iske baad kai vidroh hue aur fir daara pratham ne satta par kabja kar liya. usane dhaarmik sahishnuta ka maarg apnaaya. haaainlaanki daarush (daara ya deriys) ne, yoonaani itihaasakaar herodotas ke anusaar, yuvaaon ka samarthan praapt karne ki poori koshish ki. usane Cyrus ya kembaises ki tarah koi khaas sainik safalta to arjit naheen ki par usane 512 isaapoorv ke aaspaas yoorop mein apna sainya abhiyaan chalaaya tha.

uske baad putr khashaayarsh (kjerekses) shaasak bana jise uske misr tatha bebeelon ke vidrohon par punarvijya tatha greek abhiyaanon ke liye jaana jaata hai. usane ethens tatha spaarta ke raaja ko haraaya. tharmopalai ki ladaai mein spaarta ke raaja liyonaidas ko usane maar to diya par faarasi sena ko bhi bahut nuksaan pahuaincha. yoonaani kathaaon ke anusaar 300 logon ki ek sainya tukadi ne faarasi sena ko kai dinon tak aage badhne se roke rakha aur bahut nuksaan bhi pahuainchaaya. aage chalakar usane ekropolis mein ethens par kabja kiyya tatha isko jala diya. baad mein use salaamis ke paas haar ka muainh dekhna pada jiske baad usaki sena ko aur bhi pradesh haarne pade. jerekses ke putr artekjerekses ne 465 isa poorv mein gaddi samhaali. usane visthaaparat yahoodiyon ko apna mandir fir se banaane ki ijaajt di. uske baad artekjerekses dviteeya, fir artekjerekses truteeya aur uske baad daara truteeya. daara truteeya ke samay tak (336 isa poorv) faarasi sena kaafi sangathit ho gayi thi. sena mein ghudsavaar adhik maatra mein ho gaye the aur sainya kaushal bhi badh gaya tha.

sikndar ka aakraman

par isi samay meseedoniya (makadooniya) mein sikndar ka udaya ho raha tha. 334 isaapoorv mein sikndar ne Asia maainar par dhaava bol diya. daara ko bhoomadhya saagar ke tat par isus mein haar ka muainh dekhna pada. iske baad sikandar ne teen baar daara ko haraaya. sikndar isaapoorv 330 mein parsepolis aaya aur uske fatah ke baad usane shahar ko jala dene ka aadesh diya. sikndar ne 326 isvi mein Bhaarat par aakraman kiya aur fir vo vaapas laut gaya. 323 isaapoorv ke aaspaas, bebeelon mein usaki mrutyu ho gayi. usaki mrutyu ke baad uske jeete faarasi saamraajya ko iske senaapatiyon ne apne mein vibhaajit kar liya.

paarthiyn

isa ke sau saal pehle seethiyon (jiske bhaarateeya paravarti shak naam se jaane gaye) aur paarthiynon ka saamraajya

sikndar ke sabse kaabil senaapatiyon mein se ek tha selyukas. usaka niyantran mesopotaamiya tatha Irani pathaari kshetron par tha. lekin isi samay se uttar poorv mein paarthiyon ka vidroh aarambh ho gaya tha. paarthiynon ne hakhaamani shaasakon ki bhi naak mein dam kar rakha tha. paarthiynon ne pashchim mein romanon ka samana kiya aur poorv mein shakon (seethiyon) ko. imein unka shaasan praay: ashaant raha. mitraadets ne isaapoorv 123 se isaapoorv 87 tak apekshaakrut sthaayitv se shaasan kiya. mitraadets ne roman Syria ke Governor (raajyapaal) kresas ko kaarhe ke yuddh mein hara diya. is yuddh mein kresas ne paarthiynon ke senaapati suren ke saath samjhauta karne ki bhi koshish ki, par usaka ant sir katane ke baad hui. suren ke charitra ko hi shaayad baad mein dasveen sadi mein faarasi kavi firdausi ne apne granth shaahanaame (raajaaon ka gunagaan) mein rustam naam se amar kar diya hai. rustam na sirf ek bahaadur senaapati tha balki ek bhaavuk premi bhi.

jooliys seejr ki hatya ke samay paarthiynon ne kuchh roman kshetron par adhikaar kiya jismein madhyapoorv ka ilaaka bhi shaamil hai. agale kuchh saalon tak shaasan ki baagdor to paarthiynon ke haath hi rahi par unka netrutv aur samast Irani kshetron par unki pakad dheeli hi rahi. agale kuchh varshon mein romanon ke saath paaryiynon ke kai yuddh hue jismein kai baar paarthiynon ko haar ka muainh dekhna pada par isi samay unhonne poorv mein Punjab mein ek bhaarateeya-paarthiyn sanskruti ko janm diya jinhein pahalaviyon ke naam se jaana gaya.

saasaani vansh

saasaani vansh ka vistaar - 610 isvi mein.

iske baad faaras ki satta par kisi ekamaatr shaasak ka prabhutv naheen raha. haalaaainki romanon ne dajla nadi (tigris) ke poorv kabhi bhi apna prabhaav naheen badhaaya par faarasi shaasak romanon ke mukaabale dabe hi rahe.

shaapur pratham ke saamane haara roman shaasak veleriyn aur saath mein filip arabi

par teesari sadi ke baad se saasaani shakti mein uttarottar vruddhi hui. is vansh ki sthaapana ardaashir pratham ne san 224 mein paarthiyn shaasak ardavan ko haraakar ki. unhonne roman saamraajya ko chunauti di aur kai saalon tak unapar aakraman karte rahe. san 241 mein shaapur ne romanon ko misiko ke yuddh mein haraaya. 244 isvi tak armeniya faarasi niyantran mein aa gaya. iske alaava bhi paarthiynon ne romanon ko kai jagahon par pareshaan kiya san 273 mein shaapur ki mrutyu ho gayi. san 283 mein romanon ne faarasi kshetron par fir se aakraman kar diya. iske falasvaroop armeniya ke do bhaag ho gaye - roman niyantran vaale aur faarasi niyantran vaale. shaapur ke putron ko aur bhi samjhaute karne pade aur kuchh aur kshetr romanon ke niyantran mein chale gaye. san 310 mein shaapur dviteeya gaddi par yuvaavastha mein baitha. usane 379 isvi tak shaasan kiya. usaka shaasan apekshaakrut shaant raha. usane dhaarmik sahishnuta ki neeti apnaai. uske uttaraadhikaariyon ne vahi shaanti poorn videsh neeti apnaai par unamein sainya sabalata ki kami rahi. aardashir dviteeya, shaapur truteeya tatha baharaam chaturth sabhi sandigdh avastha mein maare gaye. unke vaaris yajdegard ne romanon ke saath shaanti banaae rakha. uske shaasanakaal mein romanon ke saath sambandh itne shaantipoorn ho gaye ki poorvi roman saamraajya ke shaasak arkediys ne yajdegard ko apne bete ka abhibhaavak bana diya. uske baad baharam pancham shaasak bana jo jangali jaanvaron ke shikaar ka shaukeen tha. vo 438 isvi ke aaspaas ek jangali khel dekhte vakt laapata ho gaya jiske baad uske baare mein kuchh pata naheen chal saka.


iske baad ki araajakata mein kaavad pratham 488 isvi mein shaasak bana. iske baad khusaro (531-579), horamujd chaturth (579-589), khusaro dviteeya (590 - 627) tatha yajdegard truteeya ka shaasan aaya. jab yajdegard ne satta samhaali tab vo keval 8 saal ka tha.

islaam ka udaya aur arab

muslim saamraajya vistaar ke kaalakram █a█ paigmbar muhammad ke netrutv mein, 622–632 █a█ raashidun khilaaft ke dauraan, 632–661 █a█ umayyad khilaaft, 661–750

isi samay arab, muhammad saahab ke netrutv mein kaafi shaktishaali ho gaye the. san 634 mein unhone gja ke nikat bejentaainon ko ek nirnaayak yuddh mein hara diya. faarasi saamraajya par bhi unhonne aakraman kiye the par ve utane safal naheen rahe the. san 641 mein unhone hamaadaan ke nikat yajdegard ko hara diya jiske baad vo poorab ki taraf sahaayata yaachana ke liye bhaaga par usaki mrutyu marv mein san 651 mein uske hi logon dvaara hui. iske baad arabon ka prabhutv badhta gaya. unhonne 654 mein khoraasaan par adhikaar kar liya aur 707 isvi tak baalkh.

shiya islaam

muhammad saahab ki mrutyu ke uparaant unke vaaris ko khleefa kaha jaata tha jo islaam ka pramukh maana jaata tha. chauthe khaleefa Ali, muhammad saahab ke fareek the aur unki putri faatima ke pati. par unke khilaafat ko chunauti di gayi aur vidroh bhi hue. san 661 mein Ali ki hatya kar di gayi. iske baad ummayadon ka prabhutv islaam par ho gaya. san 680 mein karabala mein Ali ke doosare putr husain ne ummayadon ke khilaaf bagaavat ki par unako ek yuddh mein maar diya gaya. isi din ki yaad mein shiya musalmaan mahurram manaate hain. is samay tak islaam do kheme mein bat gaya tha - ummayadon ka khema aur Ali ka khema. jo ummayadon ko islaam ke vaastavik uttaraadhikaari samajhte the ve sunni kahalaae aur jo Ali ko vaastavik khaleefa (vaaris) maanate the ve shiya. san 740 mein ummayadon ko turkon se muainh ki khaani padi. usi saal ek faarasi parivrtit - Abu muslim - ne ummayadon ke khilaaf muhammad saahab ke vansh ke naam par ummayadon ke khilaaf ek bada janamaanas taiyaar kiya. unhonne san 749-50 ke beech ummayadon ko hara diya aur ek naya khaleefa ghoshit kiya - abul Abbas. abul Abbas Ali aur husain ka vanshaj to nahi par muhammad saahab ke ek aur fareek ka vanshaj tha. usase abu muslim ki badhti lokapriyta dekhi naheen gayi aur usako 755 isvi mein faaainsi par lataka diya. is ghatna ko shiya islaam mein ek mahattvapoorn din maana jaata hai kyonki ek baar fir Ali ke samarthakon ko haashiye par la khada kiya gaya tha. abul Abbas ke vanshajon ne kai sadiyon tak raaj kiya. usaka vansh abbaasi vansh (abbaasid) kahalaaya aur unhonne apni rajdhani Baghdad mein sthaapit ki. unka shaasan arab aur pashchim Asiaee sena tatha faarasi saahitya ke prabhaav ke sammilman se bana. arabi bhaasha mein vigyaan, chikitsa tatha jyotish ke kai avismaraneeya yogadaan iraaniyon ne mukhyat: arabi bhaasha mein kiya. dasveen sadi mein pashchim Asia ke Irani mool ke buvaai shaasakon ne bagdaad par aakraman kar use hara diya aur is tarah abbasi khilaaft ki shreshthata par viraam laga diya.

chhote saamraajyon aur videshi aakraman ka kaal

san 1000 ke aaspaas ka Iran

san 920 mein uttar-poorvi faaras ke khoraasaan mein saamaani saamraajya ka udaya hua. saamaani shaasakon ne faarasi bhaasha ke vikaas ke prayaas kiye. islaam ke aagaman ke baad yeh pehla mauka tha jab kisi shaasak ne Irani (ya gair-arabi) bhaasha ke vikaas ke protsaahan diye. uttar se saljook turk aur uttarapoorv se gjanavi shaasakon ne Iran par kuchh samay ke liye aanshik roop se adhikaar kiya. terahavi sadi mein us samay amuslim rahe mangolon ke aakraman ke baad Baghdad ka patan ho gaya aur Iran mein fir se kuchh saalon ke liye raajanaitik araajakata chhaai rahi. dedh sau saalon ke baad Iran mein taimoor lang ka bhi aakraman hua. is dauraan kavita aur soofi vichaaradhaara ka bahut vikaas hua.

soofeevaad

abbaasid kaal mein Iran ki pramukh ghatnaaon mein se ek thi soofi aandolan ka vikaas. yadyapi soofi aandolan to arab aur iraak ke ilaake mein janma tha par usako sampoorn roop Iran mein hi mila. soofi ve log the jo dhaarmik kattarata ke shikaar the aur saral jeevan pasand karte th. is kaal ne faarasi bhaasha mein abhootapoorv kaviyon ko janm diya. rudaaki, firdausi, umar khayyaam, naasir-A-khusaro, rumi, Iraqi, saadi, hafeej aadi us kaal ke prasiddh kavi hue jismein kaiyon ko soofeevaad ke preneta ke roop mein jaata jaata hai. is kaal ki faarasi kavita ko kai jagahon par vishv ka sabse behatareen kaavya kaha gaya hai. rudaaki (mrutyu san 940) tatha firdausi ko uttar poorv mein khoraasaan ke saamaani tatha gjanavi shaasakon ki faarasi saahitya protsaahan ke faayde mile. firdausi ke shaahanaame ko islaam-poorv Iran ke shaasakon ko mahimaamandit karne ki pustak ke roop mein jaana jaata hai jisne us kaal ki bolachaal ki faarasi mein samaahit ho chuke arabi shabdon ka prayog kam kiya. baad ke shaayaron ne haaainlaanki arabi bhaasha ke shabdon se parahej naheen kiya aur terahaveen sadi tak arabi shabd faarasi ke ang ban gaye. roomi, iraaki tatha saadi 1210 ke dashak mein paida hue the aur haafij unke ek sadi baad. aaj bhi iraaniyon mein is kaal kaviyon ke prati bahut aadarabhaav hai. inmein se kai kavi soofi vichaaradaara se otaprot the aur abbaasi shaasan ke alaava kaiyon ko mangolon ka julm bhi sahana ya dekhna pada tha. haafij ke samay taimoor lang ke aakraman se faaras pareshaan tha.

saafvi vansh

pandrahaveen sadi mein jab mangolon ki shakti ksheen hone lagi tab Iran ke uttar pashchim mein turk ghudsavaaron se laish ek sena ka udaya hua. iske mool ke baare mein matabhed hai par unhonne saafvi vansh ki sthaapana ki. ve shiya ban gaye aur aane waali kai sadiyon tak unhonne Irani bhoobhaag aur faaras ke prabhutv vaale ilaakon par raaj kiya. is samay shiya islaam bahut fala foola. 1720 ke Afghan aur poorvi vidrohon ke baad dheere-dheere saafaaviyon ka patan ho gaya. afgaanon ne safaavi rajdhani isfhaan par kabja kar liya aur shaah Abbas aur uske putr tahamaasya ko kaid kar liya. tahamaasya bhaag nikalne mein to safal raha par isfhaan par afgaanon ka niyantran bana raha.

naadir shaah

san 1729 mein naadir koli ne afgaanon ke prabhutv ko kam kiya. usane apna jeevan vipnnata se aarambh kiya tha aur faaras ka shaah hi na bana balki usane us samay Irani saamraajya ke sabal shatru usmaani saamraajya aur roosi saamraajya ko Irani kshetron se baahar nikaala. vah ek turk tha par usane saafviyon ko pashchim ki or se aakraant otoman (usmaani) turkon ke khilaaf madad di. isse vah avasaanapraaya saafaviyon ki sena mein uchch sthaan pa saka. taimoor lang ko apna aadarsh maane wala naadir koli afshari kabaale ka tha aur usaka jeevan usaki sainya upalabdhiyon ke liye jaana jaata hai. saafavi shaah tahamaasya (tahamaashp) ne afgaanon ko sapvi rajdhani isfhaan se bhagaane ke evaj mein naadir ko kuli tapamaasya (tahamaasya ka gulaam) ki upaadhi di thi jiske baad vo safvi darbaar mein ek sammaanit vyakti ban gaya. iske baad usane afgaanon aur usmaanon ko shaant kiya aur Bhaarat par bhi aakraman kiya (1739). mangol shaah aalam ko paraajit karke vahaaain se koi 70 karod roopayon ke baraabar sampada lekar aaya jismein kohinoor heera bhi shaamil tha. iske alaava usane bhayankar maarakaat bhi machaai. us samay ke urdoo shaayar meer taki meer (1723-1810) ne aakraman ke pehle tatha baad Delhi ka varnan kiya jismein pata chalta hai ki naadir koli ne Delhi mein kitni tabaahi machaai thi. Bhaarat se lautane par use pata chala ki uske bet raja koli (ya reeja kuli), jise usane apni anupasthiti mein saamraajya dekharekh karne ka jimma saunp ke gaya tha, ne faaras ki gaddi par baithe shaah tahamaasya ki hatya kar di hai. us samay tak naadir koli shaah naheen bana tha balki faarasi saamraajya ka senaapati tha. 1736 mein vo shaah bana (naadir shaah). iske baad vo daagestaan ke vidroh ko kuchalane gaya jahaaain mili asafalata use sataane lagi. iske alaava jab use ye soochana kuchh saradaaron se mili ki raja use bhi maarane ka shadayantr rach raha hai to usane raja ko andha kar diya. baad mein use jab pata chala ki raja nirdosh hai to use bahut glaani hui aur un saradaaron par gussa aaya jinhonne use andha karavaaya tha. usane unhein maarane ka aadesh de diya lekin fir bhi use apne par bahut gussa aaya aur uske svabhaav mein parivartan aane laga. vo atyaachaari aur kroor banta gaya saath hi kamzor aur beemaar bhi ho chala tha. pashchim mein usmaanon ke khilaaf bhi vo adhik safal naheen ho paaya aur 1746 mein kiye ek samjhaute mein use najf tak se santosh karna pada. san 1747 mein usaki hatya kar di gayi. uske marne ke baad usaka saamraajya adhik dinon tak naheen tik saka. par vo us samay ki kathin paristhitiyon mein saamraajya ko avibhaajit rakhane ke liye yaad kiya jaata hai.

Europeeya prabhutv ka kaal

kuchh dinon baad kaajaar vansh ka shaasan aaya par us samay Iran ke tel kshetron ki khoj hone aur iske usmaani (istaanbul ke automan turk), bhaarateeya aur roosi kshetron ke beech sthit hone ke kaaran roosi, angrejon aur fraanseesi saamraajyon ka prabhaav badhta hi gaya. uttar se roos, pashchim se France tatha poorab se Britain ki nigaahein faaras par pad gain. san 1905-1911 mein Europeeya prabhaav badh jaane aur shaah ki nishkriyta ke khilaaf ek janaandolan hua. iraan ke tel kshetron ko lekar tanaav bana raha. pratham vishvayuddh mein Turkey ke paraajit hone ke baad Iran ko bhi usaka fal bhugatna pada. kaha jaata hai dviteeya vishvayuddh ke dauraan jarman naajiyon ki upasthiti ki aashanka ko dekhte hue Britain aur roos se janta ke paroksh roop se Iran ki satta par adhikaar bana liya tha, lekin kaagaji roop se aisa kuchh naheen hua.

aadhunik kaal

raja shaah ne 1930 ke dashak mein Iran ka aadhunikeekaran praarambh kiya. par vo apne preranasrot Turkey ke kamaal paasha ki tarah safal naheen rah saka. usane shiksha ke liye abhootapoorv bandobast kiye tatha sena ko sugathit kiya. usane Turkey ke kamaal paasha ki tarah desh ke kaaryon mein dharm ka prabhaav kam kiya. kattar islaamiyon ko jail ya desh nikaala ki saja di gayi. ayaatollaah khumaini isi ke tahat pehle iraak, fir istaambul aur uske baad peris mein rahe. uske baad 1979 mein ek aur aandolan hua jiska kaaran dhaarmik tha. iske falasvaroop pahalavi vansh ka patan ho gaya aur ayaatolla khomaini ko satta mili. unka dehaant 1989 mein hua. unke shaasan kaal mein hi islaami prabhaav ke tahat unhein lekhak Salman rashdi ke khilaaf ftava jaari karna pada. iske baad se Iran mein videshi prabhutv lagbhag samaapt ho gaya.

abhi Iran mein sakht islaami niyam laagoo hain aur mahilaaon ko hijaab pahanane ki vivshata hai. hanlaaainki tel se paise aa jaane ki vajah se shaharon mein janajeevan vilaasita poorn hai par islaamik kaanoon (shariyt) ke sakht daayare ke bheetar rahakar. raashtrapati ahamadi nijaad (ahamanadenijaad) par apne parmaanu kaaryakram rokane ki bharpoor antarraashtreeya dabaab banaaya ja raha hai. America sahit kai deshon ne aarthik pratibandh lagaane shuroo kar diye hai aur isaraayal sainik kaaryavaahi ki dhamaki de raha hai.

sandarbh

  1. Iran Islamic Republic, vishvakosh britaanika ko pun: praapt 23 January 2008
  2. vishvakosh britaanika 23 January 2008

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