Iran

Irani islaamik ganaraajya
Islamic Republic of Iran

جaaمaaهaaوaaرaaی اaaسaaلaaاaaمaaی اaaيaaرaaاaaن
(jamhooriye islaamiye Iran)
dhvaj kul chinh
raashtravaakya: issataklaal, aajaadi, jamhoori-ye islaami1 (faarasi)"svatantrata, aajaadi, islaami ganaraajya"
raashtragaan: sauऽrad-A milli-ye Iran²
rajdhani
aur sabse badaa nagar
Tehran
35°a41′aN 51°a25′aE / 35.683°aN 51.417°aE / 35.683; 51.417
raajabhaasha(eain) faarasi
maanyata praapt kshetriya bhaashaayein samvaidhaanik-maanyata praapt kshetriya bhaashaaen:
ajeri
kurdi
majndaraani
gilaaki
nivaasi Irani
sarkaar islaami ganaraajya
- sarvochch neta ayaatullaah Ali khumaini
- raashtrapati hasan ruhaani
- pratham up raashtrapati Parvez daavoodi
- visheshagyon ki parishad aur yogyata vivek parishad ke adhyaksh

Akbar Hashmi rafasanjaani
- majalis ke adhyaksh Ali laareejaani
- nyaayik vyavastha ke pramukh mehamood Hashmi shaaharaudi
ekeekaran
- mediyn raajashaahi 625 ipoo
- safaavi vansh (punarsthaapana) 1501
- islaami ganaraajya ki ghoshana 1 April 1979
kshetrafal
- kul 1,648,195 varg kilometer (18 vaan)
636,372 varg meal
- jal (%) 0.7
janasankhya
- 2007 janaganana 70,495,782³ (18 vaan)
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2008 praakkalan
- kul $819.799 billion (-)
- prati vyakti $11,250 (-)
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2013) Red Arrow Down.svg 0.749[1]
uchch · 75vaaain
mudra iraaniyn riyaal (رaaيaaاaaل) (IRR)
samay mandal Irani maanak samay (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+3:30)
- greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) Iran delaait time (IRDT) (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+4:30)
doorabhaash koot 98
Internet teeeladi .ir
1. bookrags.com
2. iranchamber.com
3. Statistical Center of Iran. "جaaمaaعaaيaaت و مaaتaaوaaسaaط رaaشaaد سaaاaaلaaاaaنaaه" (Persian mein). http://www.sci.org.ir/content/userfiles/_sci/sci/SEL/f02/2.1.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-02-13.
4. CIA Factbook

Iran (جaaمaaهaaوaaرaaی اaaسaaلaaاaaمaaی اaaيaaرaaاaaن, jamhooreee islaameee Iran) janbudveep (Asia) ke dakshin-pashchim khand mein sthit desh hai. ise san 1935 tak faaras naam se bhi jaana jaata hai. iski rajdhani Tehran hai aur yeh desh uttar-poorv mein Turkmenistan, uttar mein kaispiyn saagar aur ajrabaijaan, dakshin mein faaras ki khaadi, pashchim mein Iraq aur Turkey, poorv mein afgaanistaan tatha Pakistan se ghira hai. yahaan ka pramukh dharm islaam hai tatha yeh kshetr shiya bahul hai.

praacheen kaal mein yeh bade saamraajyon ki bhoomi rah chuka hai. Iran ko 1979 mein islaamik ganaraajya ghoshit kiya gaya tha. yahaaain ke pramukh shahar Tehran, isfhaan, tabarej, mashahad ityaadi hain. rajdhani Tehran mein desh ki 15 pratishat janta vaas karti hai. Iran ki arthavyavastha mukhyat: tel aur praakrutik gas niryaat par nirbhar hai. faarasi yahaaain ki mukhya bhaasha hai.

anukram

naam

Iran ka praacheen naam faaras tha. is naam ki utpatti ke peechhe iske saamraajya ka itihaas shaamil hai. bebeelon ke samay (4000-700 isaapoorv) tak paars praant in saamraajyon ke adheen tha. jab 550 isvi mein kurosh ne paars ki satta sthaapit ki to uske baad misr se lakar aadhunik afgaanistaan tak aur bukhaara se faaras ki khaadi tak ye saamraajya fail gaya. is saamraajya ke tahat misri, arab, yoonaani, aarya (Iran), yahoodi tatha anya kai nasl ke log the. agar sabon ne naheen to kam se kam yoonaaniyon ne inhein, inki rajdhani paars ke naam par, paarasi kehna aarambh kiya. isi ke naam par ise paarasi saamraajya kaha jaane laga. lekin saataveen sadi mein jab islaam aaya to arabon ka prabhutv Irani kshetr par ho gaya. arabon ki varnamaala mein (p) uchchaaran naheen hota hai. unhonne ise paaras ke badle faaras kehna chaaloo kiya aur bhaasha paarasi ke badle faarasi ban gayi. yeh naam faarasi bhaasha ke bolne vaalon ke liye prayog kiya jaata tha.

Iran (ya eraan) shabd aarya mool ke logon ke liye prayukt shabd eryanam se aaya hai, jiska arth hai aaryon ki bhoomi. hakhaamani shaasakon ke samay bhi aaryam tatha eirayam shabdon ka prayog hua hai. Irani sroton mein yeh shabd sabse pehle avesta mein milta hai. avesta Iran mein aaryon ke aagaman (doosari sadi isaapoorv) ke baad likha gaya granth maana jaata hai. ismein aaryon tatha anaaryon ke liye kai chhand likhe hain aur iski panktiyaaain rigved se mel khaati hai. lagbhag isi samay Bhaarat mein bhi aaryon ka aagaman hua tha. paarthiyn shaasakon ne eraan tatha aaryan donon shabdon ka prayog kiya hai. baahari duniya ke liye 1935 tak naam faaras tha. san 1935 mein rajaashaah pahalavi ke naveeneekaran kaaryakramon ke tahat desh ka naam badalkar faaras se Iran kar diya gaya th.

bhaugolik sthiti aur vibhaag

Iran ko paaramparik roop se madhyapoorv ka ang maana jaata hai kyonki aitihaasik roop se yeh madhyapoorv ke anya deshon se juda raha hai. yeh arab saagar ke uttar tatha kaispiyn saagar ke beech sthit hai aur iska kshetrafal 16,48,000 varg kilometer hai jo Bhaarat ke kul kshetrafal ka lagbhag aadha hai. iski kul sthalaseema 5440 kilometer hai aur yeh Iraq(1458 ki.mi.), armeniya(35), Turkey(499), ajrabaijaan(432), afagaanistaan(936) tatha Pakistan(909 ki.mi.) ke beech sthit hai. kaispiyn saagar ke iski seema sagabhag 740 kilometer lambi hai. kshetrafal ki drushti se yeh vishv mein 18vein number par aata hai. yahaaain ka bhootal mukhyat: pathaari, pahaadi aur marusthaleeya hai. vaarshik varsha 25 semi hoti hai.

samudra tal se tulana karne par Iran ka sabse nichla sthaan uttar mein kaispiyn saagar ka tat aata hai jo 28 meter ki uchaai par sthit hai jabki kooh-A-damavand jo kaispiyn tat se sirf 70 kimi. dakshin mein hai, sabse ooaincha shikhar hai. iski samudratal se ooainchaai 5,610 meter hai.


Iran tees praanton mein banta hai. inmein se mukhya kshetron ka vivran is prakaar hai -

itihaas

maana jaata hai ki Iran mein pehle puraapaashaanayug kaaleen log rahate the. yahaaain par maanav nivaas ek lakh saal puraana ho sakta hai. lagbhag 5000 isaapoorv se kheti aarambh ho gayi thi. mesopotaamiya ki sabhyata ke sthal ke poorv mein maanav bastiyon ke hone ke pramaan mile hain. Irani log (aarya) lagbhag 2000 isaapoorv ke aaspaas uttar tatha poorab ki disha se aae. inhonne yahaaain ke logon ke saath ek mishrit sanskruti ki aadhaarashila rakhi jisse Iran ko usaki pehchaan mili. aadhinuk Iran isi sanskruti par viksit hua. ye yaayaavar log Irani bhaasha bolte the aur dheere dheere inhonne krushi karna aarambh kiya.

aaryon ka kai shaakhaae Iran (tatha anya deshon tatha kshetron) mein I. inmein se kuchh midi, kuchh paarthiyn, kuchh faarasi, kuchh sogadi to kuchh anya naamon se jaane gaye. meedi tatha faarasiyon ka zikr aseeriyaai sroton mein 836 isaapoorv ke aaspaas milta hai. lagbhag yahi samay jarathustr (jradosht ya joroestar ke naam se bhi prasiddh) ka kaal maana jaata hai. haalaanki kai logon tatha Irani lokakathaaon ke anusaar jradosht bas ek mithk tha koi vaastavik aadmi naheen. par chaahe jo ho usi samay ke aaspaas uske dharm ka prachaar us poore pradesh mein hua.

aseeriya ke shaah ne lagbhag 720 isaapoorv ke aaspaas ijraayal par adhiptya jama liya. isi samay kai yahoodiyon ko vahaaain se hata kar meedi pradeshon mein laakar basaaya gaya. 530 isaapoorv ke aaspaas bebeelon faarasi niyantran mein aa gaya. usi samay kai yahoodi vaapas isaraayal laut gaye. is doraan jo yahoodi meedi mein rahe unapar jaradosht ke dharm ka bahut asar pada aur iske baad yahoodi dharm mein kaafi parivartan aaya.

hakhaamani saamraajya

is samay tak faaras meedi saamraajya ka ang aur sahaayak raha tha. lekin isaapoorv 549 ke aaspaas ek faarasi Rajkumar Cyrus (aadhunik faarasi mein kurosh) ne meedi ke raaja ke khilaaf vidroh kar diya. usane meedi raaja estiyej ko padachyut kar rajdhani ekbataana (aadhunik hamaadaan) par niyantran kar liya. usane faaras mein hakhaamani vansh ki neenv rakhi aur meediya aur faaras ke rishton ko palat diya. ab faaras satta ka kendra aur meediya usaka sahaayak ban gaya. par kurosh yahaaain naheen ruka. usane Lydia, Asia maainar (Turkey) ke pradeshon par bhi adhikaar kar liya. usaka saamraajya Turkey ke pashchimi tat (jahaaain par uske dushman greek the) se lekar afgaanistaan tak fail gaya tha. uske putr kambojiya (kembaises) ne saamraajya ko misr tak faila diya. iske baad kai vidroh hue aur fir daara pratham ne satta par kabja kar liya. usane dhaarmik sahishnuta ka maarg apnaaya aur yahoodiyon ko jerushalam lautane aur apna mandir fir se banaane ki ijaajt di. yoonaani itihaasakaar herodotas ke anusaar daara ne yuvaaon ka samarthan praapt karne ki poori koshish ki. usane Cyrus ya kembaises ki tarah koi khaas sainik safalta to arjit naheen ki par usane 512 isaapoorv ke aaspaas yoorop mein apna sainya abhiyaan chalaaya tha. deriys ke kaal mein kai sudhaar hue, jaise usane shaahi sikka chalaaya aur shaahanshaah (raajaaon ke raaja) ki upaadhi dhaaran ki. usane apni praja par paarasi sanskruti thopane ka prayaas naheen kiya jo usaki sahishnuta ko dikhaata hai. apne vishaalakaaya saamraajya ki mahima ke liye daarush ne parselolis (takht-A-Jamshed) ka bhi nirmaan karavaaya.

uske baad putr khashaayarsh (kjerekses) shaasak bana jise uske greek abhiyaanon ke liye jaana jaata hai. usane ethens tatha spaarta ke raaja ko haraaya par baad mein use salaamis ke paas haar ka muainh dekhna pada, jiske baad usaki sena bikhr gayi. kjerekses ke putr artekjerekses ne 465 isa poorv mein gaddi samhaali. uske baad ke pramush shaasako mein artekjerekses dviteeya, artekjerekses truteeya aur uske baad daara truteeya ka naam aata hai. daara truteeya ke samay tak (336 isa poorv) faarasi sena kaafi sangathit ho gi thi.

sikndar

isi samay meseedoniya mein sikndar ka prabhaav badh raha tha. 334 isaapoorv mein sikndar ne Asia maainar (Turkey ke tateeya pradesh) par dhaava bol diya. daara ko bhoomadhya saagar ke tat par isus mein haar ka muainh dekhna pada. iske baad sikandar ne teen baar daara ko haraaya. sikndar isaapoorv 330 mein parsepolis (takht-A-Jamshed) aaya aur uske fatah ke baad usane shahar ko jala dene ka aadesh diya. sikndar ne 326 isvi mein Bhaarat par aakraman kiya aur fir vo vaapas laut gaya. 323 isaapoorv ke aaspaas, bebeelon mein usaki mrutyu ho gayi. usaki mrutyu ke baad uske jeete faarasi saamraajya ko iske senaapatiyon ne aapas mein vibhaajit kar liya.

sikndar ke sabse kaabil senaapatiyon mein se ek selyukas ka niyantran mesopotaamiya tatha Irani pathaari kshetron par tha. lekin isi samay se uttar poorv mein paarthiyon ka vidroh aarambh ho gaya tha. paarthiynon ne hakhaamani shaasakon ki bhi naak mein dam kar rakha tha. mitraadets ne isaapoorv 123 se isaapoorv 87 tak apekshaakrut sthaayitv se shaasan kiya. agale kuchh saalon tak shaasan ki baagdor to paarthiynon ke haath hi rahi par unka netrutv aur samast Irani kshetron par unki pakad dheeli hi rahi.

saasaani

par doosari sadi ke baad se saasaani log, jo pracheen hakhaamani vansh se apne ko jodte the aur unheen pradesh (aaj ka faars prant) se aae the, ki shakti mein uttarottar vruddhi hui. unhonne roman saamraajya ko chunauti di aur kai saalon tak unapar aakraman karte rahe. san 241 mein shaapur ne romanon ko misiko ke yuddh mein haraaya. 244 isvi tak Armenia faarasi niyantran mein aa gaya. iske alaava bhi paarthiynon ne romanon ko kai jagahon par pareshaan kiya. san 273 mein shaapur ki mrutyu ho gayi. san 283 mein romanon ne faarasi kshetron par fir se aakraman kar diya. iske falasvaroop Armenia ke do bhaag ho gaye - roman niyantran vaale aur faarasi niyantran vaale. shaapur ke putron ko aur bhi samjhaute karne pade aur kuchh aur kshetr romanon ke niyantran mein chale gaye. san 310 mein shaapur dviteeya gaddi par yuvaavastha mein baitha. usane 379 isvi tak shaasan kiya. usaka shaasan apekshaakrut shaant raha. usane dhaarmik sahishnuta ki neeti apnaai. uske uttaraadhikaariyon ne vahi shaanti poorn videsh neeti apnaai par unamein sainya sabalata ki kami rahi. aardashir dviteeya, shaapur truteeya tatha baharaam chaturth sabhi sandehajanak paristhitiyon mein maare gaye. unke vaaris yajdegard ne romanon ke saath shaati banaae rakha. uske shaasanakaal mein romanon ke saath sambandh itne shaantipoorn ho gaye ki poorvi roman saamraajya ke shaasak arkediys ne yajdegard ko apne bete ka abhibhaavak bana diya. uske baad baharam pancham shaasak bana jo jangali jaanvaron ke shikaar ka shaukin tha. vo 438 isvi ke aaspaas ek jangali khel dekhte vakt laapata ho gaya, jiske baad uske baare mein kuchh pata naheen chal saka.

iske baad ki araajakata mein kaavad pratham 488 isvi mein shaasak bana. iske baad khusaro (531-579), horamujd chaturth (579-589), khusaro dviteeya (590 - 627) tatha yajdegard truteeya ka shaasan aaya. jab yajdegard ne satta samhaali, tab vo keval 8 saal ka tha. isi samay arab, muhammad saahab ke netrutv mein kaafi shaktishaali ho gaye the. san 634 mein unhonne gja ke nikat bejentaainon ko ek nirnaayak yuddh mein hara diya. faarasi saamraajya par bhi unhonne aakraman kiye the par ve utane safal naheen rahe the. san 641 mein unhone hamaadaan ke nikat yajdegard ko hara diya jiske baad vo poorab ki taraf sahaayata yaachana ke liye bhaaga par usaki mrutyu marv mein san 651 mein uske hi logon dvaara hui. iske baad arabon ka prabhutv badhta gaya. unhonne 654 mein khoraasaan par adhikaar kar liya aur 707 isvi tak baalkh.

shiya islaam

lagbhag 1000 isvi ka Iran : madhyakaal mein Iran mein koi ek kendreeya satta naheen rah gayi thi

muhammad saahab ki mrutyu ke uparaant unke vaaris ko khleefa kaha jaata tha, jo islaam ka pramukh maana jaata tha. chauthe khaleefa (sunni samudaaya ke anusaar) hajrat Ali (shiya samudaaya inhein pehla imaam maanata hai), muhammad saahab ke fareek the aur unki putri faatima ke pati. par unke khilaafat ko chunauti di gayi aur vidroh bhi hue. san 661 mein Ali ki hatya kar unhein shaheed kar diya gaya. iske baad ummayadon ka prabhutv islaam par ho gaya. san 680 mein karabala mein hajarat Ali ke doosare putr imaam husain ne ummayadon ke adharm ki neeti ka samarthan karne se inkaar kar diya. unhonne bayat naheen ki. jise tatkaaleen shaasak ne bagaavat ka naam dete huye unako ek yuddh mein katl kar shaheed kar diya. isi din ki yaad mein shiya musalmaan muharram manaate hain. is samay tak islaam do kheme mein bat gaya tha - ummayadon ka khema aur Ali ke khema. jo ummayadon ko islaam ke vaastavik uttaraadhikaari samajhte the, ve sunni kahalaae aur jo Ali ko vaastavik khaleefa (vaaris) maanate the ve shiya. san 740 mein ummayadon ko turkon se muainh ki khaani padi. usi saal ek faarasi parivrtit - Abu muslim - ne muhammad saahab ke vansh ke naam par ummayadon ke khilaaf ek bada janamaanas taiyaar kiya. unhonne san 749-50 ke beech ummayadon ko hara diya aur ek naya khaleefa ghoshit kiya - abul Abbas. abul Abbas Ali aur husain ka vanshaj to nahi par muhammad saahab ke ek aur fareek ka vanshaj tha. usase abu muslim ki badhti lokapriyta dekhi naheen gayi aur usako 755 isvi mein faaainsi par lataka diya. is ghatna ko shiya islaam mein ek mahatvapoorn din maana jaata hai kyonki ek baar fir Ali ke samarthakon ko haashiye par la khada kiya gaya tha. abul Abbas ke vanshajon ne kai sadiyon tak raaj kiya. usaka vansh abbaasi (abbaasid) vansh kahalaaya aur unhonne apni raajadaani Baghdad mein sthaapit ki. terahavi sadi mein mangolon ke aakraman ke baad Baghdad ka patan ho gaya aur Iran mein fir se kuchh saalon ke liye raajanaitik araajakata chhaai rahi.

soofeevaad

abbaasid kaal mein Iran ki pramukh ghatnaaon mein se ek thi soofi aandolan ka vikaas. soofi ve log the jo dhaarmik kattarata ke shikaar the aur saral jeevan pasand karte the. is aandolan ne faarasi bhaasha mein naamacheen kaviyon ko janm diya. rudaaki, firdausi, umar khayyaam, naasir-A-khusaro, rumi, Iraqi, saadi, hafeej aadi us kaal ke prasiddh kavi hue. is kaal ki faarasi kavita ko kai jagahon par vishv ki sabse behatareen kaavya kaha gaya hai. inmein se kai kavi soofi vichaaradaara se otaprot the aur abbaasi shaasan ke alaava kaiyon ko mangolon ka julm bhi sahana pada tha.

pandrahaveen sadi mein jab mangolon ki shakti ksheen hone lagi tab Iran ke uttar pashchim mein turk ghudsavaaron se laish ek sena ka udaya hua. iske mool ke baare mein matabhed hai par unhonne safaavi vansh ki sthaapana ki. ve shiya ban gaye aur aane waali kai sadiyon tak unhonne Irani bhoobhaag aur faaras ke prabhutv vaale ilaakon par raaj kiya. is samay shiya islaam bahut fala foola. 1720 ke Afghan aur poorvi vidrohon ke baad dheere-dheere saafaaviyon ka patan ho gaya. 1729 mein naadir koli ne afgaanon ke prabhutv ko kam kiya aur shaah ban baitha. vah ek bahut bada vijeta tha aur usane Bhaarat par bhi san 1739 mein aakraman kiya aur bhaari maatra mein dhan sampada lootakar vaapas aa gaya. Bhaarat se haasil ki gayi cheejon mein kohinoor heera bhi shaamil tha. par uske baad kjaar vansh ka shaasan aaya jiske kaal mein Europeeya prabhutv badh gaya. uttar se roos, pashchim se France tatha poorab se Britain ki nigaahein faaras par pad gain. san 1905-1911 mein Europeeya prabhaav badh jaane aur shaah ki nishkriyta ke khilaaf ek janaandolan hua. Iran ke tel kshetron ko lekar tanaav bana raha. pratham vishvayuddh mein Turkey ke paraajit hone ke baad Iran ko bhi usaka fal bhugatna pada. 1930 aur 40 ke dashak mein raja shaah pahalavi ne sudhaaron ki pahal ki. 1979 mein islaamik kraanti hui aur Iran ek islaamik ganatantr ghoshit kar diya gaya. iske baad ayaatolla khumaini, jinhein shaah ne desh nikaala de diya tha, Iran ke pratham raashtrapati bane. iraak ke saath yuddh hone se desh ki sthiti kharaab ho gayi.

aadhunikeekaran

raja shaah pahalavi ne 1930 ke dashak mein iraan ka aadhunikeekaran praarambh kiya. par vo apne preranasrot Turkey ke kamaal paasha ki tarah safal naheen rah saka. usane shiksha ke liye abhootapoorv bandobast kiye tatha sena ko sugathit kiya. usane Iran ki samprabhuta ko barkaraar rakhate hue Britain aur roos ke santulit prabhaavon ko banaae rakhane ki koshikh ki par dviteeya vishvayuddh ke theek pehle Germany ke saath uske badhte taallukaat se Britain aur roos ko gambhir chinta hui. donon deshon ne raja pahalavi par dabaab banaaya aur baad mein use upane bete mohammad raja ke paksh mein gaddi chhodni padi. mohammad raja ke pradhaanamantri mohammad mosaddek ko bhi isteefa dena pada.

Irani islaamik kraanti

beesaveen sadi ke Iran ki sabse mahatvapoorn ghatna thi Iran ki islaamik kraanti. shaharon mein tel ke paison ki samruddhi aur gaanvon mein gareebi; sattar ke dashak ka sookha aur shaah dvaara Europeeya tatha baaki deshon ke pratinidhiyon ko diye gaye bhoj jismein akoot paisa kharch kiya gaya tha ne Iran ki gareeb janta ko shaah ke khilaaf bhadkaaya. islaam mein nihit samaanata ko apna naara banaakar logon ne shaah ke shaasan ka virodh karna aarambh kiya. aadhunikeekaran ke pakshadhar shaah ko gareeb log pashchimi deshon ka pitthoo ke roop mein dekhne lage. 1979 mein abhootapoorv pradarshan hue jismein hisank pradarshanon ki sankhya badhti gayi. ameriki dootaavaas ko gher liya gaya aur iske karmachaariyon ko bandhak bana liya gaya. shaah ke samarthakon tatha sansthaanon mein hisk jhadpein huin aur iske falasvaroop 1989 mein falasvaroop pahalavi vansh ka patan ho gaya aur Iran ek islaamik ganaraajya bana jiska sheersh neta ek dhaarmik maulaana hota tha. ayaatolla khomaini ko sheersh neta ka pad mila aur Iran ne islaamik duniya mein apni sthiti majaboot ki. unka dehaant 1989 mein hua. iske baad se Iran mein videshi prabhutv lagbhag samaapt ho gaya.

janavrutt

Iran mein bhinn-bhinn jaati ke log rahate hain. yahaaain 70 pratishat janta hind-aarya jaati ki hai aur hind Irani bhaashaaeain bolti hai. jaatigt aaainkado ko dekhein to 54 pratishat faarasi, 24 pratishat ajri, majndaraani aur garaki 8 pratishat, kurd 7 pratishat, arabi 3 pratishat, balochi, loori aur turkamen 2 pratishat (pratyek) tatha kai anya jaatiyaaain shaamil hain.

saat karod ki janasankhya wala Iran vishv mein sharanaagaton ke sabse bade deshon mein se ek hai, jahaaain iraak tatha afgaanistaan se kai sharanaarthiyon ne apne deshon mein chal rahe yuddhon ke kaaran sharan le rakhi hai.

dharm

Iran ka praacheen naam paars (faaras) tha aur paars ke rahane vaale log paarasi kahalaae, jo jrathustr ke anuyaayi the. saataveen shataabdi mein arabon ne paars par vijay pai aur vahaaain islaam ka prasaar hua. utpeedn se bachane ke liye bahut se paarasi Bhaarat aa gaye.

islaam mein Iran ka ek vishesh sthaan hai. saataveen sadi se pehle yahaaain jarathustr dharm ke alaava kai aur dharmon tatha maton ke anuyaayi the. arabon dvaara Iran vijay (faaras) ke baad yahaaain shiya islaam ka udaya hua. aaj Iran ke alaava dakshini Iraq, afgaanistaan, ajarabaijaan tatha Pakistan mein bhi shiya muslimon ki aabaadi nivaas karti hai. lagbhag sampoorn arab, misr, Turkey, uttari tatha pashchimi Iraq, lebanaun ko chhodkar lagbhag sampoorn madhyapoorv, Afghanistan, Pakistan, ujbekistaan, taajikistaan turkemenistaan tatha bhaaratottar poorvi Asia ke musalmaan mukhyat: sunni hain.

arthavyavastha

Iran ki arthavyavastha tel aur praakrutik gas se sambandhit udyogon tatha krushi par aadhaarit hai. san 2006 mein Iran ke bajt ka 45 pratishat tel tatha praakrutik gas se mile rakam se aaya aur 31 pratishat karon aur chungiyon se. Iran ke paas kreeb 70 arab ameriki dollar rijrv mein hai aur iski saalaana sakal ghareloo utpaad 206 arab ameriki dollar thi. iski vaarshik vikaar dar 6 pratishat hai. sanyukt raashtra ke mutaabik Iran ek ardh-viksit arthavyavastha hai. sevaakshetr ka yogadaan sakal ghareloo utpaad mein sabse jyaada hai. desh ke rojgaar mein 1.8 pratishat rojagaar paryatan ke kshetr mein hai. varsh 2004 mein Iran mein 16,59,000 paryatak aae the. Iran ka paryatan se hone waali aay vaale deshon ki soochi mein 89vaaain sthaan hai par iska naam sabse jyaada paryatakon ki drushti se 10vein sthaan par aata hai.

praakrutik gaison ke rijrv (bhandaar) ki drushti se Iran vishv ka sabse bada desh hai. tel utpaadak deshon ke sangathan opek ka doosra sabse bada niryaatak desh hai.

yeh bhi dekhiye

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