Germany ka itihaas

praacheen roman dainyoob nadi ke uttar mein rahane vaale "barbar kabeelon" vaale deshon ko germaaniya (Germania) kaha karte the, jiske naam par angreji shabd 'Germany' pada. ye kabeele 'puraani jarman bhaasha' ki boliyaaain bolte the. dheere-dheere inka isaaikaran hua aur jarman desh isaai pavitra roman saamraajya ka kendra ban gaya.

doosari shataabdi isa poorv mein pashchimi Europe mein jarman jaatiyon ke abhyudaya ka ullekh milta hai. kuchh jaatiyaaain jaise alaamanni (Alamanni) baragandiyaai (Burgundians), fraank (Franks) lanbaard (Lombards) ostrogoth (Ostrogoths) aur vijeegoth (Visigoths) poorv mein raain nadi ke muhaane, pashchim mein elbe nadi aur dakshin mein uttari Italy ke bhaagon ke beech dheere-dheere baseen. unamein se kuchh ne Italy par aakraman kiya aur rom saamraajya ka vinaash kiya, anya France aur Britain mein bas gayi. raain nadi ke donon or ka kshetr kuchh din vivaad mein rahane ke pashchaat‌ fraankon ke roman samraat shaarlamen dvaara naveen shataabdi mein adhikrut kiya gaya. lekin shataabdi ke antim dinon jarman saamraajya teen bhaagon mein baint gaya.

saiskan samraat oto pratham ne 962 E. mein Italy aur Germany ko ek sootr mein baaaindha. aage chalakar ashaantipoorn sthiti utpann hui. fraidarik dviteeya ne apne shaasan ko sisli mein hi keindrit rakha, is prakaar Germany lagbhag upekshit raha. 1273 mein hapsabarg ka rudaalf samraat nirvaachit hua, kintu uske liye bhi bade saamraajya ko kaayam rakhana asaadhya ho gaya tha.

roman saamraajya jis samay ladkhada raha tha, England, France or Spain shaktishaali raajya ban rahe the. Germany us samay samruddh tha- iske viruddh uparyukt teenon raajyon ne sandhi ki.

lekin Germany ki raajanaitik asthirta ke kaaran vahaaain 16veen shataabdi mein Martin loothar ke netrutv mein aandolan hua. ant mein is aandolan ne 30 varsheeya dharmayuddh (1618-1648) ka roop liya. ismein Germany ke lagbhag 300 tukade hue. 18veen shataabdi mein in chhoti-chhoti svatantr ikaaiyon ne prasha mein atyadhik unnati ki.

fraanseesi kraanti or nepoliyn ke yuddhon ke samay se Germany mein raashtreeyata ki chetna ka aavirbhaav hua. yeh chetna aage chalakar udaaravaadi aandolan ke roop mein badli. 1618 se 1671 tak tatkaaleen chaaainsalar otaabaan bismaark ne aastriya, Denmark aur France se yuddh karke jarman raajya ko sangathit kiya. France ki paraajaya ke baad Germany ne sainik, audyogik aur aarthik kshetron mein teji se pragati ki. vismaark ne is sthiti mein anya Europeeya shaktiyon se sambandh sthaapit kiya. 1888 E. mein William dviteeya samraat hua. desh ki antarraashtreeya sthiti mein pun: ashaanti utpann hui, jisne 20veen shataabdi mein pratham vishvayuddh ka roop liya. is yuddh mein jarman senaaeain paraajit hui. is paraajaya se utpann aarthik aur saamaajik avyavasthaaon tatha 'mitr raashtron' ki 'vaarsa-sandhi' ke anusaar aarthik dabaavon ki paristhiti mein edaalf hitlar tatha national soshalist party (naaji dal) ne 1933 mein Germany ki satta grahan ki. pratham vishvayuddh ke baad veemar (Weimer) samvidhaan ke anusaar ganaraajya ghoshit Germany mein hitlar ne apna adhinaayakatv sthaapit kiya. usane apne shaasanakaal mein Germany ko sabhi kshetron mein sudrudh kiya. usaki saamraajyavaadi neeti ne, jisse usane Europe ka bada bhaag 1939 tak kuchh sandhiyon se aur kuchh sainik tareekon se Germany mein jod liya, dviteeya vishvayuddh ki paristhitiyaaain mitr raashtron ke samaksh aatmasamarpan karna pada. roos, Britain, sanyuktaraajya amareeka aur France ne Germany ke chaar bhaag karke paraspar baaaint liye. 1949 mein shaanti samjhaute ke anusaar Germany ki Federal jarman ripblik (pashchimi) aur jarman dimaakretik ripblik (poorvi) do bhaag hue. poorvi bhaag, jismein poorvi prasha bhi sanmilit hai, jo ki 1937 ke poorv jarmanon ke aur ab Poland aur roos ke adhikaar mein hain.

1990 mein communist poorvi Germany ki maarksavaadi sarkaar dhah gayi aur Germany ka vaapis ekeekaran hua.

Germany ki samayarekha

kaansyayug, lauhayug tatha andhayug (Dark Ages) - selt (Celts) logon ki praacheen sanskruti France sahit Europe ke kai deshon mein fail chuki thi.

san 1871 tak Germany ka ek raashtra ke roop mein astitv hi naheen tha. iske pehle yeh chhote-chhote raajyon mein banta hua tha.

768-814 - Charlemagne rules as King of the Franks and is crowned as Holy Roman Emperor

870 Formation of the duchies of Franconia, Saxony, Bavaria and Lorraine

919 919 - 1024 The Saxon dynasty rule Germany

1024 1024-1255 - The Salian dynasty rules the Germans

1099 First Crusade (The People's Crusade). Jerusalem is re-taken from the Muslims on the urging of Pope Urban II. 1st Crusade led by Count Raymond IV of Toulouse and proclaimed by many wandering preachers, notably Peter the Hermit

1118 The Knights Templar founded to protect Jerusalem and European pilgrims on their journey to the city

1138 1138 -1254 - The Hohenstaufen dynasty

1147 Second Crusade led by Holy Roman Emperor Conrad III and by King Louis VII of France

1190 Third Crusade 3rd Crusade led by Richard the Lionheart of England, Philip II of France, and Holy Roman Emperor Frederick I. Saladin manages to unite the Muslim world and recapture Jerusalem, sparking the fourth Crusade

1200 Fourth Crusade and the French/Flemish advanced on Constantinople but the Christians fail to recapture Jerusalem

1212 The Children's Crusade led by a French peasant boy, Stephen of Cloyes

1270 Other crusades follow including the eighth crusade led by Louis IX of France - but the armies still fail to capture Jerusalem

1273 Rudolf of Hapsburg crowned king of the Germans

1348 The Black Death ravages Europe for the first of many times. An estimated one third of the population is thought to have perished within the first year

1499 Switzerland breaks away from the German empire

1517 Martin Luther initiates the Reformation

1546 1546-1547: Emperor Charles V defeats the Protestant princes and allies

1555 The Peace of Augsburg where the princes determine the religion of their territories

1618 1618 - 1648: The Thirty Years War ending with the Peace of Westphalia

1701 Frederick crowned the first king of Prussia

1740 1740 - 1748: The War of Austrian Succession

1806 The Confederation of the Rhine was established by Napoleon Bonaparte

1806 Prussia declared war on France and was defeated by Napoleon Bonaparte

1813 The Prussians helped defeat Napoleon Bonaparte at Leipzig 1814 1814-1815: Congress of Vienna establishes the German Confederation of 39 independent German states

1815 Napoleon was defeated at Waterloo

1862 bismaark prasha ka pradhaanamantri bana.

1870 Franco-Prussian War

1871 January : Germany ka peris par adhikaar

1871 18 January: Wilhelm I was crowned the first Kaiser of the German Empire uniting all of the German states

1914 28 June - Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary and his wife were assassinated in Sarajevo, Bosnia-Herzegovina provoking WW1 August: Germany declares war on Russia and France. The United Kingdom declares war on Germany

9 November 1918 : Germany ko ganatantr ghoshit kiya gaya.

11 November 1918 : varsaaya ki sandhi ke falasvaroop pratham vishvayuddh samaapt. raainalaind ko 15 varsh ke liye mitr raashtron ke adheen kar diya gaya.

1919 19 January: A national assembly meets in Weimar to write a new German Constitution - called the Weimar Republic

1923 The National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis) attempt an unsuccessful armed rebellion led by Adolf Hitler

1933 edaulf hitlar Germany ka chaamsalar bana.

1934 Adolf Hitler declared himself der Fuhrer. The Nazi German government is called the Third Reich

10 April 1938 : Germany dvaara aastriya par aakraman

1939 16 March: Germany occupies Czechoslovakia

1939 1 September: Germany invades Poland starting World War II

1940 Germany captures Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, France and Luxembourg. The Allies including Russia, UK and USA retaliate

1945 30 April: edaulf hitlar ne aatmahatya kar li.

August : America ne hiroshima aur naagaasaaki par parmaanu bam giraaye.

7 May 1945 : Germany ka aatmasamarpan

June 1945 : Germany ko chaar bhaagon mein baaaint diya gaya aur un par sainik shaasan laga diya gaya. (yooesae, UK, yooesaesaaar, France)

May, 1949 : mitr raashtron ne pashchimi Germany ke samvidhaan ko maanyata di. poorvi Germany ne saamyavaadi shaasan wala samvidhaan sveekaara.

October 1945 : jarman lokataantrik ripblik (poorvi Germany) ka nirmaan.

5 May 1955 : pashchimi Germany ko svatantrata mili.

August 1961 : barlin ki deevaar ka nirmaan

9 November 1989 : barlin ki deevaar gira di gayi. kampyunist poorvi Germany ke log pashchimi Germany mein aane ke liye svatantr

3 October 1990 : poorvi aur pashchimi Germany ka ekeekaran

baahari kadiyaaain