Germany ka ekeekaran

ekeekrut Germany (1871 mein)
18 January 1871 ko varseli ke 'hall of mirrs' mein jarman saamraajya ki sthaapana

madhya Europe ke svatantr raajyon (prasha, baveriaa, saiksoni aadi) ko aapas mein milaakar 1871 mein ek raashtra-raajya va jarman saamraajya ka nirmaan kiya gaya. isi aitihaasik prakriya ka naam Germany ka ekeekaran hai. iske pehle yeh bhoobhaag (Germany) 39 raajyon mein banta hua tha. ismein se ostriyaai saamraajya tatha prasha raajatantr apne aarthik tatha raajaneetik mahatva ke liye prasiddh the.

anukram

parichay

France ki kraanti dvaara utpann naveen vichaaron se Germany prabhaavit hua tha. nepoliyn ne apni vijyon dvaara vibhinn jarman-raajyon ko raain-sangh ke antargat sangathit kiya, jisse jarman-raajyon ko ek saath rahane ka ehsaas hua. isse Germany mein ekta ki bhaavana ka prasaar hua. yahi kaaran tha ki jarman-raajyon ne viyna Congress ke samaksh unhein ek sootr mein sangathit karne ki peshakash ki, par us par koi dhyaan naheen diya gaya.

viyna Congress dvaara jarman-raajyon ki jo naveen vyavastha ki gayi, uske anusaar unhein shithil sangh ke roop mein sangathit kiya gaya aur usaka adhyaksh ostriya ko banaaya gaya. raajavansh ke hiton ko dhyaan mein rakhate hue vividh jarman raajyon ka punarooddhaar kiya gaya. in raajyon ke liye ek sangheeya sabha ka gathan kiya gaya, jiska adhiveshan freinkafart mein hota tha. iske sadasya janta dvaara nirvaachit na hokar vibhinn raajyon ke raajaaon dvaara manoneet kiye jaate the. ye shaasak naveen vichaaron ke virodhi the aur raashtreeya ekta ki baat ko naapasand karte the kintu jarman raajyon ki janta mein raashtreeyata aur svatantrata ki bhaavana vidyamaan thi. yeh naveen vyavastha is prakaar thi ki vahaaain aastriya ka varchasv vidyamaan tha. is jarman kshetr mein lagbhag 39 raajya the jinka ek sangh banaaya gaya tha.

Germany ke vibhinn raajyon mein chungeekar ke alag-alag niyam the, jinse vahaan ke vyaapaarik vikaas mein badi adchane aati theen . is baadha ko door karne ke liye jarman raajyon ne milkar chungi sangh ka nirmaan kiya. yeh ek prakaar ka vyaapaarik sangh tha, jiska adhiveshan prativrsh hota tha. is sangh ka nirnaya sarvasammat hota tha. ab saare jarman raajyon mein ek hi prakaar ka seema-shulk laagoo kar diya gaya. is vyavastha se Germany ke vyaapaar ka vikaas hua, saath hi isne vahaaain ekta ki bhaavana ka sootrapaat bhi kiya. is prakaar is aarthik ekeekaran se raajaneetik ekta ki bhaavana ko gati praapt hui. vaastav mein, jarman raajyon ke ekeekaran ki disha mein yeh pehla mahatvapoorn kadam tha.

France ki kraantiyon ka prabhaav

Germany ki janta mein raashtreeya bhaavana kaarya kar rahi thi. desh ke andar anek gupt samitiyaaain nirmit hui theen. ye samitiyaaain naveen vichaaron ka prasaar kar rahi theen. yahi kaaran tha ki 1830 E . aur 1848 E. mein France mein hone waali kraantiyon ka prabhaav vahaaain bhi pada aur vahaaain ki janta ne bhi vidroh kar diya. yadyapi ye kraantiyaaain safal na hui tathaapi isse desh ki janta mein raajaneetik chetna ka aavirbhaav hua.

1860 E . mein jab Italy ki raashtreeya ekta ka kaarya kaafi kuchh poora ho gaya tab jarman janta mein bhi aasha ka sanchaar hua aur vah bhi ekeekaran ki disha mein gatisheel hui. Italy ke ekeekaran ka kaarya peedamaant ke raaja ke netrutv mein ho raha tha. isi tarah jarman deshabhakton ne prasha ke netrutv mein Germany ke ekeekaran ke kaarya ko sampann karne ka nishchaya kiya. is samay prasha ka shaasak William pratham tatha chaansalar bismaark tha kintu in jarman deshabhakton ke samaksh do pramukh samasyaayein theen-

  • 1. aastriya ke prabhutv se chhutakaara paana,
  • 2. jarman-raajyon ko prasha ke netrutv mein sangathit karna.

bismaark ka udaya

auto Edward liyopold bismaark ka janm 1815 E. mein bredanabarg ke ek kuleen parivaar mein hua tha. bismaark ki shiksha barlin mein hui thi. 1847 E. mein hi vah prasha ki pratinidhi-sabha ka sadasya chuna gaya. vah jarman raajyon ki sansad mein prasha ka pratinidhitv karta tha. vah naveen vichaaron ka prabal virodhi tha. 1859 E. mein vah roos mein Germany ke raajadoot ke roop mein niyukt hua. 1862 E. mein vah peris ka raajadoot banaakar bheja gaya. in padon par rahakar vah anek logon ke sampark mein aaya. use Europe ki raajaneetik sthiti ko bhi samajhne ka avsar mila. 1862 E. mein prasha ke shaasak William pratham ne use desh ka chaaainsalar (pradhaan mantri) niyukt kiya.

bismaark 'rakt aur lohe ki neeti' ka samarthak tha. usaki ruchi lokatantr or sansadeeya paddhati mein naheen thi. vah sena aur raajaneeti ke kaarya mein vishesh ruchi rakhata tha. inheen par aashrit ho, vah apne uddeshyon ko praapt karna chaahata tha. vah prasha ko sainik drushti se majaboot kar Europe ki raajaneeti mein uske varchasv ko kaayam karna chaahata tha. vah aastriya ko jarman sangh se nikaal baahar kar prasha ke netrutv mein Germany ka ekeekaran karna chaahata tha. vah sabhaaon aur bhaashanon mein vishvaas naheen karta tha. vah sena aur shastr dvaara desh ki samasyaaon ka sulajhaana chaahata tha. vah avaidhaanik kaarya karne se bhi naheen hichkata tha.

prasha ki sainik shakti mein vruddhi kar tatha kootaneeti ka sahaara lekar usane jarman raajyon ke ekeekaran ke kaarya ko poora kiya. is kaarya ko poora karne ke liye usane teen pramukh yuddh lade. in sabhi yuddhon mein safal hokar usane jarman-raajyon ke ekeekaran ke kaarya ko poora kiya. isse Europeeya itihaas ka svaroop hi badal gaya.

Denmark se yuddh (1864 E.)

sarvapratham bismaark ne apni shakti ka prahaar Denmark ke raajya par kiya. Germany aur Denmark ke beech do pradesh vidyamaan the, jinke naam shlesavig aur haulasteen the. ye donon pradesh sadiyon se Denmark ke adhikaar mein the, par iske bhaag naheen the. haulasteen ki janta jarman jaati ki thi, jabki shlesavig mein aadhe jarman aur aadhe den the.

19veen sadi mein anya deshein ki tarah Denmark mein bhi raashtreeyata ki lahar faili, jisse prabhaavit hokar den deshabhakton ne desh ke ekeekaran ka prayatn kiya. ve chaahate the ki ukt donon raajyon ko Denmark mein shaamil kar usaki shakti ko sudrudh kar liya jaae. falasvaroop 1863 E. mein Denmark ke shaasak krishchiyn dasham ne ukt pradeshan ko apne raajya mein shaamil karne ki ghoshana kar di. usaka yeh kaarya 1852 E. mein sampann London samjhaute ke virooddh tha, iseeliye jarman raajyon ne iska virodh kiya. unhonne yeh maang ki ki in pradeshan ko Denmark ke adhikaar se mukt kiya jaae. prasha ne bhi Denmark ki is neeti ka varodh kiya. bismaark ne socha ki Denmark ke khilaaf yuddh karne ka yeh anukool avsar hai. vah in pradeshan par prasha ka adhikaar sthaapit karne ka ichhuk tha. is kaarya ko vah akele na kar aastriya ke sahayog se poora karna chaahata tha, taaki prasha ke khilaaf koi vipreet pratikriya na ho. aastriya ne bhi is kaarya mein prasha ka sahayog karna uchit samjha. iska kaaran yeh tha ki yadi prasha is maamale mein akele hastakshep karta to Germany mein ostriya ka prabhaav kam ho jaata. iske atirikt vah 1852 E. ke London samjhaute ka poorn roop se paalan karna chaahata tha. is prakaar prasha aur ostriya donon ne sammilit roop se Denmark ke khilaaf sainik kaaryavaahi karne ka nishchaya kiya. falasvaroop 1864 E. mein unhonne Denmark par aakraman kar diya. Denmark paraajit ho gaya aur usane aakramanakaariyon ke saath ek samjhauta kiya. iske anusaar use shlesavig aur haulasteel ke saath-saath laayanaburg ke adhikaar se bhi vanchit hona pada.

gesteen ka samjhauta

is samjhaute ke anusaar shlesavig aur haulasteen ke pradesh to Denmark se le liye gaye, par is loot ke maal ke bantavaare ke sambandh mein prasha aur ostriya mein matabhed ho gaya. is prashn ko lekar donon ke beech kaafi katuta utpann ho gayi. ostriya apni aantarik sthiti ke kaaran yuddh karne ke paksh mein naheen tha jabki prasha is prasang ke maadhyam se ostriya ko jarman raajya sangh mein kamjor karna chaahata tha. antat: donon ke beech 14 August 1865 E. ko gesteen naamak sthaan par samjhauta ho gaya, jo 'gesteen-samjhauta' ke naam se jaana jaata hai. yeh samjhauta is prakaar tha-

  • 1. shlesaving prashiya ko diya gaya,
  • 2. haulasteen par aastriya ka adhikaar maan liya gaya,
  • 3. laayanavarg ka pradesh prasha ne khareed liya, jiska moolya o striya ko diya gaya.

yeh samjhauta bismaark ki kootaneetik vijay thi. vah ise ek asthaayi samjhauta maanata tha, jiski avhelna kabhi bhi ki ja sakti thi. at: aage chalakar iske khilaaf pratikriya hona svaabhaavik thi.

vaastav mein bismaark ki ichha ostriya ko yuddh mein paraast kar use jarman sangh se bahishkrut karna tha. is disha mein usane taiyaari karni aarambh kar di thi par yeh kaarya saral na tha, kyonki ostriya Europe ka ek mahatvapoorn raajya tha aur us par aakraman karne se antarraashtreeya sambandhon par asar pad sakta tha. at: ostriya ke khilaaf sainik kaaryavaahi karne ke poorv bismaark anya raajyon ki mansha jaan lena chaahata tha. is prakaar yuddh ke poorv usane kootaneetik chaal dvaara anya raajyon ki sambhaavit pratikriya ko samajh lena aavashyak samjha. gretabriten ke is yuddh mein hastakshep karne ki sambhaavana na thi, kyonki vah ekaakeepan ki neeti par chal raha tha. roos bismaark ka mitr tha. usane France ko laalach dekar yuddh mein tatasth rahane ka aashvaasan praapt kar liya. nepoliyn truteeya ne tatasth rahana raashtreeya hit mein uchit samjha. usane yeh socha ki ostriya aur prasha ke yuddhon se unki shakti ksheen hogi aur us sthiti se France ko vikaas karne ka avsar praapt hoga. 1866 E. mein prasha aur Italy ke beech sandhi ho gayi, jiske anusaar Italy ne yuddh mein prasha ka saath dene ka aashvaasan diya. iske badle bismaark ne yuddh mein safal hone ke pashchaat Italy ko veneshiya dene ka vachan diya. is sandhi ki soochana paakar ostriya bada chintit hua. ab ostriya aur prasha ki sainik taiyaariyaaain teevr gati se chalne lageen. is prakaar prasha aur ostriya ke beech yuddh ki sthiti nirmit ho gayi. ab yuddh ke liye keval avsar dhoondhne ki aavashyakta thi. shlesavig aur haulasteen sambandhi samjhaute mein yuddh ke kaaranon ko dhooaindh nikaalna koi kathin kaarya na tha. 1866 E. mein prasha ko yeh avsar praapt hua aur usane ostriya ke khilaaf yuddh ghoshit kar diya. Italy prasha ka saath de raha tha. yeh yuddh sedova ke maidaan mein donon ke beech saat saptaah tak chala, jismein ostriya paraajit hua. is yuddh ki samaapti praag ki sandhi dvaara hui, jiski shartein is prakaar theen-

  • 1. ostriya ke netrutv mein jo jarman-sangh bana tha, vah samaapt kar diya gaya.
  • 2. shlesavig aur haulasteen prasha ko de diye gaye.
  • 3. dakshin ke jarman-raajyon ki svatantrata ko maan liya gaya.
  • 4. veneshiya ka pradesh Italy ko de diya gaya.
  • 5. ostriya ko yuddh ka harajaana dena pada.

jarman raajasangh ki sthaapana

is yuddh ke falasvaroop jarman-raajyon se ostriya ka varchasv samaapt ho gaya. ab vahaaain prasha ka prabhaav kaayam ho gaya. is yuddh ke baad prasha ko anek naveen pradesh mile, jiske kaaran ab vah Europe ka shaktishaali raajya maana jaane laga. ab bismaark bhi Europe mein ek mahatvapoorn vyakti ban gaya. prasha ki is safalta ne paroksh roop se France ki bhaavi paraajaya ka sanket diya. is prakaar is yuddh se prasha ko anek laabh hue.

hainovar, hesakesal, naaso aur freinkafart prasha ke raajya mein shaamil kar liye gaye. iske baad usane jarman-raajyon ko naye sire se apne netrutv mein sangathit karne ka prayaas kiya. kintu dakshin-raajyon ke virodh ke kaaran aisa karna sambhav naheen hua. aisi sthiti mein yeh uchit samjha gaya ki chaar dakshin jarman raajyon ko chhodkar (baveriya, butarmavarg, baaden aur heins) shesh jarman-raajyon ka sangathan prasha ke netrutv mein bana liya jaae. bismaark ne aisa hi kiya. is prakaar usane uttari jarman raajyon ka gathan kar liya. ismein 21 jarman raajya shaamil the. is naveen sangh ka adhyaksh prasha ko banaaya gaya. bismaark is sangh ka pratham chaaainsalar niyukt hua. vah vahaaain gathit hone waali sangheeya parishad ka adhyaksh bhi niyukt kiya gaya. is parishad mein kul 43 sadasya the, jinmein 17 sadasya prasha ke the. sangh ke adhyaksh ke roop mein prasha ke raaja ko anek mahatvapoorn kaaryon jaise yuddh evam sandhi ko sanpaadit karne ka adhikaar tha. doosari sabha ka naam Loksabha tha, jiske sadasya vayask mataadhikaar ke anusaar janta dvaara chune jaate the.

is prakaar bismaark Germany ke ekeekaran ki disha mein kaafi aage badh gaya. ab uske liye keval antim kaarya karna hi shesh tha.

Germany ke ekeekaran ke liye bismaark ne France se antim yuddh kiya, kyonki use paraajit kiye bina dakshin ke chaar jarman raajyon ko jarman sangh mein shaamil karna asambhav tha. udhar France ostriya ke virooddh prasha ki vijay se apne ko apamaanit mahasoos kar raha tha. usaka vichaar tha ki donon ke beech chalne wala yuddh deerghakaaleen hoga kintu aasha ke vipreet yeh yuddh jaldi samaapt ho gaya, jismein prasha ko safalta mili.

France ke raashtrapati nepoliyn truteeya ne apni girti hui pratishtha ko pun: jeevit karne ke liye France ki seema ko raain-nadi tak vistrut karne ka vichaar kiya, kintu vah is kaarya mein safal naheen ho saka. bismaark apni kootaneetik chaalon dvaara France ki har ichha ko asafal karta raha. nepaaliyn ne haulaind se lakjemabarg lena chaaha, par bismaark ke virodh ke kaaran vah sambhav na ho saka. ismein donon ke beech katuta ki bhaavana nirmit ho gayi. France samajhta tha ki prasha ke utkarsh ke kaaran usaki sthiti naajuk ho gayi hai. udhar prasha bhi France ko apne maarg ka baadhak maanata tha. falasvaroop donon deshan ke akhbaar ek doosare ke khilaaf jahar ugalane lage. aisi sthiti mein donon ke beech yuddh aavashyak prateet hone laga.

Spain ki raajagaddi ka maamala

isi beech Spain mein uttaraadhikaar ka prashn upasthit ho gaya, jisse vahaan gruhayuddh praarambh ho gaya. 1863 E. mein Spain ki janta ne vidroh karke raani isaabela dviteeya ko desh se nikaal diya aur uske sthaan par prasha ke samraat ke rishtedaar liyoporld ko vahaaain ka naya shaasak banaane ka vichaar kiya. nepoliyn iske taiyaar na tha, kyonki aisa hone se Spain par bhi prasha ka prabhaav sthaapit ho jaata. France ke virodh ko dekhte hue liyopold ne apni ummeedavaari ka parityaag kar diya. kintu France isse santusht naheen hua. usane yeh aashvaasan chaaha ki bhavishya mein bhi prasha ka koi Rajkumar Spain ka shaasak naheen hoga. yeh nepoliyn ki manamaani aur prasha ka apamaan tha. at: is ghatna ke kaaran 15 July 1870 E. ko France ne prasha ke virooddh yuddh ki ghoshana kar di.

yeh yuddh seedaan ke maidaan mein lada gaya, jismein nepoliyn truteeya paraajit kar diya gaya. jarman senaaeain France ke andar tak ghus gayeen. 20 January 1871 E. ko peris ke patan ke pashchaat yuddh samaapt ho gaya. antat: donon ke beech ek sandhi hui, jo itihaas mein 'feinkafart ki sandhi' ke naam se vikhyaat hua. iski shartein is prakaar theen-

  • 1. France ko alsaas aur lauren ke pradesh prasha ko saunpane honge.
  • 2. France ko yuddh ka harajaana 20 karod pound dena honge.
  • 3. harajaane ki adaayagi tak jarman sena France mein bani rahegi.

yeh sandhi France ke liye atyant hi apamaanajanak siddh hui aur iske parinaam dooragaami siddh hue.is sandhi ne donon ke beech dushmani ki jadein majaboot kar Dean.

jarman-saamraajya ka gathan

seedaan ke yuddh ke baad dakshin Germany ke chaar raajyon - baveriya, baaden, butarmavarg aur heins ko jarman sangh mein shaamil kar use Germany (jarman saamraajya) ek naya naam diya gaya. prasha ka raaja Germany ka bhi shaasak ghoshit kiya gaya. is prakaar Germany ka ekeekaran poorn hua. 18 January 1871 E. mein William pratham ka raajyaabhishek Germany ke samraat ke roop mein hua. is asambhav se lagne vaale kaarya ko poorn karne ka shreya bismaark ko hai.

sandarbh

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