Gautam buddh

Gautam buddh
SeatedBuddha.jpg
dviteeya shataabdi mein (gaandhaar shaili me) vajr mudra mein bani buddh ki pratima. vartamaan mein tokyo ke raashtreeya sangrahaalaya mein hai.
janm 563 i0 poo0
lumbini, Nepal
mrutyu 483 i0 poo0
kusheenagar, Bhaarat
vyavasaaya Rajkumar, dharm pravartak
gruh sthaan kapilvastu, Nepal
prasiddhi kaaran bauddh dharm ke pravartak
poorvaadhikaari kassapa buddh
uttaraadhikaari maitreya
raani maaya adbhut rup se Rajkumar siddhaarth ko janm deti hui

Gautam buddh (janm 563 isvi poorv - mrutyu 483 isvi poorv) vishv ke praacheenatam dharmon mein se ek bauddh dharm ke pravartak the.[1] unka janm kshatriya kul ke shaakya naresh shuddhodhan ke ghar janmein siddhaarth vivaahoparaant navajaat shishu Rahul aur patni yashodhara ko tyaagakar sansaar ko jara, maran aur dukhon se mukti dilaane ke maarg ki talaash mein raat mein raajapaath chhodkar jungle chale gaye. varshon ki kathor saadhana ke pashchaat bodh gaya (Bihar) mein bodhi vruksh ke neeche unhein gyaan ki praapti hui aur ve siddhaarth se buddh ban gaye.

anukram

jeevan vrutt

unka janm 483 aur 563 isvi poorv ke beech shaakya ganaraajya ki tatkaaleen rajdhani kapilvastu ke nikat lunbini, Nepal mein hua tha.[2] lumbini van Nepal ke taraai kshetr mein kapilvastu aur devadah ke beech nautanava station se 8 meal door pashchim mein rukmindei naamak sthaan ke paas sthit tha. kapilvastu ki mahaaraani mahaamaaya devi ke apne naihar devadah jaate hue raaste mein prasav peeda hui aur vaheen unhonne ek baalak ko janm diya. shishu ka naam siddhaarth rakha gaya.[3] Gautam gotr mein janm lene ke kaaran ve Gautam bhi kahalaae. shaakyon ke raaja shuddhodhan unke pita the. paramparaagat katha ke anusaar, siddhaarth ki maata maayaadevi jo koli vansh ki thi ka unke janm ke saat din baad nidhan ho gaya tha. unka paalan poshan unki mausi aur shuddodhan ki doosari raani mahaaprajaavati (gautami)ne kiya. shishu ka naam siddhaarth diya gaya, jiska arth hai "vah jo siddhi praapti ke liye janma ho". janm samaaroh ke dauraan, saadhu drashta aasit ne apne pahaad ke nivaas se ghoshana ki- bachcha ya to ek mahaan raaja ya ek mahaan pavitra path pradarshak banega.[4] shuddodhan ne paanchavein din ek naamakaran samaaroh aayojit kiya aur aath braahman vidvaanon ko bhavishya padhne ke liye aamantrit kiya. sabhi ne ek si dohari bhavishyavaani ki, ki bachcha ya to ek mahaan raaja ya ek mahaan pavitra aadmi banega.[5] dakshin madhya Nepal mein sthit lunbini mein us sthal par mahaaraaj ashok ne teesari shataabdi isa poorv buddh ke janm ki smruti mein ek stambh banavaaya tha. buddh ka janm diwas vyaapak roop se thaeraavada deshon mein manaaya jaata hai.[6] suddhaarth ka man vachapan se hi karuna aur daya ka srot tha. iska parichay unke aaranbhik jeevan ki anek ghatnaaon se pata chalta hai. ghuddaud mein jab ghode daudte aur unke muainh se jhaag nikalne lagta to siddhaarth unhein thaka jaanakar vaheen rok deta aur jeeti hui baaji haar jaata. khel mein bhi siddhaarth ko khud haar jaana pasand tha kyonki kisi ko haraana aur kisi ka du:khi hona usase naheen dekha jaata tha. siddhaarth ne chachere bhaai devadatt dvaara teer se ghaayal kiye gaye hans ki sahaayata ki aur uske praanon ki raksha ki.

shiksha evam vivaah

siddhaarth ne guru vishvaamitr ke paas ved aur upanishd‌ to padhe hi, raajakaaj aur yuddh-vidya ki bhi shiksha li. kushti, ghuddaud, teer-kamaan, rath haaainkane mein koi usaki baraabari naheen kar paata. solah varsh ki umr mein siddhaarth ka koli kanya yashodhara ke saath vivaah hua. pita dvaara rituon ke anuroop banaae gaye vaibhavashaali aur samast bhogon se yukt mahal mein ve yashodhara ke saath rahane lage jahaaain unke putr Rahul ka janm hua. lekin vivaahake baad unka man vairaagyamein chala aur samyak sukh-shaantike liye unhonne aapne parivaar ka tyaag kar diya.

virkti

raaja shuddhodhan ne siddhaarth ke liye bhog-vilaas ka bharpoor prabandh kar diya. teen rituon ke laayak teen sundar mahal banava diye. vahaaain par naach-gaan aur manoranjan ki saari saamagri juta di gayi. das-daasi usaki seva mein rakh diye gaye. par ye sab cheejein siddhaarth ko sansaar mein baaaindhakar naheen rakh sakeen. vasant ritu mein ek din siddhaarth bageeche ki sair par nikle. unhein sadak par ek boodha aadmi dikhaai diya. uske daaaint toot gaye the, baal pak gaye the, shareer tedha ho gaya tha. haath mein laathi pakade dheere-dheere kaaainpata hua vah sadak par chal raha tha. doosari baar Kumar jab bageeche ki sair ko nikla, to usaki aaainkhon ke aage ek rogi aa gaya. usaki saaains teji se chal rahi thi. kandhe dheele pad gaye the. baaainhein sookh gayi theen. pet fool gaya tha. chehara peela pad gaya tha. doosare ke sahaare vah badi mushkil se chal pa raha tha. teesari baar siddhaarth ko ek arthi mili. chaar aadmi use uthaakar liye ja rahe the. peechhe-peechhe bahut se log the. koi ro raha tha, koi chhaati peet raha tha, koi apne baal noch raha tha. in drushyon ne siddhaarth ko bahut vichlit kiya. unhonne socha ki 'dhikkaar hai javaani ko, jo jeevan ko sokh leti hai. dhikkaar hai svaasthya ko, jo shareer ko nasht kar deta hai. dhikkaar hai jeevan ko, jo itni jaldi apna adhyaaya poora kar deta hai. kya budhaapa, beemaari aur maut sada isi tarah hoti rahegi saumya? chauthi baar Kumar bageeche ki sair ko nikla, to use ek sannyaasi dikhaai pada. sansaar ki saari bhaavanaaon aur kaamanaaon se mukt prasannachitt sanyaasi ne siddhaarth ko aakrusht kiya.

mahaabhinishkraman

sundar patni yashodhara, dudhamuainhe Rahul aur kapilvastu jaise raajya ka moh chhodkar siddhaarth tapasya ke liye chal pada. vah raajagruh pahuaincha. vahaaain usane bhiksha maaaingi. siddhaarth ghoomate-ghoomate aalaar kaalaam aur uddak raamaputr ke paas pahuaincha. unase usane yog-saadhana seekhi. samaadhi lagaana seekha. par usase use santosh naheen hua. vah uruvela pahuaincha aur vahaaain par tarah-tarah se tapasya karne laga.

siddhaarth ne pehle to keval til-chaaval khaakar tapasya shuroo ki, baad mein koi bhi aahaar lena band kar diya. shareer sookhakar kaaainta ho gaya. chh: saal beet gaye tapasya karte hue. siddhaarth ki tapasya safal naheen hui. shaanti hetu buddh ka madhyam maarg : ek din kuchh striyaaain kisi nagar se lautati hui vahaaain se nikleen, jahaaain siddhaarth tapasya kar raha tha. unka ek geet siddhaarth ke kaan mein pada- 'veena ke taaron ko dheela mat chhod do. dheela chhod dene se unka sureela svar naheen niklega. par taaron ko itna kaso bhi mat ki ve toot jaaeain.' baat siddhaarth ko jainch gayi. vah maan gaya ki niyamit aahaar-vihaar se hi yog siddh hota hai. ati kisi baat ki achhi naheen. kisi bhi praapti ke liye madhyam maarg hi theek hota hai.

gyaan praapti

asuro ke beech ghire mahaatma buddh dhyaan mudra me.

vaishaakhi poornima ke din siddhaarth vatavruksh ke neeche dhyaanasth the. sameepavarti gaaainv ki ek stri sujaata ko putr hua. usane bete ke liye ek vatavruksh ki manauti maani thi. vah manauti poori karne ke liye sone ke thaal mein gaaya ke doodh ki kheer bharakar pahuainchi. siddhaarth vahaaain baitha dhyaan kar raha tha. use laga ki vrukshadevata hi maano pooja lene ke liye shareer dharakar baithe hain. sujaata ne bade aadar se siddhaarth ko kheer bheint ki aur kaha- 'jaise meri manokaamana poori hui, usi tarah aapki bhi ho.' usi raat ko dhyaan lagaane par siddhaarth ki saadhana safal hui. use sachcha bodh hua. tabhi se siddhaarth buddh kahalaae. jis peepal vruksh ke neeche siddhaarth ko bodh mila vah bodhivruksh kahalaaya aur gaya ka sameepavarti vah sthaan bodhagaya.

dharm-chakr-pravartan

ve 80 varsh ki umr tak apne dharm ka sanskrut ke bajaay us samay ki seedhi saral lokabhaasha paali mein prachaar karte rahe. unke seedhe saral dharm ki lokapriyta teji se badhne lagi.

buddh ke roop mein vishnu dharmachakr pravartan mudra mein, do shishyon dvaara ghire hain.

chaar saptaah tak bodhivruksh ke neeche rahakar dharm ke svaroop ka chintan karne ke baad buddh dharm ka upadesh karne nikal pade. aashaadh ki poornima ko ve kaashi ke paas mrugadaav (vartamaan mein saaranaath) pahuainche. vaheen par unhonne sabse pehla dharmopadesh diya aur pehle ke paaainch mitron ko apna anuyaayi banaaya aur fir unhein dharm prachaar karne ke liye bhej diya.

mahaaparinirvaan

buddh parinirvaan mein pravesh karte hue

paali siddhaant ke mahaaparinirvaan sutt ke anusaar 80 varsh ki aayu mein buddh ne ghoshana ki ki ve jald hi parinirvaan ke liye ravaana honge. buddh ne apna aakhiri bhojan, jise unhonne kunda naamak ek lohaar se ek bheint ke roop mein praapt kiya tha, grahan liya jiske kaaran ve gambhir roop se beemaar pad gaye. buddh ne apne shishya aanand ko nirdesh diya ki vah kunda ko samajhaae ki usane koi galati naheen ki hai. unhone kaha ki yeh bhojan atulya hai.[7]

upadesh

Bhagwan buddh ne logon ko madhyam maarg ka upadesh kiya. unhonne du:kh, uske kaaran aur nivaaran ke liye ashtaangik maarg sujhaaya. unhonne ahinsa par bahut jor diya hai. unhonne yagya aur pashu-bali ki ninda ki. buddh ke upadeshon ka saar is prakaar hai -

  • samyak gyaan

buddh ke anusaar dhamm hai: -

  • jeevan ki pavitrata banaae rakhana
  • jeevan mein poornata praapt karna
  • nirvaan praapt karna
  • trushna ka tyaag
  • yeh maanana ki sabhi sanskaar anitya hain
  • karm ko maanav ke naitik sansthaan ka aadhaar maanana

buddh ke anusaar a-dhamm hai: -

  • para-prakruti mein vishvaas karna
  • aatma mein vishvaas karna
  • kalpana-aadhaarit vishvaas maanana
  • dharm ki pustakon ka vaachan maatr

buddh ke anusaar saddhamm kya hai: -

1. jo dhamm prajnyaa ki vruddhi kare--

  • jo dhamm sabke liye gyaan ke dwaar khol de
  • jo dhamm yeh bataae ki keval vidvaan hona paryaapt naheen hai
  • jo dhamm yeh bataae ki aavashyakta prajnyaa praapt karne ki hai

2. jo dhamm maitri ki vruddhi kare--

  • jo dhamm yeh bataae ki prajnyaa bhi paryaapt naheen hai, iske saath sheel bhi anivaarya hai
  • jo dhamm yeh bataae ki prajnyaa aur sheel ke saath-saath karuna ka hona bhi anivaarya hai
  • jo dhamm yeh bataae ki karuna se bhi adhik maitri ki aavashyakta hai.

3. jab vah sabhi prakaar ke saamaajik bhedabhaavon ko mita de

  • jab vah aadmi aur aadmi ke beech ki sabhi deevaaron ko gira de
  • jab vah bataae ki aadmi ka moolyaankan janm se naheen karm se kiya jaae
  • jab vah aadmi-aadmi ke beech samaanata ke bhaav ki vruddhi kare

bauddh dharm evam sangh

bauddh dharm sabhi jaatiyon aur panthon ke liye khula hai. usamein har aadmi ka svaagat hai. braahman ho ya chaandaal, paapi ho ya punyaatma, gruhasth ho ya brahmachaari sabke liye unka darvaaja khula hai. unke dharm mein jaat-paaaint, ooainch-neech ka koi bhed-bhaav naheen hai. buddh ke dharm prachaar se bhikshuon ki sankhya badhne lagi. bade-bade raaja-mahaaraaja bhi unke shishya banane lage. shuddhodhan aur Rahul ne bhi bauddh dharm ki deeksha li. bhikshuon ki sankhya bahut badhne par bauddh sangh ki sthaapana ki gayi. baad mein logon ke aagrah par buddh ne striyon ko bhi sangh mein le lene ke liye anumati de di, yadyapi ise unhonne vishesh achha naheen maana. Bhagwan buddh ne 'bahujan hitaaya' lokakalyaan ke liye apne dharm ka desh-videsh mein prachaar karne ke liye bhikshuon ko idhar-udhar bheja. ashok aadi samraaton ne bhi videshon mein bauddh dharm ke prachaar mein apni aham‌ bhoomika nibhaai. mauryakaal tak aate-aate Bhaarat se nikalkar baudd dharm cheen, Japan, Korea, mangoliya, barma, Thailand, hind cheen, Sri Lanka aadi mein fail chuka tha. in deshon mein bauddh dharm bahusankhyak dharm hai.

Gautam buddh - anya dharmon ki drushti mein

Gautam buddh anya dharmon mein nabi ya ishvaradoot ke roop mein varnit hai.

hindu dharm mein

buddh vishnu ke nave avataar ke rup me

aarambh mein buddh aur unke dharm ko asvikaar karne vaale hindu dharm ne baad mein buddh ko vishnu ke avataaron mein shaamil kar liya. kuchh puraanon mein aisa kaha gaya hai ki Bhagwan vishnu ne buddh avataar isaliye liya tha jisse ki vo "jhoothe upadesh" failaakar "asuron" ko sachche vaidik dharm se door kar sakein, jisse devata unapar jeet haasil kar sakein. iska matlab hai ki buddh to "devata" hain, lekin unke upadesh jhoothe aur dhong hain. ye bauddhon ke vishvaas se ekdam ulta hai: bauddh log Gautam buddh ko koi avataar ya devata naheen maanate, lekin unke upadeshon ko satya maanate hain.

kuchh hindu lekhakon (jaise jayadev) ne baad mein yeh bhi kaha hai ki buddh vishnu ke avataar to hain, lekin vishnu ne ye avataar jhooth ka prachaar karne ke liye naheen balki andhaadhundh karmakaand aur vaidik pashubali rokane ke liye kiya tha. Gautam buddh chaahe vishnu ji ke avataar hon ya naheen lekin ve poojane ke yogya to hain hi.

sabhi vichaarakon ke apne mat rahe hain at: tathya ki satyata ka gyaan is baat se to lagaaya hi ja sakta hai ki sabhi mein Gautam buddh ko ek mahaan path pradarshak ke roop mein sthaan diya aur vah maanav kalyaan ki bhaavanaaon ko abhivyakt karte rahe tabhi unhonne apne shishya ko antim kathan yahi kaha ki 'apna deepak swayam bano'

hindu granthon ka kehna hai ki buddh Bhagwan vishnu hai, jo pruthvi par aaye.

sandarbh

baahari kadiyaaain