French fraaij

chips
French fried potatoes.jpg
chips ki ek thaali
udbhav
vaikalpik naam French fraaij,
sambandhit desh Belgium
vyanjan ka byaura
bhojan side dish ya snaiks ke roop mein
parosane ka taapamaan garmaagarm ya kaichap ke saath
mukhya saamagri aaloo aur tel

chips ya French fraaij (ameriki angreji mein, ya chips kabhi-kabhi bade aksharon mein likha gaya[1]), fraaij,[2] ya French fraaid potaitoj poorn roop se tale hue aaloo ke patale va lambe tukade hote hain.[3] ameriki praay: tale hue aaloo ke kisi bhi lambe tukade ko fraaij kehte hain, jabki vishv ke anya bhaagon mein, visheshakar United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland aur new jeelaind mein tale hue aalooon ke patale, lambe tukade fraaij kahe jaate hain jisse ki unamein aur aaloo ke mote tukadon se bane chips mein vibhed kiya ja sake.[4] fraans mein French fraaij ko fraaits ya pomej fraaits kehte hain, yeh ek aisa naam hai jiska prayog anek fraansisi na bolne vaale deshon mein bhi kiya jaata hai, anya bhaashaaon mein inke naamon ka arth "fraaid potaitoj" ya "French potaitoj" hai.

anukram

shabd ki vyutpatti

ovan bekd fraaij

1802 mein white house mein aayojit ek raatribhoj mein Thomas jaifarsan ne "potaitoj sarvd in French mainar" ko mehamaanon ke samaksh parosa.[5][6][7] beesaveen shataabdi ke uttaraardh mein "French fraaid" shabdaavali ka prayog "deep fraaid" ke liye kiya jaane laga, iska prayog aaloo ke atirikt pyaaj ke chhallon ya chikn ke liye bhi kiya jaata tha.[8][9]

is baat ki sambhaavana bahut kam hai ki 'French fraaid' 'freinching' ki or usi prakaar sanket karti hai jaise ki 'juliyning' aur 'French fraaid potaitoj' ke poorv tak is baat ki koi pramaanikta bhi naheen thi; poorv mein, freinching ka arth maatr gandaase ke moothon se maans ko chhaantakar keema banaane ke se liye kiya jaata tha.[10]

paakakala mein pravesh

Belgium

Belgium ke patrakaar jo jeraard yaad karte hue kehte hain ki 1680 mein spainish needaralainds ke, "dinaint aur leeje ke madhya sthit the myoos valley " kshetr mein aaloo talakar khaae jaate the.is kshetr ke gareeb nivaasiyon mein abhikthit roop se bhojan ke saath chhoti tali hui machhaliyon ko khaane ka rivaaj tha, lekin jab nadi ka paani jam gaya aur ve machhali pakad paane mein asamarth ho gaye, tab ve aalooon ko lambaai mein kaatkar aur tel mein talakar apne bhojan ke saath khaane lage."[11][12]

kai Belgium vaasiyon[kaun?] ka yeh vishvaas hai ki "French" shabd tab chalan mein aaya jab vishv yuddh I ke dauraan ameriki sainik Belgium aaye aur yahaan ke fraaij ka svaad liya.[krupaya uddharan jodein] anumaanat: ve log hi ise "French" kehte the, kyonki us samay yahi Belgium sena ki aadhikaarik bhaasha thi. is samay French fraaij teji ke saath lokapriya ho raheen theen.

"les fraaits" (fraansisi) ya "freetein" (purtagaali) raashtreeya star ke naashte mein shumaar ho gaye aur kai raashtreeya vyanjanon ke mukhya bhaag ban gaye.

great Britain

chips

machhali aur chips.
inhein bhi dekhein: Fish and chips

Britain sarvapratham chips spashtat: 1860 mein oldahaim ke taumeefeeld market mein tale gaye the.[krupaya uddharan jodein] Scotland mein, sabse pehle chips dundi mein beche gaye the, "...1870 ke dashak mein, dait glori of british gaistronaumi - the chip - sabse pehle aapravaasi Belgium Edward di garniyr dvaara shahar ke green market mein becheen gayi thi. "[13] United Kingdom aur Ireland mein paaramparik "chips" aamtaur par kaafi mote kaate jaate hain, jo visheshat: 9.5 - 13 mimi. (3/8 - 1/2 inch) ke lambaai mein kaate gaye chaukor tukade hote hain aur do baar pakaae jaate hain (haalaanki aajkal do baar talana adhik prachalan mein naheen hai), jisse ki ve baahar se aur bhi adhik kurakure tatha andar se aur bhi adhik naram ho jaate hain. choonki inmein baahari parat se aayatan ka anupaat kam hota hai, isliye inmein vasa ka ansh bhi kam hota hai. svaad aur paushtik ansh badhaane ke liye mote kaate jaane vaale british chips kabhi-kabhi bina chheele gaye aaluon se bhi banaaye jaate hain aur inmein jaleeya ansh ki adhikta hone ke kaaran inhein Europeeya French fraai ke saamaan kurakura karke hi pesh karna aavashyak naheen hai.

chips, le jaane ke liye taiyaar lokapriya vyanjan fish end chips ka ek bhaag hai. United Kingdom, Australia, Ireland aur new jeelaind mein, kuchh shahar aise hain hain jahaan fish end chip ki dukaanein naheen hain. in deshon mein, "French fraaij" shabd sankare-kaate gaye (shoostring (joote ka feeta)) fraaij ki aur sanket karta hai jo America aadhaarit fast food frainchaaiji (vishesh vikraya adhikaar praapt karne waali dukaan) mein milta hai.

France aur French bhaashi Canada

fraans aur French bhaashi Canada mein, tale gaye aaluon ko "paums de tere fraaits", "paumej fraaits", "petaets fraaits" ya saadhaaran roop se (aur prachalit roop se) "fraaits" kehte hain.[krupaya uddharan jodein] "aiguilaets" shabd ka prayog tab kiya jaata hai jab chips bahut hi chhote aur patale hote hain. paumj fraaits is prakaar ameriki French fraaij se bhinn hote hain ki ve praay: do baar tale jaate hain, unke talane mein alag kism ke tel ka prayog hota hai, unamein bachekhuche aaloo istemaal kiye jaate hain aur alag-alag prakaar ke aaloo istemaal kiye jaate hain.

paarmenatiyr dvaara fraans mein aaloo khaaya jaana protsaahit kiya gaya tha, lekin unhonne visheshat: tale gaye aalooon ka jikr naheen kiya tha.

kai ameriki is vyanjan ka shreya fraans ko dete hain aur iske saboot ke roop mein sanyukt raajya ke raashtrapati Thomas jaifarsan ke kathan ki or sanket karte hain. "paumej de tere fraaits ai kroo, ऍn pitaaits traanchej " ("kachchi avastha mein hi tel mein tale gaye chhote-chhote tukadon mein kate hue aaloo") Thomas jaifarsan ki hastalipi (circa 1801-1809) mein likha hai aur yeh lagbhag poornataya sunishchit hai ki yeh vyanjan vidhi unke fraansisi khaanasaame, aunore juliyn, ki hai.[5] iske atirikt, 1813[14] se, French fraaij ke roop mein varnan kiye ja sakane vaale is vyanjan ki vidhi, lokapriya ameriki paakakala pustakon mein mil jaati hai. 1850 ke dashak ke ant mein inmein se ek mein "French fraaid potaitoj" ka bhi jikr tha.[15]

pauteen ke naam se jaane jaane vaale kyoobekauyas ke vyanjan mein fraaits pramukh saamagri ke roop mein prayukt hote hain, jismein cheej kard mein lipte, tale hue aaloo aur bhoore rang ka shoraba hota hai, yeh aisa vyanjan hai jiske bhinn parivrtit roop lagaataar badhte ja rahe hain.

Spain

Spain mein, tale gaye aaluon ko "pataataaj fritaaj " kehte hain. iska ek anya prachalit roop, jismein ki aaloo aniyamit roop se kaate jaate hain aur ek masaaledaar tamaatar ki chatani se sajaaye jaate hain, ko "pataataaj brevaaj " kehte hain.

kuchh log aisa daava karte hain ki is vyanjan ka aavishkaar Spain mein hua tha, kyonki Spain pehla Europeeya desh tha jahaan new world kauloneej ke maadhyam se aaloo ka prachalan shuroo hua, aisa daava karne vaale log yeh bhi maanate hain ki yeh vyanjan pehli baar sabke saamane gailisiya mein machhali ke ek vyanjan ke saath aaya tha,[krupaya uddharan jodein] jahaan se yeh shesh desh mein prachalit hua aur iske baad aur bhi aage spainish needaralainds mein, jo ek shataabdi se bhi adhik samay baad Belgium ban gaya.

profesar paul leegams, entavarp, Belgium sthit fraait-sangrahaalaya ke nireekshak, yeh maanate hain ki avila ki sant teresa ne pehle chips tale the, iske dvaara ve bhoomadhyasaagareeya Pak-pranaali mein talane ki parampara ki or bhi sanket karte hain.[12][16]

[16]

lokapriyta

tharmaastaatik taapamaan par niyantran ke saath ek restaurant mein French fraai utpaadan.

frojen fraaij

1940 ke dashak ke dauraan frojen French fraaij ke safalataapoorvak vyaapaareekaran ka shreya J. aar. simplat company ko diya jaata hai. iske baad, 1967 mein, maikadaunalds ke re kruk ne taaje kate aaluon ko hataate hue simplaut company se yeh karaar kiya ki vah unhein frojen fraaij ki aapoorti karegi.

2004 mein, sanyukt raajya ki aaloo ki fasal ka 29 pratishat hissa frojen fraaij banaane mein lag gaya - 90 pratishat ka upabhog bhojan aapoorti vibhaag dvaara kar liya gaya aur 10 pratishat khudara baajaar mein khap gaya.[17] aankalan ke anusaar Britain mein prativrsh 80 pratishat gharon mein frojen fraaij khareede jaate hain.[18]

Canada ka maikaken foods vishv mein frojen fraaij ka agrani nirmaata hai. ghareloo utpaadon ke atirikt, ve maikadaunaald aur keefasi (KFC) jaisi companiyon ko frojen fraaij ki aapoorti bhi karte hain.

sanyukt raajya America ka prabhaav

adhikaansh raashtramandal deshon mein pehle se hi chips ek lokapriya vyanjan tha, French fraaij shaili ke patale chips kuchh had tak sanyukt raajya America aadhaarit fast food shrrunkhalaaon jaise maikadaunaalds dvaara vishv star par prachalit ho gaye.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

1960 ke dashak se hi ghar par banaane ke liye poorv nirmit French fraaij baajaar mein upalabdh the, ye aamtaur par pehle se tale hue aur frojen hote the tatha inhein ek plastic ke dibbe ya thaile mein seal kar diya jaata tha.

French fraaij ki baad ki kismon mein ve French fraaij shaamil the jo bred ke paaudar ke ek mishran dvaara taiyaar kiye jaate the aur kai sanyukt raajya ameriki fast food aur kaijual food shrrunkhalaaen ab kaashi, deksatrin aur anya svaadon dvaara inapar chhidkaav karne lageen theen jisse ki ek vishesh svaad aur kurakure fraaij taiyaar ho sakein. bred ke paaudar ke mishran se taiyaar fraaij ke parinaamon ke baad, inhein maaikrovev karne ka chalan shuroo hua jise vyaapak star par aalochakon ki sahamati naheen mili. ovan mein tale jaane par praapt hone vaale fraaij apne paaramparik pratiroop se bhinn hote hain.[19]

vibhinn roop

in-N-out bargar ke rahasya menoo se eneemal fraaij (paneer, bhuna hua pyaaj ke saath dhaka aur faila hua)

iske kai parivrtit roop hote hain jaise "mote-kate fraaij", "steek fraaij", "shoostring fraaij", "jojo fraaij", "krinkal fraaij", "karli fraaij", "haindakat fraaij" aur "tauranaido fraaij". chhilke sahit patale kaate gaye aaloo potaito vejes kahalaate hain aur bina chhilke vaale aaloo se bane fraaij "steek fraaij" kahe jaate hain, ye mukhya roop se british "chip" ke ameriki pratiroop maane jaate hain. inhein "masaaledaar fraaij" banaane ke liye bred ke paaudar, masaalon ya anya saamagriyon mein lapeta bhi ja sakta hai, jinmein lahasun ka paaudar, pyaaj ka paaudar, kaali mirch, paiparika aur namak aate hain, ya cheej fraaij banaane ke liye cheej mein lapeta ja sakta hai aur chili fraaij banaane ke liye chili (mirch) mein lapet sakte hain. kabhi-kabhi pakaane ke antim charan mein (kaarkhaane mein banaaye jaane ke dauraan, tel mein lapete jaane ke baad) French fraaij ovan mein pakaayi jaati hain: ye praay: frojen fraaij ke roop mein bechi jaati hain aur "ovan fraaij" ya "ovan chips' kahi jaati hain. America paaramparik aaluon ke sthaan par meethe aaluon se bane French fraaij deta hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] krinkal fraaij ka svaad unke aakaar ke kaaran hota hai, jisse unamein chhote-chhote hava ke thaile ban jaate hain jo svaad ko apne andar surakshit kar lete hain.

mirch paneer fraaij

fraans mein, mote kate hue fraaij "paumej paunt-nyoof "[20] kahe jaate hain ya saadhaaranataya "paumej fraaits " bhi kahe jaate hain, ye lagbhag 10 mimi. ke hote hain; inke patale svarup ko "paumej elumets " (maichastik potaitoj) kaha jaata hai, jo ± 7 mimi. ke aur "paumej pels " (potaito stra), 3-4 mimi. (kramash: lagbhag 3/8, 1/4 aur 1/8 inch) ke hote hain. inmein too-baath (two-bath) takaneek maanak hoti hai. "paumej gaurafrets " ya "vaifal fraaij" aam French fraaid potaitoj jaise naheen hote, lekin vaastav mein inka kurakuraapan kaddookas ke oopar har agale tukade ko kaatne se poorv aaloo ko ek chauthaai hisse ke baraabar ghumaane aur sirf ek baar talane se milta hai.[21]

Harvard square mein ek restaurant mein sveet poteto fraaij parosa gaya.

Belgium ke ek khaanasaama, jeen syoostaramens ne "stepegraas " ("preyari graas") ki apni shaili ka peteint kara liya tha jo bahut hi patali kaati gayi French fraaij potaito the aur jise unhonne Germany mein kaam karne ke dauraan 1968 mein viksit kiya tha. yeh naam apni vishesh chatani aur restaurant ke saath ek vishesh vyanjan ki or bhi sanket karta hai.[22]

ek saakshaatkaar mein, bargar King ke adhyaksh daunald smith ne kaha ki unki shrankhala ke fraaij par paiking ke kuchh der poorv ek vishesh prakaar ka cheeni ka ghol spray kiya jaata hai aur fir unhein alag-alag vikraya sthaanon par paani ke jahaajon dvaara bhej diya jaata hai. yeh cheeni khaane waali vasa ke saath milkar halke bhoore rang ki bhuni shakkar ka svaad dene lagti hai aur yahi vah sunahara rang hota hai jise upabhokta chaahate hain. iske bina, fraaij ka rang baahar aur andar ek hi jaisa hoga: gond jaisa peela. smith ka maanana ​a​ahai ki maikadaunalds bhi apne fraaij par aisa cheeni ka ghol spray karta hai. maikadaunalds ke vishay mein yeh maana jaata tha ki vah apne fraaij ko kul 15 - 20 minute tak talata hai aur iske saath hi unke fraaij kam se kam 2 baar tale jaate hain. aisa prateet hota hai ki in fraaij ko gomaans ki charbi se ya shaurtaning dvaara chikna kiya jaata hai.[23]

karali fraaij

karli fraaij

karli fraaij ek prakaar ke French fraai hote hain jinki visheshata unka khaas spring jaisa aakaar hota hai. ye aamtaur par samooche aaloo se banaaye jaate hain jinhein ek khaas spaairal slaaisar (lachhon mein kaatne waali chhoori) dvaara kaata jaata hai. inki ek anya visheshata inke atirikt masaale hote hain (jo saamaanya fraaij ke peele rang se tulana kiye jaane par inhein ek vishesh naarangi rang pradaan karte hain), haalaanki yeh hamesha naheen hota.

kabhi-kabhi inhein ghar par banaaye jaane ke anusaar paik kiya jaata hai, praay: frojen paiking mein. sanyukt raajya America mein inhein kai restaurant aur fast food dukaanon jaise aarbeej aur haardees mein bhi dekha ja sakta hai, jahaan inhein kuchh anya cheejon ke saath parosa jaata hai jaise kechap, cheej, fraai saus ya sveet chili saus aur saur kreem.

tornedo fraaij

tauranaido fraaij

tauranaido fraaij ko ek samooche kachche aaloo mein ek seekh dvaara chhed karke aur fir aaloo ko is seekh ke sthaan par ek vishesh prakaar ki blade ke kinaare ghumaate hue kaat kar banaaya jaata hai, jo aaloo ko spaairal (kundalaakrut) aakaar mein kaatata jaata hai. iske baad is aaloo ko seekh ki lambaai par faila dete hain aur talate hain. is prakaar se pakaae jaane se aaloo seekh par chipkata chala jaata hai aur apne sthaan par bana rahata hai. iske baad is par sookhe masaale chhidke jaate hain ya ise diping saus ke saath parosa jaata hai. tauranaido fraaij ka naam iske vishisht tauranaido jaise aakaar ke kaaran pada hai jo aaloo dvaara seekh par banta chala jaata hai. tauranaido fraaij ko dakshin Korea mein 2001 ke aaspaas banaaya gaya tha aur yeh 2005 mein uttari America mein I thi.

saath mein khaae jaane vaale vyanjan

fraaij par lagbhag hamesha hi talane (pakaane) ke turant baad namak chhidka jaata hai. iske baad inhein kai prakaar ke vyanjanon ke saath parosa jaata hai, khaastaur par namak, vinigr (maalt vinigr ya, Canada mein white vinigr), kechap, curry, curry kechap (pichhle ka thoda teekha svarup) haut ya chili saus, mastard, meyoneej, biyrnaaij saus, taartar saus, tajtjiki, feta cheej, gaarlik saus, fraai saus, rainch dresing, baarabekyoo saus, grevi, eiyoli, brown saus, leman, pikaalili, pikld kyukambar, gherkins, bahut chhote pikld aniyn, Honey ya haut saus

svaasthya drushtikon

tel mein aaloo tala ja raha hai.

tale jaane ke kaaran French fraaij mein vasa ki maatra adhik hoti hai. maaratrikt vishvavidyaalaya, needaralainds, dvaara 55 se 70 varsh ki aayu ke 120, 000 vyaktiyon par kiye gaye ek 13 varsheeya nireekshan mein yeh pata chala ki ekrilaamaaid (jo aaloo ko bek karne ya talane par banta hai) ka adhik sevan kidni Cancer ki sambhaavnaaon ko 60 pratishat tak badha deta hai.[24] haalaanki, haaravard school of pablik helth aur staukahom, sveeden ke kairolinsaka school ke shodhakartaaon ne yeh paaya ki ekrilaamaaid ke adhik sevan aur teenon prakaar ke Cancer: mootraashaya, badi aant aur kidni, ki sambhaavana ke beech koi sambandh naheen hai.[25]

gomaans ke tel, charbi, ya anya jaanvaron ki vasa mein French fraaij ko talane se ismein santrupt vasa ki maatra badh jaati hai. jaanvaron se praapt vasa ke sthaan par tel jaise, taad ka tel istemaal karne par maatr yahi fark padta hai ki ek santrupt vasa ke sthaan par doosare ka prayog hone lagta hai. jaanvaron se praapt vasa ke sthaan par haaidrojaneekrut tel ke prayog se kolestraul ki maatra to ghat jaati hai par traans fait ki maatra badh jaati hai, jiske sambandh mein yeh dekha gaya hai ki yeh eladeeel (LDL) kolestraul ko badha deta hai aur echadeeel (HDL) kolestraul ko ghata deta hai. ismein kainola (raai) ke tel ka bhi prayog kiya ja sakta hai, lekin aamtaur par gomaans ki charbi hi adhik prachalit hai, khaaskar un fast food shrrunkhalaaon mein jo kamyunal (milejule) Oil baath ka prayog karte hain.[26][27][28] ab kai restaurant apne dvaara asantrupt tel ka istemaal kiye jaane ko prachaarit karte hain. udahaaran ke liye, five gaaij, yeh prachaar karta hai ki unke fraaij moongafali ke tel mein banaaye jaate hain, jabki chik-fil-A yeh prachaar karta hai ki ve kainola (raai) Oil ka prayog karte hain.

kaanooni mudde

1994 mein landan ke stringafailo nightclub ke maalik Peter stringafailo ne maikaken foods dvaara lambe patale chips ke brand ke liye "stringafailo" naam ke istemaal par aapatti jataayi, jiske falasvaroop unhein adaalat mein jaana pada. ve is mukadame (stringafailoj banaam maikaken food (jeebi) elateedi (Ltd) (1994)) ko is aadhaar par haar gaye ki aam janta ki soch ke anusaar is naam ke do prayogon mein koi samaanata naheen hai aur iseeliye maikaken ka utpaad ke kaaran nightclub ki bikri mein koi kami naheen aayegi.[29][30]

June 2004 mein byoomaaunt, Texas ke Federal distrikt judge ki salaah par, sanyukt raajya America ke krushi vibhaag ne, mishran mein lapete gaye French fraaij ko perishebal egreekalcharal kamoditeej act ke antargat ek sabji ke roop mein vargeekrut kar diya. haalaanki mukhyataya aisa vyaapaarik kaaranon se kiya gaya tha - French fraaij "sansaadhit khaadya saamagri" ke roop mein vargeekrut kiye jaane ke liye aavashyak maapadandon ko poora naheen karte hain - is mudde ne media ko kaafi aakarshit kiya jiska kaaran kuchh had tak documentary super saaij mi bhi thi.

inhein bhi dekhein

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/f' not found.

  • chip pain
  • kaarane asaada aaloo
  • deep fraaiar
  • deep fraaing
  • freedom fraaij
  • fraai saus
  • hom fraaij
  • poteto vejej
  • pautin
  • poms sauflees
  • vaikyoom fraaiar
  • tetar tauts

sandarbh

nots
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  2. "The American Heritage Dictionary, Fourth Edition, 2000". Bartleby.com. http://www.bartleby.com/61/68/F0346800.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-05-07.
  3. "french fry - Definition". Food & Culture Encyclopedia. http://www.answers.com/topic/french-fry. abhigman tithi: 2009-12-05.
  4. Halliburton, Rachel; Muir, Jenni (2008). "London's best chips". Time Out London: p. 2. http://www.timeout.com/london/restaurants/features/3254/2.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-05-14.
  5. a aa Ebeling, Charles (2005-10-31). "French fried: From Monticello to the Moon, A Social, Political and Cultural Appreciation of the French Fry". The Chicago Literary Club. http://www.chilit.org/Papers%20by%20author/Ebeling%20--%20French%20Fried.htm. abhigman tithi: 12 January 2007.
  6. Suman Bandrapalli (May 2, 2000). "Where do French fries come from?". Christian Science Monitor. http://www.csmonitor.com/2000/0502/p18s1.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-05. "Thomas Jefferson sampled them in Paris and brought the recipe home. At a White House dinner in 1802, the menu included "potatoes served in the French manner." But that's not how they got their name."
  7. Fishwick, Marshall W (1998). fee required "The Savant as Gourmet". The Journal of Popular Culture (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing) 32 (part 1): 51–58. doi:10.1111/j.0022-3840.1998.3201_51.x. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/abs/10.1111/j.0022-3840.1998.3201_51.x fee required.
  8. Mackenzie, Catherine (7 April 1935). "Food the City Likes Best". The New York Times Magazine: SM18. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F4081FF83B59107A93C5A9178FD85F418385F9. abhigman tithi: 2007-04-15. "… the chef at the Rainbow Room launches into a description of his special steak, its French-fried onion rings, its button mushrooms …".
  9. Rorer, Sarah Tyson (c1902). "Page 211". Mrs. Rorer's New Cook Book. Philadelphia: Arnold & Company. pa॰ 211. http://digital.lib.msu.edu/projects/cookbooks/coldfusion/display.cfm?ID=rore&PageNum=259. abhigman tithi: 2007-04-12. "French Fried Chicken"
  10. Oxford angreji shabdakosh, June 2010
  11. J. jeraard, Curiositéas de la table dans les Pays-Bas Belgiques, s.l., 1781.
  12. a aa Ilegems, Paul (1993) [1993] (Dutch mein). De Frietkotcultuur. Loempia. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 90-6771-325-2. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "ilegems1" defined multiple times with different content
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  14. ude, luis. French cook
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  17. http://www.fas.usda.gov/htp/Hort_Circular/2001/01-01/froznpot.htm
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  19. Gerdes, Sharon (1 December 2001). "Batters and Breadings Liven Tastes". Virgo Publishing © – Food Product Design. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070927220513/http://www.foodproductdesign.com/articles/465/465_1201de.html. abhigman tithi: 24 March 2007.
  20. evalin seint-ange, paul eraatov (anuvaadak), la bon kujin de maidam E. seint-ange: the eseinshiyl kaumpainiyn for authentik French kooking, laarause, 1927, anuvaad ten speed press, 2005, ISBN 1-58008-605-5, prushth. 553.
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  23. Poundstone, William (1983) [1983]. Big Secrets. William Morrow and Co.. pa॰ 23. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-688-04830-7.
  24. "Frieten zijn nu officieel kankerverwekkend". University of Maastricht Holland. http://www.gva.be/nieuws/wetenschap/frieten-zijn-nu-officieel-kankerverwekkend.aspx?cmt=all. abhigman tithi: 8 November 2010.
  25. "Study Shows Acrylamide In Baked And Fried Foods Does Not Increase Risk Of Certain Cancers In Humans". Harvard School of Public Health. http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/archives/2003-releases/press01282003.html. abhigman tithi: 3 December 2010.
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  27. "Trans: The Phantom Fat". Nutrition Action Healthletter (Center for Science in the Public Interest). http://www.cspinet.org/nah/septrans.html. abhigman tithi: 14 September 2006.
  28. Mayo Clinic Staff (22 June 2006). "Dietary fats: Know which types to choose © 1998-2006". Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/fat/NU00262. abhigman tithi: 14 September 2006.
  29. Solomon, Nicola. "Sequel opportunities". AKME Publications – Akme Student Law Library, with permission: earlier published in the New Law Journal, 25 March 1994 and in abriged form in The Author of Spring 1994. Archived from the original on 2007-08-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20070814062218/http://www.akme.btinternet.co.uk/solomn05.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-25.
  30. "Section 7 – Intellectual Property" (PDF). Semple Piggot Rochez Ltd. 2001. Archived from the original on 2006-10-12. http://web.archive.org/web/20061012014129/http://www.legalpractitioner.co.uk/ip1.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-03-25.
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