Francis bekan

fraaainsis baikan
Pourbus Francis Bacon.jpg
Francis bekan ka chitr France porabas ke dvaara 1617 E. mein, sthaan: paani par mahal vaarasa mein.

England aur vels ke ataarni general
pad bahaal
1613–1617
poorva dhikaari henari hobart
uttara dhikaari henari yelvartan

janm 22 January 1561
straind, landan, England
mrutyu 9 April 1626 (umr 65)
haaiget, midilseks, England
raashtreeyata angrej
shaikshik sambaddhata Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya
hastaakshar

Francis bekan (1561-1626) angrej raajaneetijnya, daarshanik aur lekhak tha. raani elijbeth ke raajya mein uske parivaar ka bada prabhaav tha. Cambridge aur grej in mein shiksha praapt ki. 1577 mein vah France sthit angreji dootaavaas mein niyukt hua, kintu pita sar nikolas bekan ki mrutyu ke pashchaat 1579 mein vaapas laut aaya. usane vakaalat ka pesha apnaane ke liye kaanoon ka adhyayan kiya. praarambh se hi usaki ruchi sakriya raajaneetik jeevan mein thi. 1584 mein vah british Loksabha ka sadasya nirvaachit hua. sansad ki, jismein vah 1614 tak raha, kaaryapranaali mein usaka yogadaan atyant mahatvapoorn raha. samay samay par vah mahatvapoorn raajaneetik prashnon par elijbeth ko nishpaksh sammatiyaaain deta raha. kehte hain, agar usaki sammatiyaaain us samay maan li gayi hoteen to baad mein shaahi aur sansadeeya adhikaaron ke beech honevaale vivaad uthe hi na hote. sab kuchh hote hue bhi usaki yogyata ka theek theek moolyaankan naheen hua. laard barle ne use apne putr ke maarg mein baadhak maankar sada usaka virodh kiya. raani elijaabeth ne bhi usaka samarthan naheen kiya kyonki usane shaahi aavashyakta ke liye sansadeeya dhanaanudaan ka virodh kiya tha. 1592 ke lagbhag vah apne bhaai enthoni ke saath arl ov eseks ka raajaneetik salaahakaar niyukt hua. kintu 1601 mein, jab eseks ne London ki janta ko vidroh ke liye bhadkaaya to bekan ne raani ke vakeel ki haisiyat se eseks ko raajadroh ke aparaadh mein dand dilaaya.

anukram

praarambhik jeevan

Francis bekan ka janm 22 January 1561 ko yaurk house, London mein unke pita sar nikolas bekan aur usaki doosari patni aini (cook) bekan dvaara hua . Francis ki maaainsi ki shaadi William sesil, bairan barghale pratham se hui aur barghale bekan ke mausa ban gaye .

mahatvapoorn kaarya

raajaneetik aur kaanooni maamalon mein vyast rahate hue bhi vah vigyaan aur darshan mein gambhir ruchi rakhata tha. usaki saahityik krutiyon mein usaki vyaavahaarik manovrutti dikhaai deti hai. "esej" uske 28 varshon ki avadhi mein likhe gaye 58 nibandhon ka sangrah hai. sankshep, sootraatmakata aur chittaakarshak roopak usaki shaili ki visheshataaeain theen. "di saipiyenshiya veteram" (1609), the vijdam ov the enshiyents (1619), aur history ov the ren ov henari seventh (1622) naamak usaki krutiyaaain aitihaasik aur raajaneetik vishyon mein sookshm anusandhaan, samajh waali buddhi aur vishleshan pratibha ka parichay deti hai. daarshanik krutiyon mein "instoreshiyo maigna" (Instauratio Magna) aur "novam aargainam" (Novum Organum) ullekhaneeya hain. inke atirikt "di edavaansameint aav larnig" aur "di aagamaintis saainshiyeram" jnyaaanameemaansa par vistrut rachanaaeain hai.

vastut: usane vaigyaanik ya daarshanik siddhaanton mein koi bahut maulik yogadaan naheen kiya. usaka mahatva vaigyaanik anveshan mein vishesh disha ki apeksha sahaj prabhaav grahan karne par bal dene mein hai. usane jeevan mein keval ek vaigyaanik prayog kiya - yeh pareekshan karne ke liye ki sheet, vastu ya jeevan ke hraas ko kahaaain tak rokata hai ek kukkutashaavak ko barf mein band kar diya. pareekshan ka poora prabhaav bekan naheen dekh paaya aur isi ke dauraan sheet ke prabhaav se usaki mrutyu ho gayi.

pad aur upaadhiyaaain

vah Elizabeth ke raajya mein kisi mahatvapoorn pad par naheen raha, kintu James pratham ke raaja hone par usaka bhaagya chamaka. vah 1607 mein solicitor general, 1613 mein ataarni general aur 1618 mein laard chaansalar niyukt hua. 1603 mein night aur 1618 mein beran verulam ki upaadhiyon se vibhooshit kiya gaya. uske baad bekan ne patan ke din dekhe. us par ghoosakhori aar pad ke durupayog ka aarop lagaaya gaya. usane aarop sveekaar karte hue yeh daleel di ki upahaaron ne uske nirnayon ko kabhi prabhaavit naheen kiya. bekan apne pad se hata diya gaya. jeevan ke shesh din usane sannyaas mein bitaae.

baahari kadiyaaain

Bacon, Sylva sylvarum

bekan ke baare mein

krutiyaaain