Europeeya sangh

नीली पृष्ठभूमि पर १२ सुनहरे सितारों वाला वृत्त
dhvaj
raashtravaakya: yuniti in daaivarsiti[1]
raashtragaan: od too jauya[1] (orchestral)
An orthographic projection of the world, highlighting the European Union and its Member States (green).
raajaneetik kendra brasals
lakjmbarg
straisbarg
aadhikaarik bhaashaaen
nivaasi yooropiyaai[2]
sadasya
netaaon
- aayog joj mainuel baroso (E.pi.pi)
- mantri parishad seseeliya maalmstraum (sveedan)
- yooropiyaai parishad harman vain raumpuya
(E.pi.pi)
- sansad jarji bujek (E.pi.pi)
sthaapana
- pairis ki sandhi 18 April 1951
- rom ki sandhi 25 March, 1957
- en:Maastricht Treaty 7 February, 1992
- lisban sandhi 13 December, 2007
kshetrafal
- kul 4,324,782 varg kilometer
1,669,807 varg meal
- jal (%) 3.08
janasankhya
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289/varg meal
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2008 (IMF) praakkalan
- kul $15.247 trillion$
- prati vyakti $30,513$
sakal ghareloo utpaad (saanketik) 2008 (IMF) praakkalan
- kul $18.394 trillion$
- prati vyakti $36,812$
gini (2010) 30.4[3]
madhyam
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2007) 0.937
bahut uchch
mudra
samay mandal (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+0 to +2)
- greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+1 to +3[4])
doorabhaash koot soochi dekhein
Internet teeeladi .eu[5]
jaalasthal
europa.eu

yooropiyn sangh (yooropiyn union) mukhyat: Europe mein sthit 28 deshon ka ek raajanaitik evam evam aarthik manch hai jinmein aapas mein prashaasakeeya saajhedaari hoti hai jo sangh ke kai ya sabhi raashtro par laagoo hoti hai. iska abhyudaya 1957 mein rom ki sandhi dvaara yooropiya aarthik parishad ke maadhyam se chhah yooropiya deshon ki aarthik bhaageedaari se hua tha. tab se ismein sadasya deshon ki sankhya mein lagaataar badhottari hoti rahi aur iski neetiyon mein bahut se parivartan bhi shaamil kiye gaye. 1993 mein maastrikh sandhi dvaara iske aadhunik vaidhaanik svaroop ki neenv rakhi gayi. December 2007 mein lisban samjhauta jiske dvaara ismein aur vyaapak sudhaaron ki prakriya 1 January 2008 se shuru ki gayi hai.

yooropiya sangh sadasya raashtron ko ekal baajaar ke roop mein maanyata deta hai evam iske kaanoon sabhi sadasya raashtron par laagoo hota hai jo sadasya raashtra ke naagrikon ki chaar tarah ki svatantrataaeain sunishchit karta hai:- logon, saamaan, sevaaeain evam pooainji ka svatantr aadaan-pradaan.[6] sangh sabhi sadasya raashtron ke liye ek tarah ki vyaapaar, matasya, kshetreeya vikaas ki neeti par amal karta hai[7] 1999 mein yooropiya sangh ne saajhi mudra Euro ki shuruaat ki jise pandrah sadasya deshon ne apnaaya. sangh ne saajhi videsh, sruraksha, nyaaya neeti ki bhi ghoshana ki. sadasya raashtron ke beech shlegan sandhi ke tahat passport niyantran bhi samaapt kar diya gaya.[8]

yooropiya sangh mein lagbhag 500 million naagrik hain, evam yeh vishv ke sakal ghareloo utpaad ka 31% yogadaanakarta hai jo 2007 mein lagbhag (yooes$16.6 triliyn) tha.[9]

Europeeya sangh samooh aath sanyukt raashtrasangh evam vishv vyaapaar sangathan mein apne sadasya deshon ka pratinidhitv karta hai. Europeeya sangh ke 21 desh naato ke bhi sadasya hain. Europeeya sangh ke mahatvapoorn sansthaanon mein yooropiyn commission, Europeeya sansad, Europeeya sangh parishad, Europeeya nyaayalaya evam yooropiyn central bank ityaadi shaamil hain. Europeeya sangh ke naagrik har paaainch varsh mein apni sansadeeya vyavastha ke sadasyon ko chunati hai.

Europeeya sangh ko varsh 2012 mein Europe mein shaanti aur sulah, lokatantr aur maanav adhikaaron ki unnati mein apne yogadaan ke liye Nobel shaanti puraskaar se sammaanit kiya gaya.[10][11]

anukram

itihaas

dveetiya vishv yuddh ke samaapti ke baad pashchimi Europe ke deshon mein ekta ke paksh mein maahaul banana shuru hua jise log ati raashtravaad, (jisne kai raashtron ko nestanaabood kar diya tha) ke falasvaroop upaje paristhitiyon se palaayan ke roop mein bhi dekhte hain.[12] Europe ke ekeekaran ka sabse pehla safal prastaav 1951 mein aaya jab Europe ke koyala evam steel udyog laabi ne laamabandi shuru ki. yeh mukhyataya sadasya raashtron, khaaskar France aur pashchimi Germany mein koyala aur ispaat udyogon ko ekeekrut niyantran mein laane ka prayaas tha. aisa khaaskar isliye socha gaya taaki in do raashtron mein sangharsh ki sthiti bhavishya mein utpann na ho. is laabi ke karta dharta ne tabhi ise sanyukt raajya Europe ki parikalpana ke roop mein prachaarit kiya tha.[13] Europeeya sangh ke anya sansthaapak raashtron mein Belgium, Italy, lakjamabarg, evam Netherland pramukh the.[14]

is saangathanik prayaas ke baad baad 1957 mein do sansthaayein gathit ki gayi jismein yooropiyn ikaanaamik kamyooniti evam Europeeya parmaanu urja kamyooniti pramukh the. in sansthaaon ka uddeshya naabheekiya urja evam aarthik kshetr mein sahayog karna tha.[14] 1967 mein uparokt teenon sansthaaon ka vilay hokar ek sanstha ka nirmaan hua jise yooropiyn kamyooniti ke naam se jaana gaya. (EC).[15]

1973 mein is samudaaya mein Denmark, Ireland evam Britain ka padaarpan hua.[16] naarve bhi isi samay ismein shaamil hona chaahata tha lekin janamat sangrah ke viprit parinaamon ke kaaran use sadasyata se vanchit rahana pada. 1979 mein pehli baar Europeeya sansad ka gathan hua aur ismein lokataantrik paddhati se sadasya chune gaye.[17]

yoonaan, Spain evam Portugal 1980 mein Europeeya sangh ke sadasya bane.[18] 1985 mein shlegen sandhi sampann hui jiske baad sadasya raashtron ke naagrikon ka ek-doosare ke raashtra mein bagair passport ke aana jaana shuru hua.[19] 1986 mein Europeeya sangh ke sadasyon ne singal yooropiyn act par hastaakshar kiye aur sangh ka jhanda vajood mein aaya. 1990 mein poorvi jarmaneeka pashchimi Germany mein ekeekaran hua.[20]

mastrikh ki sandhi 1 November 1993 se prabhaavi hui.[21] mastrikh ki sandhi ke baad yooropiyn kamyoonitij ab aadhikaarik roop se yooropiyn kamyooniti ban gaya. jismein ekeekrut roop se videsh niti, police evam nyaaya vyavastha ke masalo par ek jaiji neetiyaaain banane lageen.

2007 mein lisban samjhaute par hastaakshar ke baad yooropiyn sangh ke netaagan

1995 mein is sangh mein aastriya, sveedan evam Finland bhi aa jude. 1997 mein mastrikh sandhi ka sthaan emstardam sandhi ne le liya jiske baad videsh neeti evam lokatantr sambandhi neetiyon mein vyaapak parivartan hue. emstardam ke pashchaat 2001 mein nees ki sandhi I jisse rom evam mistrikh mein hui sandhiyon mein sudhaar kiya gaya jisse poorv mein sandh ke vistaar ka maarg prashast hua. 2002 mein Euro ko 12 sadasya raashtron ne apni raashtreeya mudra ke roop mein sveekaar kiya. 2004 mein das naye raashtron ka ismein aur judaav hua jo jyaadaatar poorvi Europe ke desh the.[22] 2007 ke praarambh mein romaaniya evam bulgaariya ne Europeeya sangh ki sadasyata grahan ki aur slovaaniya ne Euro ko apnaaya. pehli January 2008 ko maalta evam saaipras ne bhi Europeeya sangh mein pravesh liya.[22]

Europeeya sangh ke gathan ke liye 2004 mein rom mein ek sandhi par hastaakshar kiye gaye jiska uddeshya pichhle sabhi sandhiyon ko nakaar kar ekeekrut kar ekal dastaavej taiyaar karna tha. lekin aisa kabhi sambhav na ho saka kyonki is uddeshya ke liye karaae gaye janamat sarvekshan mein fraansisi evam dach matadaataaon ne ise nakaar diya. 2007 mein ek baar fir lisban samjhauta hua jismein pichhli sandhiyon ko bagair nakaare hue unamein sudhaar kiye gaye. is sandhi ki prabhaavi tithi January 2009 mein tay ki gayi hai, jab is sandhi ke praavadhaanon ko poori tarah laagoo kiya jaaega.

sadasya raashtra

Europeeya sangh mein 28 samprabhu raashtra hain jo sadasya raashtron ke taur par jaane jaate hain:- aastriya, Belgium, bulgaariya, saaipras, check ganaraajya, Denmark, estoniya, Finland, France, Germany, grees, Hungary, Ireland, itali, laateeviya, lithuaaniya, lakjamabarg, maalta, Netherland, Poland, Portugal, romaaniya, Slovakia, slovaaniya, Spain, sveedan, evam United kingadam.koeshiya[23] is samay teen raashtra aadhikaarik taur par iski sadasyata ki prateeksha mein hain, makadooniya evam Turkey; pashchimi baalkan raashtra albaaniya, bosniya harjogovina, maanteeneegro evam Serbia aadhikaarik taur par sambhaavit sadasya deshon ke roop mein chinhit kiye gaye hain.[24]

Europeeya parishad dvaara Europeeya sangh ki sadasyata ke liye kopenahegan paatrata ki sharte nirdhaarit ki gayi hain, jiske anusaar: sthaayi lokatantr jismein maanavaadhikaaron evam nyaaya par aadhaarit shaasan vyavstha ho; ek kaaryakaari baajaar vyavastha ho jo sangh ke antargat pratiyogita ko badhaava deta ho; evam sangh ki neetiyon ka paalan karne ki vachanabaddhata shaamil hai.[25]

pashchim Europe ke chaar raashtron ne sangh ki sadasyata na lekar aanshik roop se sangh ki aarthik vyavastha mein shaamil hain jinmein aaisalaind, leekatensteen evam naarve pramukh hain, evam sveetajaralaind ne bhi dveepaksheeya samjhaute ke tahat aisa sveekaar kiya hai.[26] Euro ka prayog evam anya sahayog kar sakte hain.[27][28][29]

bhaugolik sthiti

aalpas parvat par sthit mount blaank yooropiya sangh me sthit sabse ooainchi choti hai

Europeeya sangh ka bhaugolik kshetr 27 sadasya deshon ki bhoomi hai jinmein kuchh apavaadeeya sthitiyaaain shaamil hain. Europeeya sangh ka kshetr poora Europe naheen hai chooainki kuchh Europeeya desh jaise sveetajaralaind, naarve, evam soviyt roos iska hissa naheen hain. kuchh sadasya raashtron ke bhoomi kshetr bhi Europe ka hissa hote hue bhi sangh ke bhaugolik nakshe mein shaamil naheen hai, udahaaran ke taur par channel evam faror dweep ke hisse. sadasya deshon ke ve hisse jo Europe ka hissa naheen hain ve bhi Europeeya sangh ki bhaugolik seema se pare maane gaye hain:- jaise greenalaind, arooba, Netherland ke kuchh hisse aur Britain ke ve saare kshetr jo Europe ka hissa naheen hain. kuchh khaas sadasya deshon ka bhaugolik kshetr jo Europe ka ang naheen hai, fir bhi unhein Europeeya sangh ki bhaugolik seema mein shaamil maana gaya hai, udahaaran ke taur par ajora, kainari dweep, French guyaana, gudaalop, maderiya, maarteeneek evam reyooniyon.[30][31][32]

yooropiya sangh ki jalavaayu ko usaki 66,000 kimi lambi tatarekha kaafi prabhaavit karti hai

Europeeya sangh ki sanyukt bhaugolik seema 4422773 varg kimi hai.[33] Europeeya sangh vishv ki bhaugolik kshetreeya seema ke anusaar saantavi sabse badi hai aur is seema ke andar sabse ooaincha kshetr aalps parvat sthit mount blaank hai jo samudratal se 4807 meter ooaincha hai. yahaaain ka bhookshetr, yahaaain ki jalavaayu evam yahaaain ki arthavyavastha mein iski 65993 kimi lambi tatarekha mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaati hai jo Canada ke baad sabse lambi tatarekha hai.[34][35][36]

Europeeya sangh ki bhaugolik seema mein (Europe se baahar ke deshon ko milaakar) jalavaayu ke lihaaj se yahaaain ka mausam dhruveeya jalavaayu se lekarsheetoshn katibandhiya ka anubhav kiya ja sakta hai, isliye poore sangh ke ausat mausam ki baat karna bemaani hoti hai. vyavahaarik taur par Europeeya sangh ke jyaadaatar kshetr mein meditereniyn (dakshini Europe), vishuvateeya (pashchimi Europe) evam greeshm (poorvi Europe) jalavaayu paaya jaata hai.[37]

prashaasan


Europeeya sangh apne kai prashaasanik evam anya ikaaiyon dvaara sanchaalit hota hai, jinmein mukhya roop se kaaunsil of yooropiyn union, yooropiyn commission, evam yooropiyn paarliyaameintasabase pramukh hain.

Europeeya aayog sangh ke pramukh kaaryakaari ang ke taur par kaam karta hai aur iske dainandin kaamon ki jimmevaari isi par hoti hai jise iske 27 kameeshnar sanchaalit karte hain jo 27 sadasya raashtron ka pratinidhitv karte hain. is aayog ke adhyaksh evam sabhi 27 pratinidhi Europeeya parishad dvaara naamit kiye jaate hain. adhyaksh evam sabhi 27 pratinidhiyon ki niyukti par Europeeya sansad ki manjoori aavashyak hoti hai.[38]

Europeeya parishad (yooropiyn kaaunsil) jise kaaunsil of ministars ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai, ke aadhe sadasya sangh ki nyaayik vyavastha ka hissa hote hai.[39] nyaayik kaamon ke alaava parishad videsh evam suraksha neetiyon ke kaaryaanvan evam nirmaan mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaati hai.

Europeeya sangh mein uchch star ke raajanaitik nirnaya ke liye netrutv Europeeya kaaunsil arthaat Europeeya parishad dvaara kiya jaata hai. Europeeya parishad ki baithak saal mein chaar baar hoti hai evam iski adhyakshata us saal Europeeya sangh ka adhyaksh raashtrapramukh karta hai jiska mukhya kaarya Europeeya sangh ki neetiyon ke anuroop kaam karna evam bhavishya ke liye disha nirdesh jaari karna hota hai.[40]


Europeeya sangh ki adhyakshata ka kaarya har sadasya desh ke jimme roteting aadhaar par chhah maheene ke liye aata hai, is dauraan yooropiyn kaaunsil evam kaaunsil of ministars ke har baithak ki jimmevaari us sadasya raashtra par hoti hai.[41] adhyakshata ke dauraan adhyaksh raashtra apne khaas ejeindon par dhyaan deta hai jisme aam taur par aarthik agenda, Europeeya sangh mein sudhaar evam sangh ke vistaar evam ekeekaran ke mudde khaas hote hain.

Europeeya sangh ke nyaayik prakriya ka doosra mahatvapoorn hissa Europeeya sansad hoti hai. Europeeya sansad ke sadasya ke 785 sadasya har paanch varsh mein Europeeya sangh ki janta dvaara seedhe chune jaate hain. halaanki in sadasyon ka chunaav raashtreeya star par hota hai parantu Europeeya sansad mein ve apni raashtreeyata ke anusaar na baithakar dalaanusaar baithate hain. har sadasya raashtra ke liye seaton ki ek nishchit sankhya aavantit hoti hai. Europeeya sansad ko sangh ke vidhaayi shaktiyon ke maamalon mein Europeeya parishad ki tarah hi shaktiyaan haasil hoti hain aur sansad ve sangh ki khaas vidhaayikaaon ko sveekrut ya asveekrut karne ki shakti se lais hote hain. Europeeya sansad ka adhyaksh na sirf baahari manchon par sangh ka pratinidhitv karta hai balki Europeeya sansad ke speaker ka bhi daayitv nibhaata hai. adhyaksh evam upaadhyaksh ka chunaav Europeeya sansad ke sadasya har dhaai saal ke antaraal par karte hain.[42] kuchhek maamalon ko chhodakar jyaadaatar maamalon mein nyaayik prakriya ki shuruaat karne ka adhikaar yuropiyn commission ko hota hai, aisa jyaadaatar regyooleshan, evam sansad ke adhiniymon dvaara kiya jaata hai jise sadasya raashtron ko apne apne deshon mein laagoo karne ki baadhyata hoti hai.[43]

raajaneeti

yooropiyn kaaunsil ke adhyaksh shri evam slovaaniya ke pradhaanamantri shri jaaain jasaaain

aksar Europeeya sangh ki raajaneeti ko teen tatvon se sabse jyaada sanchaalit maana jaata hai jise "pilrs" ya stambh kaha jaata hai. Europeeya kamyooniti ki puraani neetiyon ko iska pehla stambh kaha jaata hai, doosare stambh ke taur par sanyukt videsh evam suraksha neeti ka naam liya jaata hai jabki teesara stambh pehle to nyaayik evam ghareloo maamalaat hua karte the lekin emsatardam evam nees ke samjhauton ke baad police evam aaparaadhik maamalon mein sahayog par jyaada keindrit ho gaya hai. mote taur par kaha jaae to antarshaatreeya maamalon ko dekhte hue doosra evam teesara stambh mahatvapoorn ho jaata hai.[44]

is samay Europeeya sangh ke samaksh do sabse bade mudde hain, ve hain Europeeya ekeekaran evam vistaar. khaaskar vistaar, naye raashtron ka Europeeya sangh mein samaavesh badaa raajanaitik mudda hai. naye raashtron ke samaavesh ka samarthan karne vaalon ka maanana hai ki isse lokatantr ka vistaar hota hai evam Europeeya arthavyavastha ko bhi sanbal milta hai. jabki virodh karanevaalon ka maanana hai ki Europeeya sangh apni vartamaan raajanaitik kshamataaon evam seemaaon se pare evam apni bhaugolik seemaaon se baahar ja raha hai jo iske hit mein naheen hai. jahaan tak janamat aur raajanaitik dalon ka savaal hai, is baare mein ve khaase sashankit hain khaaskar 2004 mein ek saath das naye sadasya desh banane ke pashchaat aur yeh aashanka Turkey ki ummeedvaari ke baad aur bhi balavati ho gayi hai.[45][46][47]

yooropiya sangh ke adhyaksh shri jose mainual baraaso

ekeekaran ek doosra mahatvapoorn masala hai jahaan aksar maana jaata hai ki raashtreeya bhaavanaayein aksar Europeeya sangh ke bruhat uddeshyon se takaraahat mol leti rahati hai. vibhinn raashtron ke beech samanvaya ka lakshya aksar raashtreeya shaktiyon ko Europeeya sangh mein vilyit karne ko baadhya karta hai jiski aalochna aksar yooroskepist logon dvaara samprabhuta khone ka dar dikhaakar ki jaati rahati hai.[48] san 2004 mein raashtreeya netaaon evam Europeeya sangh ke adhikaariyon dvaara ek saajha Europeeya samvidhaan par sahamati banaayi gayi thi lekin ise do sadasya raashtron ke janamat sarvekshan mein khaarij kar diye jaane ke kaaran laagoo naheen kiya gaya kyonki unhein dar tha ki anya deshon mein bhi ise khaarij kar diya jaaega. baad mein October 2007 mein lisban samjhaute ke baad ek naya samvidhaan banaaya gaya jismein jyaadaatar puraane niyamon evam praavadhaanon ko hi rakha gaya.

prastaavit samjhaute ka 2009 mein prabhaavi hona tay kiya gaya hai. yadi yeh sarvasveekrut raha to isse Europeeya sansad ki shaktiyaan kaafi badh jaayegi. is samjhaute ke laagoo hone se upar ullekh kiye gaye pilrs bhi nishprabhaavi ho jaayeinge. videsh neeti ke bahut se mudde isse vibhinn raashtron ke beech sulajhaaye jaane ki bajaay seedhe seedhe Europeeya sangh ki sansthaaon dvaara nirdeshit evam sanchaalit honge.[49][50]

vidhi vyavastha

yooropiya sangh ke 5 sabse badi aabaadi vaale shahar
shahar shahar seema
(2006)
ghanatv/vakimee²
(shahari pariseema)
mukhya kshetr
(2005)
LUZ
(2001)
barlin 3,405,000 3,815 3,761,000 4,935,524
London 7,512,400 4,761 9,332,000 11,624,807
Madrid 3,228,359 5,198 4,858,000 5,372,433
peris 2,153,600 24,672 9,928,000 10,952,011
rom 2,705,603 2,105 2,867,000 3,700,424

Europeeya sangh ka aadhaar vibhinn aitihaasik samjhaute hain, jinse pehle to Europeeya sangh ki sthaapana hui aur fir un samjhauton mein tarah tarah ke sudhaar kiye jaate rahe.[51] ye samakajhaute Europeeya sangh ki bruhat neetiyon ka aadhaar evam uddeshya nirdhaarit karti hain tatha unhein aavashyak vidhaayi shaktiyaan pradaan karti hai. in vidhaayi shaktiyon mein kisi kaanoon ko laagoo karavaane ki shakti[52] jo seedhe-seedhe sabhi sadasya raashtron evam uske naagrikon ko prabhaavit karti hai.[53]


bhaashaaeain

bhaashaaeain (2006)[54]
bhaasha ela1 kul
angreji 13% 51%
jarman 18% 32%
French 12% 26%
itaalavi 13% 16%
spainish 9% 15%
polish 9% 10%
roomaaniyaai 7% 7%
dach 5% 6%
yoonaani 3% 3%
sveedish 2% 3%
check 2% 3%
purtagaali 2% 2%
hangeriyaai 2% 2%
anya bhaashaaeain ~6%
alpasankhyak bhaashaaeain ~16%

Europeeya sangh ke 23 aadhikaarik evam kaaryakaari bhaashaayein: bulgaariyaai, check, dainish, dach, angreji, estoniyaai, finish, French, jarman, yoonaani, hangeriyaai, itaalavi, aayarish, laateeviyaai, lithuyaaniyaai, maalti, polish, purtagaali, rumaaniyaai, slovaak, slovaaniyaai, spainish evam sveedish hain.[55]

Europe mein ishvar mein aastha rakhane vaalon ka pratishat (chitr mein gair sadasya raashtra bhi shaamil hain)


sandarbh soochi

  1. a aa "Symbols of the EU". Europa web portal. http://europa.eu/abc/symbols/index_en.htm. abhigman tithi: 9 January 2008.
  2. The New Oxford American Dictionary, Second Edn., Erin McKean (editor), 2051 pages, May 2005, Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-517077-6.
  3. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; gini naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  4. Not including overseas territories
  5. .eu is representative of the whole of the EU, member states also have their own TLDs
  6. "yooropiya ekal baajaar: kam baadhaaeain, jyaada avsar". yooropiyn commission. http://ec.europa.eu/internal_market/index_en.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-09-27. ; "yooropiya sangh ki gatividhiyaaain: aantarik baajaar". yooropa (web saaital). http://europa.eu/pol/singl/index_en.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-29.
  7. Farah, Paolo (2006). "cheen ke paaainch varsh ki WTO sadasyata. EU and US Perspectives about China's Compliance with Transparency Commitments and the Transitional Review Mechanism". social science research network. http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=916768. abhigman tithi: 2007-01-25.
  8. "aantarik seemaaon ko samaapt kar saajha yooropiya seemaaon ka nirmaan". yooropiyn commission. 2005. http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/freetravel/frontiers/fsj_freetravel_schengen_en.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-01-24.
  9. sandarbh truti: <ref> ka galat prayog; .E0.A4.86.E0.A4.88.E0.A4.8F.E0.A4.AE.E0.A4.8F.E0.A4.AB_.E0.A4.9C.E0.A5.80.E0.A4.A1.E0.A5.80.E0.A4.AA.E0.A5.80 naam ke sandarbh mein jaankaari naheen hai.
  10. {{{author}}}, The Nobel Peace Prize 2012, Nobelprize.org, 12 October 2012.
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