Europeeya dharmasudhaar

16veen shataabdi ke praarambh mein samast pashchimi Europe dhaarmik drushti se ek tha - sabhi isaai the; sabhi roman kaathalik church ke sadasya the; usaki paranparagat shiksha maanate the aur dhaarmik maamalon mein uske adhyaksh arthaat rom ke Pope ka shaasan sveekaar karte the. Europeeya dharmasudhaar athva rifaurameshan 16veen shataabdi ke us mahaan aandolan ko kehte hain jiske falasvaroop paashchaatya isaaiyon ki yeh ekta chhinn-bhinn hui aur protestaint dharm ka udaya hua. church ke itihs mein samay-samay par sudhaaravaadi aandolan hote rahe kintu ve church ke dhaarmik siddhaaton athva uske shaasakon ko chunauti na dekar unke nirdesh ke anusaar hi naitik buraaiyon ka unmoolan tatha dhaarmik shiksha ka prachaar apna uddeshya maanate the. 16veen shataabdi mein jo sudhaar ka aandolan pravartit hua vah sheegra hi church ki paramparaagat shiksha aur uske shaasakon ke adhikaar, donon ka virodh karne laga.

anukram

itihaas

tatkaaleen paristhitiyaaain

dharmasudhaar ka yeh naveen svaroop samajhne ke liye Europe ki tatkaaleen paristhiti par vichaar karna atyant aavashyak hai.

isa dvaara pravartit kaathalik church ke prati isaaiyon mein jo shraddha ka bhaav shataabdiyon se chala aa raha tha vah kai kaaranon se kam ho gaya tha. 14veen shataabdi mein ek fraanseesi Pope ka chunaav hua tha, jo jeevan bhar France mein hi rahe. iske falasvaroop baad mein 40 varsh tak do Pope vidyamaan the, ek France mein aur ek rom mein, jisse samast kaathalik sansaar do bhaagon mein vibhkt raha. aathaveen shataabdi mein Frank jaati ke kaathalik raaja ne Italy par aakraman karne waali lonvaard sena ko haraakar Italy ka madhya bhaag Pope ke adhikaar mein de diya aur is prakaar roman kaathalik church ke paramaadhikaari dharmaguru ke atirikt ek saadhaaran shaasak bhi ban gaye. is kaaran Germany aur France ke raaja sahaj hi church ke maamalon mein aur visheshakar Pope ke chunaav mein hastakshep karne ka prayaas karte rahe. 14veen shataabdi ke uttaraardh mein yeh chunaav Italy ke abhijaat varg ki pratiyogita ka maidaan ban gaya tha jisse vyakti ki yogyata par kam, uske vansh par adhik dhyaan diya jaane laga. iska nateeja yeh hua ki us samay nitaant ayogya popon ka chunaav hua aur rom ke darbaar mein naitikta tatha dharm ki upeksha hone lagi. at: rom ke church ke prati shraddha ka ghat jaana nitaant svaabhaavik tha. asantosh ka ek aur kaaran yeh tha ki samast church ki sansthaaon par unki sampatti ke anusaar kar lagaaya jaata tha aur rom ke pratinidhi sarvada ghoomkar yeh roopaya vasool karte the.

church ke keindreeya sangathan ki is durdasha ke atirikt vibhinn dharmapraanton ki paristhiti bhi santoshajanak naheen thi. is samay samast pashchimi Europe lagbhag saat sau dharmapraanton mein vibhkt tha. unke shaasak bishp kahalaate the. ye bishp saamant the jo raaja dvaara praaya: abhijaat varg mein se chune jaate the, darbaar ke sadasya the aur Germany mein bahudha apne kshetr ke raajaneetik shaasak bhi the. at: bahut se bishp raajaneeti mein adhik, dharm mein kam ruchi lete the aur apne dharmapradesh ka dhaarmik prashaasan vishvavidyaalaya ke uchch adhikaar praapt purohiton ke haath mein chhod dete the. gaaainvon mein basanevaale adhikaansh saadhaaran purohit ardhashikshit the. pravachan dene mein asamarth the aur praaya: gareeb bhi the. saadhaaran purohiton ki yeh dayaneeya dasha 16veen shataabdi ke Europeeya kaathalik church ki sab se badi kamjori thi. bhraman karanevaale Francisco aadi dharmasandhiyon ke atirikt janasaadhaaran ko (jo do tihaai nirkshar tha) dhaarmik shiksha denevaala koi naheen tha. isse sarvatr andhavishvaas fail gaya aur karmakaand ko anaavashyak evam asantulit mahatva diya jaane laga.

13veen shataabdi mein kaathalik dharmavijnyaaan (thioloji) ne arastoo ki isaai vyaakhya tatha skolaistik filosofi ke sahaare dharmasiddhanaaton ka yuktiyukt pratipaadan kiya tha kintu 15veen shataabdi mein dharm ki moolabhoot samasyaaon par se dhyaan aur chintan hat gaya tha. vishvavidyaalayon mein dharmapandit gaun prashnon ke vishay mein apne matabhedon ko adhik mahatva dene lage the jisse kaathalik dharmavijnyaaan itan nishpraan ho gaya tha ki kuchh saadhakon ki yeh dhaarana drudh ho gayi thi ki dharmavijnyaaan saadhana mein baadhak hai. is prakaar ham dekhte hain ki church ke sabhi kshetron mein sudhaar ki apeksha thi aur dharmasudhaar ka aandolan anivaarya ho gaya tha. 14veen shataabdi mein aaingrej viklif (jnrdthtdhadhaddh) aur baad mein boheemiya ke na hus jau (ktadvadm) sikhlaane lage the ki church ka sangathan, uske sanskaar aadi yeh sab manushyon ka aavishkaar hai; isaaiyon ke liye baaibil hi paryaapt hai. us samay bhi un vichaaron ko adhik safalta naheen mili kintu unka loothar par prabhaav spasht hi hai. Spain mein toleedo ke aarbabishp simenes (1495-1517 E.) ne church ke anushaasan ke andar dharmasudhaar aandolan pravartit kiya jisse vahaaain ka vaataavaran poorn roop mein badal gaya kintu pashchimi Europe mein church ki paristhiti mein koi vishesh parivartan naheen ho paaya tha.

jab loothar ne rom ke viruddh aavaaj uthaai unako ek aur kaaran se apoorv safalta mili. Europe mein us samay sarvatr praacheen yoonaani tath laitin saahitya ki lokapriyta ke saath saath ek naveen saanskrutik aandolan praarambh hua jise rinesaaain athva navajaagaran kaha gaya hai. iske falasvaroop logon mein vyaktigat svatantrata ka bhaav utpann hua. mudran ke aavishkaar ke kaaran isi samay se baaibil ki mudrit pratiyaaain adhik saralataapoorvak sulabh hone lagi theen, jisse logon ko apni or se dharm ke vishay mein sochane aur baaibil ko apni niji vyaakhya karne ki pravrutti ko bhi protsaahan milne laga tha.

Europeeya dharmasudhaar ka aitihaasik vikaas

Europeeya dharmasudhaar ka aitihaasik vikaas is prakaar hai : iska aarambh 1517 E. mein loothar ke vidroh se hua tha. unhonne kin paristhitiyon mein apna aandolan pravartit kiya tha aur church ke kin paramparaagat siddhaanto ka virodh karke kis prakaar ek naya dharm chalaaya tha, iska varnan vishvakosh mein anyatr kiya gaya hai (de. loothar). us samay samast Germany lagbhag chaar sau svatantraroop raajyon mein vibhkt tha. unke adhikaansh shaasakon ne kaathalik samraat Charles ke virodh mein loothar ko sarankshan pradaan kiya aur apni praja ko luthar ke church mein mila diya. sheegra hi skaindineviya ke samast isaai bhi lootharan dharm mein sammilit hue. Switzerland mein dharmasudhaar ke do neta sarvapradhaan the - joorik mein jinvagali (jhdhrtdadhtht, 1424-1436 E.) aur janeeva mein kailavin (1509-1564 E.), donon ke anuyaayi baad mein ek hi kelavinist church mein sammilit ho gaye. yeh sanpradaaya Holland, Scotland tatha France ke kuchh bhaagon mein bhi fail gaya. Scotland mein iska naam presabitreeya dharm rakha gaya hai (de. presabitreeya dharm) France mein pehle loothar ka prabhaav pada kintu baad mein vahaaain ke adhikaansh protestait dharmaavalanbi, jo yoogani kahalaate hain, kailavin ke anuyaayi ban gaye. unka sangathan ek raajaneetik dal ke roop mein se bahut samay tak sakriya raha (de. yoogano). England ke raaja ne praarambh hi se loothar ka virodh kiya tha. unhonne ek granth bhi likha tha jismein unhonne dharm ke maamalon mein Pope ke ishvaradatt adhikaar ka pratipaadan kiya. yadyapi henari jeevan bhar apne raajya mein protestaint siddhaanton ka prachaar rokane ka prayaas karte rahe, fir bhi unhonne vyaktigat kaaranon se 1531 E. mein England ka church rom se alag kar diya, is prakaar ainglikn samudaaya praarambh hua tha. henari ke uttaraadhikaariyon ke samay mein us church par protestaint vichaaradhaara ka gahra prabhaav pada jisse aajkal vah protestaint dharm ki teen pramukh shaakhaaon (lootharan, kailavinist aur ainglikn) mein se ek maana jaata hai kintu vaastav mein ainglikn samudaaya ki utpatti, vikaas aur prachaar ka apna alag itihaas hai (de. ainglikn samudaaya). in teen sanpradaayon ke atirikt dharmasudhaar aandolan ke falasvaroop protestaint dharm ke aur bahut se upasanpradaayon ka udbhav hua jinka yahaaain par ullekh karna anaavashyak hai. apekshaakrut adhik mahatva rakhanevaale sanpradaayon ka kinchit vivran kosh mein anyatr diya gaya hai (de. protestaint dharm).

prabhaav evam parinaam

is sinhaavalokan se spasht ho jaata hai ki loothar dvaara pravartit sudhaar aandolan ne vibhinn roop dhaaran kar samast Europe ko hila diya. praanrabh mein church ka sudhaar is aandolan ka uddeshya tha kintu vah sheegra hi church ki paramparaagat shiksha tatha church ki sangathanaatmak ekta par prahaar karne laga. iska parinaam yeh hua ki Europe ke isaaisansaar ki ekta shataabdiyon ke liye chhinn-bhinn ho gayi. shaasan ki drushti se poorn roop se svatantr sanpradaayon ka udbhav hua, jo ek hi isa aur baaibil ko maanate hue bhi anek moolabhoot dharm siddhaanton ke vishay mein bhinn bhinn maton ka pratipaadan karte hain.

raajaneetik drushti se dharmasudhaar ka parinaam bahut hi vyaapak raha. Europe ki uttaramadhyakaaleen paristhiti aisi thi ki shaasakon ne bhi anivaarya roop se is dhaarmik aandolan mein sakriya bhaag liya hai. ve apni praja ko apne hi dharm mein sammilit karne athva banaae rakhane ke uddeshya se yuddh karne ke liye taiyaar ho gaye. is prakaar Europe ke itihaas mein dharm ke naam par anek yuddhon ki charcha hai, jaise, Germany mein 30 varsheeya yuddh (tharati iars vaur) [[France[[ mein yugano yuddh aur haulaind mein samraat Charles pancham ke viruddh safal svatantrata sangraam.

oopar iska ullekh ho chuka hai ki kaathalik church mein samay samay par sudhaar aandolanon ka pravarttan hota raha hai kintu 16veen shataabdi ke vidrohaatmak dharmasudhaar se kaathalik church ko vishesh roop se prerana mili. is shataabdi mein Pope ke roop mein pratibhaashaali vyaktiyon ka chunaav hua jinhonne church ke shaasan mein fir adhyaatm ko praathamikta dila di hai jisse samast kaathalik sansaar mein Pope ka pad pun: poornaroopen sammaanit ho saka. bishpon ki saamantashaahi ko samaapt kar diya gaya aur chaaron aur saadhusvabhaav vyaktiyon ki niyukti se janta ke saamane bishp ka praacheen aadarsh ubharane laga, jo apni praja ka dharmaguru evam aadhyaatmik charavaaha (neta) hai. Trent naamak nagar mein church ki 19veen vishvasabha ka aayojan hua jismein church ke nae sangathan ke atirikt vishesh roop mein saadhaaran purohiton ke shikshan ka prabandh kiya gaya. at: church ki sabhi shreniyon mein sudhaar hua aur janasaadhaaran mein dhaarmik shiksha ka uchit prachaar ho saka. is kaarya mein dharmasandhiyon ne doosare purohiton ka haath baintaaya hai. 16veen shataabdi mein jesuit aadi kai dharmasanghon ki sthaapana hui tatha praacheen (visheshakar fraansiski tatha kaarmelaait) dharmasanghon mein sudhaar laaya gaya jisse ve sabke sab samay ki aavashyakataaon ke anusaar dharm ki seva kar sakein. is prakaar ham dekhte hain ki dharm sudhaar ka sambhavat: sabse gahra evam hitkari prabhaav puraane kaathilk church par hi pada.

dharmasudhaar ki safalta ke kaaran

Europeeya dharmasudhaar ka vyaapak prasaar evam gahra prabhaav dekhkar anaayaas hi man mein yeh prashn uthata hai ki is apoorv safalta ka kya rahasya hai. is safalta ke anek kaaranon ki kalpana ki gayi hai :

15veen shataabdi ke aarambh mein kaathalik church ki dayaneeya dasha aur iske karnadhaaron ki nishkriyta, church ki sanpati hadapne ko utsuk raajanetaaon ki sahaayata, navajaagaran ke kaaran vyaktigat svatantrata ka aandolan, mudran ke aavishkaar se prachaar ki nai suvidhaaeain. yeh sab aalochya aandolan ke liye sahaayak siddh hua kintu iski safalta ka rahasya anyatr dhooaindhana chaahiye.

dharmasudhaar ke pravartak saatvik aur dhaarmik bhaav se prerit the aur ve apne pratibhaashaali sahayogiyon mein bhi dhaarmik navajaagaran ki utkat abhilaasha utpann karne mein samarth hue. inke vichaar mein us navajaagaran ka ekamaatr upaaya yeh prateet hota tha ki manushya apne punya karmon par bharosa na rakhakar isa ke prati aatmasamarpan kare aur baaibil mein surakshit isa ke susamaachaar par vishvaas kare. unhonne baaibil ko apne aandolan ka aadhaar bana liya, baaibil mein jo shakti nihit hai usi ke dvaara unhein safalta mili hai.

aajkal isaai sansaar mein 16veen shataabdi ki ghatnaaon par tatasth drushti se vichaar kiya ja raha hai. kaathilk Europeeya dharmasudhaar ki rachanaatmak upalabdhiyon ko sveekaar karte hain aur protetainst samajhne lage hain ki church ki tatkaaleen buraaiyon ka virodh karna kitna hi aavashyak kyon na tha, usaki ekta chhinn bhinn karne se isaai dharm ko bahut haani hui hai. dviteeya mahaayuddh ke baad isaai ekta ke aandolan ko atyadhik mahatva diya jaane laga hai aur dharmasudhaar ke dushparinaam ko door karne ki abhilaasha badhti ja rahi hai.

inhein bhi dekhein

  • dharmasudhaar-virodhi aandolan (kaauntar-rifaurmeshan)

baahari kadiyaaain