Europe ka itihaas

Europe mein maanav isaapoorv 35,000 ke aaspaas aaya . iske baad 7000 isvi poorv se sangathit basaav yaani bastiyon ke pramaan milte hain . kaaainsya yugeen sabhyata (3000 isa poorv) ke samay yahaaain kuchh adhik basaav naheen hua - bhaasakar misr, Iraq, cheen aur bhaarateeya sabhyata ke mukaabale . lekin 500 isaapoorv se roman aur yoonaani saamraajyon ka udaya hua jisne Europe ki sanskruti ko bahut prabhaavit kiya . sainya, kala aur chintan ke maamale mein yoonaaniyon ne Europe ke ek kone mein hote hue bhi poore Europe aur baad mein vishvabhar mein apna prabhaav jamaaya .

aaj Europe ke desh Europeeya sangh ke sadasya hain jo ek mudra Euro chalaata hai . madhyakaal mein Europe chhote raajyon mein vibhkt ho gaya tha . vigyaan aur shodh ke maamale mein dhaarmik maanyataaon ne apna prabhaav bana rakha tha . pandrahaveen sadi ke baad yeh pun: viksit hua . sainik itihaas ka ek chhota byaura neeche likha hai, krupaya vahaaain dekhein .

Europe ke itihaas ko samajhne ke liye dakshini (rom, yoonaan aur Spain), poorvi (yaani slaavik) aur uttari kshetr jisnein jarman mool ki naurd aur vaaiking tatha kelt aur gaul ko samajhna aavashyak hai .


anukram

saamraajyon ka itihaas

greek (yoonaani) tatha laatini (rom) raajyon ki sthaapana pratham sahastraabdi ke poorvaardh mein hui. in donon sanskrutiyon ne aadhunik yoorop ki sanskruti ko bahut prabhaavit kiya hai. isaapoorv 480 ke aaspaas yoonaan par faarasiyon ka aakraman hua jismeinm yavanon ko bahudha peechhe hatna pada. 330 isaapoorv mein sikndar ne faarasi saamraajya ko jeet liya. san 27 isaapoorv mein roman ganatantr samaapt ho gaya aur roman saamraajya ki sthaapana hui. san 313 mein kaansteintaain ne isaai dharm ko sveekaar kar liya aur yeh dharm roman saamraajya ka raajadharm ban gaya. paaainchaveen sadi tak aate aate roman saamraajya kamjor ho chala aur poorvi roman saamraajya pandrahaveen sadi tak istaanbul mein bana raha. is dauraan poorvi roman saamraajyon ko arabon ke aakraman ka saamana karna pada jismein unhein apne pradesh arabon ko dene pade.

san 1453 mein istaanbul ke patan ke baad Europe mein nae janamaanas ka vikaas hua jo dhaarmik bandhanon se upar uthana chaahata tha. is ghatna ko punarjaagaran (freinch mein renesaaain) kehte hain. punarjaagaran ne logon ko paaramparik vichaaron ko tyaag vyaavahaarik tatha vaigyaanik tathyon par vishvaas karne par jor diya. is kaal mein Bhaarat tatha America jaise deshon ke samudri maarg ki khoj hui. solahaveen sadi mein purtagaali tatha dach naavik duniya ke deshon ke saamudrik raaston par varchasv banaae hue the. isi samay pashchimi yoorop mein audyogik kraanti ka sootrapaat ho gaya tha. saanskrutik roop se bhi yoorop bahut aage badh chuka tha. saahitya tatha kala ke kshetr mein abhootapoorv pragati hui thi. chhapaai ki khoj ke baad pustakon se jnyaaanasanchaar tvarit gati se badh gaya tha.

san 1789 mein France ki raajyakraanti hui jisne poore Europe ko prabhaavit kiya. ismein vyaktigat svatantrata, janabhaageedaari tatha udaarata ko bal mila tha. roosi saamraajya dheere-dheere vistrut hone laga tha. par iska vistaar mukhyat: Asia mein apne dakshin ki taraf ho raha tha. is samay Britain tatha France apne nausena ki takaneeki pragati ke kaaran dacho tatha purtagaaliyon se aage nikal gaye. Portugal par Spain ka adhikaar ho gaya aur purtagaali upaniveshon par adhikaanshat: angrejon tatha fraansisiyon ne adhikaar kar liya. roosi sarfaraajya ka patan 1861 mein hua. baalkan ke pradesh usmaani saamraajya (otoman) se svatantr hote gaye. 1914-8 tatha 1939-45 mein do vishvayuddh hue. donon mein Germany ki paraajaya hui. isek baad vishv sheetayuddh ke daur se gujara. America tha roos do mahaashakti bankar ubhare. praay: poorvi yoorop ke desh roos ke saath rahe jabki pashchimi yoorop ke desh America ke. Germany ka vibhaajan ho gaya.

san 1959 mein roos ne apne kausmonaut yoori gagarin ko antariksh mein bheja. 1969 mein America ne safalataapoorvak maanav ko chandrama ki satah tak pahuainchaane ka daava kiya hathiyaaron ki hod badhti gayi. antat: America aage nikal gaya aur 1989 mein Germany ka ekeekaran hua. 1991 mein soviyt sangh ka vightan ho gaya. roos sabse bada paravarti raajya bana. san 2007 mein Europeeya sangh ki sthaapana hui.

solahaveen-satrahaveen shataabdi mein Europe ke deshon ki aarthik-saamaajik sthiti

satrahaveen shataabdi mein pehli baar Bhaarat ka Britain se sampark hua. yeh sampark do paraspar-virodhi sanskrutiyon ka paraspar takaraana–maatr tha. un dinon samoocha Britain ardhasabhya kisaanon ka ujaad desh tha. unki jhopadiyon narasalon aur sarakandon ki bani hoti theen, jinke oopar mitti ya gaara lagaaya hua hota tha. ghaas-foos jalaakar ghar mein aag taiyaar ki jaati thi jisse saari jhopadi mein dhuaaain bhar jaata tha. dhuaine ko nikaalne ke koi raah hi na thi. unki khuraak jau, matar, udd, kand aur darakhton ki chhaal tatha maans thi. unke kapadon mein juen bhari hoti theen.

aabaadi bahut kam thi, jo mahaamaari aur daridrata ke kaaran aae din ghatati jaati thi. shaharon ki haalat gaaainvon se kuchh achhi na thi. shaharavaalon ka bichhauna bhus se bhara ek thaila hota tha. takiye ki jagah lakadi ka ek gol tukada. shahari log jo khushahaal hote the, chamade ka kot pahanate the. gareeb log haath-pairon par puaal latepakar saradi se jaan bachaate the. na koi kaarkhaana tha, na kaareegar. na safaai ka intajaam, na rogi hone par chikitsa ki vyavastha. sadkon par daakoo firte the aur nadiyaan tatha samudri muhaane samudri daakuon se bhare rahate the. un dino duraachaar ka tamaam Europe mein bolabaala aur aatashak-siflis ki beemaari aam thi. vivaahit ya avivaahit, gruhasth paadari, yahaaain ki Pope dasvein lui tak bhi is rog se bache na the. paadariyon ka England ki ek lakh striyon ko bhrasht kiya tha. koi paadari bade se bada aparaadh karne par bhi keval thode-se jurmaane ki saja paata tha. manushya-hatya karne par bhi keval chh: shiling aath pains- lagbhag paanch rupaye-jurmaana dena padta tha. dhong-paakhand, jaadoo-tona unka vyavasaaya tha.

satrahaveen shataabdi ke antim charan mein London nagar itna ganda tha aur vahaan ke makaan is kadar bhadde the ki use mushkil se shahar kaha ja sakta tha. sadkon ki haalat aisi thi ki pahiyedaar gaadiyon ka chalana khatre se khaali na tha log laddoo tattuon par daaen-baaen paalanon mein asabaab ki bhaaainti ladakar yaatra karte the. un dinon tej se tej gaadi ingalaind mein tees se pachaas meal ka safar ek din me tay kar sakti thi. adhanangi striyaan jangali aur bhadde geet gaati firti theen aur purush kataar ghuma-ghumaakar ladaai ke naach naacha karte the. likhna-padhna bahut kam log jaante the. yahaaain tak ki bahut-se laard apne hastaakshar bhi naheen kar sakte the. bahuda pati kodon se apni striyon ko peeta karte the. aparaadhi ko tiktiki se baaaindhakar patthar maar-maarkar maar daala jaata tha. auraton ki taaaingon ko sarebaajaar shikanjon mein kasakar tod diya jaata tha. shaam hone ke baad London ki galiyaan sooni, daraavani aur andheri ho jaati theen. us samay koi jeevat ka aadmi hi ghar se baahar nikalne ka saahas kar sakta tha. use lut jaane ya gala kaat jaane ka bhaya tha. fir uske oopar khidki khol koi bhi ganda paani to feink hi sakta tha. galiyon mein laalaten theen hi naheen. logon ko bhayabheet karne ke liye tems ke puraane pul par aparaadhiyon ke sir kaat kar lataka diye jaate the. dhaarmik svatantrata na thi. baadshah ke sampradaaya se bhinn doosare kisi sampradaaya ke girjaaghar mein jaakar upadesh sunane ki saja maut thi. aise aparaadhiyon ke ghutne ko shikje mein kasakar tod diya jaata tha. striyon ko ladkiyon ko sahateeron mein baaaindhakar samudra ke kinaare par chhod dete the ki dheere-dheere badhti hui samudra ki laharein unhein nigl jaaen. bahudha unke gaalon ko laal lohe se daagadaar America nirvaasit kar diya jaata tha. un dinon England ki raani bhi gulaamon ke vyaapar mein laabh ka bhaag leti thi.

England ke kisaan ki vyavastha us oodabilaav ke samaan thi jo nadi kinaare maand banaakar rahata ho. koi aisa dhandha-rojagaar na tha ki jisse varsha na hone ki soorat mein kisaan dushkaal se bach sakein. us samay samooche ingalistaan ki aabaadi pachaas lakh se adhik na thi. jangali jaanavar har jagah firte the. sadkon ki haalat bahut kharaab thi. barasaat mein to sab raaste hi band ho jaate the. dehaat mein praay: log raasta bhool jaate the aur raat-raat bhar thandi hava mein thithurate firte the. duraachaar ka dauradaura tha. raajaneetik aur dhaarmik aparaadhon par bhayaanak amaanushik sajaaen di jaati theen.

yeh dasha keval Britain ki hi na thi, samooche Europe ki thi. praay: sab deshon mein vansh-kram se aae hue ekatantr, svechhaachaari nirankush raaja raajya karte the. unka shaasan-sambandhi mukhya siddaant tha-ham pruthvi par ishvar ke pratinidhi hain aur hamaari ichha hi kaanoon hai. janta ki do shreniyaan thi. jo kuleen the ve ooainche samajhe jaate the; jo janm se neech the ve dalitvargi the. aisa ek bhi raaja na tha jo praja ke sukh-dukh se sahaanubhooti rakhata ho. vilaash aur shaan-shaukat hi mein ve mast rahate the. ve apni sab praja ke jaanomaal ke svaami the. raaja hona unka janmasiddh adhikaar tha. unki praja ko bina soche-samajhe unki aajnyaa ka paalan karna hi chaahiye. France ka chaudahavaan lui aisa hi baadshah tha. Europe mein vah sabse adhik kaal tak takhtanasheen raha. vah aurangajeb se baarah varsh poorv gaddi par baitha aur uske marne ke aath varsh baad tak gaddi par baitha raha. poore bahattar varsh. vah sabhya, buddhimaan aur mahatvaakaankshi tha. aur chaahata tha ki France duniya ka sabse adhik shakti-sampann raashtra ban jaae.

parantu jab-jab vah France ki shakti aur unnati ki baat sochata tha, tab-tab vah France ki janta ke sambandh mein naheen, keval apne aur apne saamanton ke sambandh mein. vah apne hi ko raajya kehta tha aur yeh usaka takiya-kalaam ban gaya tha. usane apni darabaari tadk-bhadak se saare sansaar ko chakit kar diya tha aur France saare tatkaaleen sabhya sansaar mein fashion ke liye prasiddh ho gaya tha. usane praja par bhaaree–bhaari tax lagaae the tatha praja ki gaadhi kamaayi se bade-bade raajamahal banaae the. usane vasaai aur peris ki shaan banaai ki jiski upama Europe mein na thi. usane Ajay sena ka sangathan kiya tha, jise Europe ke sab raashtron ne milkar badi hi kathinaai se paraast kiya. san 1715 mein jab vah mara to peris apni shaan-fashion saahitya, saundarya aur bade-bade mahalon tatha favvaaron se susajjit tha aur France Europe ki pradhaan raajaneetik aur sainik shakti ban gaya tha. parantu saara desh bhookha aur santusht tha. us kaal mein Europe ka mukhya pratidvandvi aastriya tha jiske raaja haashaburg ke the. pavitra roman saamraajya ke samraat ka gauravapoorn pad isi raajavansh ko praapt tha. yadyapi is pad ke kaaran aastriya ke raajaaon ki shakti me koi vruddh naheen hui thi par usaka sammaan aur prabhaav tatha prabhutv samooche Europe par tha.

us samay jarman na koi ek raashtra tha, na ek raajya ka naam hi Germany tha. tab Germany lagbhag teen sau saath chhote-chhote raajyon mein vibhkt tha, jinmein tanik bhi raajaneetik ekta na thi. ve naamamaatr ko aastriya ke dharmasamraat ki adheenata maanate the.

yahi dasha Italy ki thi. Italy ka raashtra hai, yeh koi na jaanta tha. vahaaain bhi anek chhote-chhote svatantatr raajya the, jiske raaja nirankush svechhaachaari the. janta ko shaasan mein kaheen koi adhikaar praapt na tha.

Spain is kaal mein Europe ka sabse adhik samarth raajya tha. pandrahaveen-solahaveen shataabdi mein hi usane America me upanivesh sthaapit karke apni apaar samruddhi badha li thi. Spain ke raaja Europe ke anekon deshon ke adhipti the.

polaind solahaveen shataabdi tak Europe ka ek samarth raajya tha. satrahaveen shataabdi mein Peter ke abhiyaanon ne use jarjar aur avyavasthipit kar diya tha aur fir vahaaain kisi shaktishaali kendreeya shaasan ka vikaas naheen ho paaya.

sveedan, Denmark, naarvein, haalaind aur svitjlaind ka vikaas abhi hua hi naheen tha. abhi ye desh pichhde hue the.

roos

aaj ka soviyt roos sansaar ka sabse bada aur samarth prataatantr hai. aaj usaka ek chhor baaltik saagar se paisifik saagar tak faila hua aur doosra aarkatik saagar se Bhaarat aur cheen ki seemaaon ko chhoo raha hai. parantu un dinon vah chhota-sa pradesh tha, Moscow nagar ke aaspaas ke ilaakon tak hi seemit tha aur jiska adhikaansh jungle tha. samudra se usaka sambandh vichhinn tha. ek bhi samudra-tat uske paas na tha. tab baaltik saagar ka saara tat sveedan ke baad shaah ke adheen aur saagar tatha kaaspiyn saagar tat ka saara dakshin bhoo-bhaag taataari aur turk raajaaon ke saradaaron ke adhikaar mein tha.

chaudahaveen shataabdi ke antim charan mein Peter ne jaar ke sinhaasan par baithakar roos ki kaayaapalat karne ka upakram kiya. un dinon roos ke log lambi-lambi daadhiyaaain rakhate aur dheele-dheele labaade pahanate the. ek din usane apne sab darabaariyon ko apne darbaar mein bulaaya aur sabki daadhi apne haath se moond Dean. aur chust poshaakein pahana Dean. usane sveedan ke baadshah ke haathon se baaltik tat chheen liya aur samudra-tat par apni nai rajdhani sent peetarsabarg jo aaj lenin graad ke naam se vikhyaat hai.

parantu yeh mahaan sudhaarak Peter bhi un doshon se mukt na tha, jo un dinon sansaar ke baadashaahon mein the. vah svechhaachaari tha. vah jo chaahata tha vahi karta tha unki aajnyaa ka paalan karne mein kise kitna kasht jhelana padega, iski use paravaah na thi.

inhein bhi dekhein