Europe

Europe
Europe (orthographic projection).svg
kshetrafal 10,180,000 kilometer2 (3,930,000 varg meal)o[›]
janasankhya 731,000,000o[›]
janasankhya ghanatv 70/varg kimi2 (181/varg meal)
raashtreeyata yooropiyn
desh 50 (deshon ki soochi)
bhaasha (eain) bhaashaaon ki soochi
samay kshetr UTC to UTC+5
Internet teeeladi .eu (yooropiyn union)
bade nagar shaharon ki soochi

Europe pruthvi par sthit saat mahaadveepon me se ek mahaadveep hai. Europe, Asia se poori tarah juda hua hai. Europe aur Asia vastut: yooreshiya ke khand hain aur Europe yooreshiya ka sabse pashchimi praayadveepeeya khand hai. Asia se Europe ka vibhaajan iske poorv me sthit yooraal parvat ke jal vibhaajak jaise yooraal nadi, kaispiyn saagar, kaukas parvat shrunkhala aur dakshin pashchim mein sthit kaale saagar ke dvaara hota hai. Europe ke uttar mein aarkatik mahaasaagar aur anya jal nikaaya, pashchim mein atalaantik mahaasaagar, dakshin mein bhoomadhya saagar aur dakshin pashchim mein kaala saagar aur isse jude jalamaarg sthit hain. is sabke baavajood Europe ki seemaayein bahut had tak kaalpanik hain aur ise ek mahaadveep ki sanjnyaa dena bhaugolik aadhaar par kam, saanskrutik aur aitihaasik aadhaar par adhik hai. Britain, Ireland aur aaisalaind jaise desh ek dweep hote hue bhi Europe ka hissa hain, par greenalaind uttari amareeka ka hissa hai. roos saanskrutik drushtikon se Europe mein hi maana jaata hai, haalaaainki iska saara saaiberiyaai ilaaka Asia ka hissa hai. aaj jyaadaatar Europeeya deshon ke log duniya ke sabse ooainche jeevanastar ka aanand lete hain.

Europe prushth kshetrafal ke aadhaar par vishv ka doosra sabse chhota mahaadveep hai, iska kshetrafal ke 10,180,000 varg kilometer (3,930,000 varg meal) hai jo pruthvi ki satah ka 2% aur iske bhoomi kshetr ka lagbhag 6.8% hai. Europe ke 50 deshon mein, roos kshetrafal aur aabaadi donon mein hi sabse bada hai, jabki vaitikn nagar sabse chhota desh hai. janasankhya ke hisaab se Europe Asia aur Africa ke baad teesara sabse adhik aabaadi wala mahaadveep hai, 73.1 karod ki janasankhya ke saath yeh vishv ki janasankhya mein lagbhag 11% ka yogadaan karta hai, tathaapi, sanyukt raashtra ke anusaar (madhyam anumaan), 2050 tak vishv janasankhya mein Europe ka yogadaan ghatkar 7% par aa sakta hai. 1900 mein, vishv ki janasankhya mein Europe ka hissa lagbhag 25% tha.

puraatan kaal mein Europe, vishesh roop se yoonaan pashchimi sanskruti ka janmasthaan hai. madhya kaal mein isi ne isaaiyat ka poshan kiya hai. Europe ne 16 veen sadi ke baad se vaishvik maamalon mein ek pramukh bhoomika ada ki hai, vishesh roop se upaniveshavaad ki shuruaat ke baad. 16 veen aur 20 veen sadi ke beech vibhinn samayon par, dono America, Africa, oshiaaniya aur Asia ke bade bhoobhaag Europeeya deshon ke niyantrit me the. donon vishv yuddhon ki shuruaat madhya Europe mein hui thi, jinke kaaran 20 veen shataabdi mein vishv maamalon mein Europeeya prabhutv mein giraavat I aur sanyukt raajya America aur soviyt sangh ke roop mein do naye shakti ke kendron ka udaya hua. sheet yuddh ke dauraan Europe pashchim mein naato ke aur poorv mein vaarasa sandhi ke dvaara vibhaajit ho gaya. Europeeya ekeekaran ke prayaason se pashchimi Europe mein Europeeya parishad aur Europeeya sangh ka gathan hua aur yeh donon sangathan 1991 mein soviyt sangh ke patan ke baad se poorv ki or apne prabhutv ka vistaar kar rahe hain.

anukram

Europe ka itihaas

Europe mein maanav isaapoorv 35,000 ke aaspaas aaya. greek (yoonaani) tatha laatini (rom) raajyon ki sthaapana pratham sahastraabdi ke poorvaardh mein hui. in donon sanskrutiyon ne aadhunik yoorop ki sanskruti ko bahut prabhaavit kiya hai. isaapoorv 480 ke aaspaas yoonaan par faarasiyon ka aakraman hua jismein yavanon ko bahudha peechhe hatna pada. 330 isaapoorv mein sikndar ne faarasi saamraajya ko jeet liya. 146 E.poo. mein yoonaani praayadveep (dveepon ko chhodkar) roman protektoret ka bhaag ban gaya. yoonaan ka antim patan 88 E.poo mein hua jab pontas ke mithridets shashth naamak raaja ne rom ke viruddh vidroh kar diya, jab vah roman general lusiys kaurneliys sula dvaara yoonaan se baahar khadeda gaya tab yoonaan par pun: rom ka adhikaar ho gaya aur yoonaani nagar fir kabhi isse Uber na sake. san 27 isaapoorv mein roman ganatantr samaapt ho gaya aur roman saamraajya ki sthaapana hui. san 313 mein kaansteintaain ne isaai dharm ko sveekaar kar liya aur yeh dharm roman saamraajya ka raajadharm ban gaya. paaainchaveen sadi tak aate aate roman saamraajya kamjor ho chala aur poorvi roman saamraajya pandrahaveen sadi tak istaanbul mein bana raha. is dauraan poorvi roman saamraajyon ko arabon ke aakraman ka saamana karna pada jismein unhein apne pradesh arabon ko dene pade.

san 1453 mein istaanbul ke patan ke baad Europe mein nae janamaanas ka vikaas hua jo dhaarmik bandhanon se upar uthana chaahata tha. is ghatna ko punarjaagaran (freinch mein renesaaain) kehte hain. punarjaagaran ne logon ko paaramparik vichaaron ko tyaag vyaavahaarik tatha vaigyaanik tathyon par vishvaas karne par jor diya. is kaal mein Bhaarat tatha America jaise deshon ke samudri maarg ki khoj hui. solahaveen sadi mein purtagaali tatha dach naavik duniya ke deshon ke saamudrik raaston par varchasv banaae hue the. isi samay pashchimi yoorop mein audyogik kraanti ka sootrapaat ho gaya tha. saanskrutik roop se bhi yoorop bahut aage badh chuka tha. saahitya tatha kala ke kshetr mein abhootapoorv pragati hui thi. chhapaai ki khoj ke baad pustakon se jnyaaanasanchaar tvarit gati se badh gaya tha.

san 1789 mein France ki raajyakraanti hui jisne poore Europe ko prabhaavit kiya. ismein vyaktigat svatantrata, janabhaageedaari tatha udaarata ko bal mila tha. roosi saamraajya dheere dheere vistrut hone laga tha. par iska vistaar mukhyat: Asia mein apne dakshin ki taraf ho raha tha. is samay Britain tatha France apne nausena ki takaneeki pragati ke kaaran dacho tatha purtagaaliyon se aage nikal gaye. Portugal par Spain ka adhikaar ho gaya aur purtagaali upaniveshon ko angrejon tatha fraansisiyon ne adhikaar kar liya. roosi sarfaraajya ka patan 1861 mein hua. baalkan ke pradesh usmaani saamraajya (otoman) se svatantr hote gaye. 1918 tatha 1945 mein do vishv yuddh hue. donon mein Germany ki paraajaya hui. iske baad vishv sheetayuddh ke daur se gujara. America tatha roos do mahaashakti bankar ubhare. praay: poorvi yoorop ke desh roos ke saath rahe jabki pashchimi yoorop ke desh America ke. Germany ka vibhaajan ho gaya.

san 1959 mein roos ne apne kausmonaut yoori gagaarin ko antariksh mein bheja. 1969 mein America ne safalataapoorvak maanav ko chandrama ki satah tak pahuainchaane ka daava kiya. hathiyaaron ki hod badhti gayi aur antat: America aage nikal gaya. 1989 mein Germany ka ekeekaran hua. 1991 mein soviyt sangh ka vightan ho gaya. roos sabse bada paravarti raajya bana. san 2007 mein Europeeya sangh ki sthaapana hui.

bhoogol

Europe mein do parvateeya bhaag ke beech ek vishaal maidaan hai.


paanch sabse bade Europeeya sangh ke deshon ki raajadhaaniyon:

jalavaayu

Europe ka koppen maanachitr

Europe mukhyat: sheetoshn jalavaayu kshetron mein se hai. Europe ki jalavaayu gulf streem naamak is samudri garm jaladhaara ke prabhaav ke kaaran vishv bhar mein ek hi akshaansh par sthit anya kshetron ki tulana mein kam visham hai.[1] gulf streem Europe ki jalavaayu garm aur nam banaata hai. gulf streem na keval Europe ke saagar tat ko tulanaatmak roop se garm rakhata hai balki atalaantik mahaasaagar se mahaadveep ki or chalne waali prachalit pashchimi havaaon ko bhi garm karta hai, isliye nepals ka saal bhar ka ausat taapamaan 16° celcius (60.8°aF) hai, jabki lagbhag usi ooainchaai par sthit New York city ka ausat taapamaan keval 12° celcius (mein 53.6°aF) hi rahata hai.

praakrutik vanaspati evam vanya jeev

Europe aur aaspaas ke kshetron ke baayom:
tundra alpaain tundra taiga parvateeya van
samasheetoshn chaudeepatti vaale van bhoomadhyasaagareeya van samasheetoshn ghaas ka maidaan shushk ghaas ka maidaan

taapamaan evam varsha mein antar milne ke kaaran Europe mahaadveep ki praakrutik vanaspati mein bhi kaafi antar milta hai. Europe mahaadveep ke uttar ke aarkatik mahaasaagar ke tateeya bhaag mein kathor sheet ke kaaran bhoomi himaachhaadit rahati hai. at: vanaspati ka praay:abhaav rahata hai. is bhaag ki mukhya vanaspati kaai evam laaiken hai. yahaaain garmi mein barf pighlane par sundar-sundar foolon vaale paudhe ugate hain. jo alpakaal ke liye apni chhata dikhaakar samaapt ho jaate hain.[2] jeev-jantuon mein dhruveeya bhaaloo, reindiyr, lomadi tatha paani mein seal evam vhel paae jaate hain. tundra pradesh ke dakshini bhaag naarve, sveedan, finlaind evam roos mein nukeeli patti vaale konadhaari van paae jaate hain jinhe taiga kehte hain. yahaaain ke pramukh vruksh cheed, sproos, silvar, far, barch, baloot aadi hain. in vanon mein bhaaloo, bhediya evam mink aadi pashu paae jaate hain. taiga pradesh ke dakshin mein kam varsha hoti hai at: yahaaain sheetoshn ghaas ke maidaan milte hain jinhein stepeej kaha jaata hai. yeh maidaan dakshini roos, roomaaniya evam Hungary ke denyoob pradesh mein vistrut hai. is ghaas pradesh mein ghaas khaane vaale jaanavar jaise ghoda, baarahasinga evam ghaas mein reingane vaale jeev paae jaate hain.

dakshini Europe ke bhoomadhya saagareeya pradesh mein jahaaain bhoomadhyasaagareeya jalavaayu paai jaati hai vahaaain chaudi patti vaale sadaabahaar van milte hain. yahaaain baloot, jaitoon, seedaar, saaipras, akharot, baadaam, santara, anjeer evam angoor jaise falon ke vruksh khoob paida hote hain. uttari-pashchimi madhya Europe mein samasheetoshn katibndheeya chaudi patti vaale patajhad ke van paae jaate hain. kathor sheet se suraksha ke liye yahaaain ke vruksh jaade ke praarambh mein apni pattiyaaain gira dete hain. aise vrukshon mein baloot, aish, beech, barch, elm, maipil, chestanat aur akharot mukhya hain. ooainchein pravateeya bhaagon mein adhik thandak ke kaaran nukeeli patti vaale van paae jaate hain. inke pramukh vruksh cheed, far, sanovar, laarch, sproos, seedaar aur hemalaak hain. is prakaar Europe mein patajhad evam nukeeli patti ke vrukshon ke mishrit van paae jaate hain.

sandarbh

  1. "European Climate". World Book. World Book, Inc. http://www.worldbook.com/wb/Students?content_spotlight/climates/european_climate. abhigman tithi: 2008-06-16.
  2. tivaari, vijay shankar (July 2004). aalok bhoo-darshan. Calcutta: nirmal prakaashan. pa॰ 71.

yeh bhi dekhein