England ka itihaas

anukram

poorvaromanakaaleen Britain

sabhyata ke ek star tak pahuainche hue England ke praacheenatam nivaasi keltik jaati ke the jinmein pashchaat ke deshaantaravaasi braayathan ya britn kahalaae, jisse "Britain" sanjnyaa nikli. keltik athva uske poorvi jaatiyon ke aagaman ke koi likhit pramaan naheen milte. Ireland ki dweep mein, jo pehle aairan aur skoshiya naam se vidit tha, ek aur jaati ke log, skauts the. ye paaainchaveen shataabdi ke uttaraardh mein kailedoniya athva uttari Britain apne jaateeya niyam, hastashilp, dhaatushastraastr, krushi, yuddhakala tatha dharm (dryoodavaad) se parichit the. gaal pradesh ke kelti svajaatiyon se tatha greek se inke vyaapaarik sambandh the. 330 E.poo. ke aaspaas paithiyaas tatha, do shataabdi uparaant, poseedoniys vyaapaaroddeshya se nikle greek vyaktiyon mein se the.

roman kaal

55 E.poo. mein roman senaani jooliys seejr aakramanon ne Britain ko ashaant kar diya. 43 E.poo. mein samraat klaadiys ke shaasan mein Britain par vijay ki niyamit yojana banaai gayi tatha aagaami 40 varshon mein skepula, paaliniys aur agreekola ityaadi roman kshetrapon ke antargat use poora kiya gaya. Britain ka bruhat kshetr 410 E. tak roman praant raha tatha is yug mein is pradesh ki deeksha roman sanskruti mein hui. sadkon ka nirmaan hua. unase sambandhit nagaron ka udaya hua. roman vidhisanhita vahaaain prachalit hui. khaanon ki khudaai shuru hui. niyam aur vyavastha laai gayi. Britain ko anaaj ka niryaatapradhaan desh banaane ke liye krushi ko mahatva mila aur landeeniym (aadhunik London) pramukh vyaapaarik nagar ban gaya. roman saamraajya mein, isaai sabhyata ke prasaar ke kaaran, Britain mein bhi uske prachaaraarth chauthi shataabdi ke praarambh mein ek maarg dhooainndha gaya aur kuchh kaaloparaant iska paudha vahaaain bhi lag gaya. Britain mein roman sabhyata fir bhi krutrim aur baahya hi rahi. janta usase prabhaavit na ho saki. uske avashesh visheshat: vaastu se hi sambandhit rahe. paaainchaveen shataabdi ke aarambh mein rom ko videshi aakramanon ke viruddh ghar mein sangharsh karna pada aur 410 E. mein apni sena England se kheench leni padi.

english vijay

romanon ke chale jaane par Britain kuchh samay ke liye barbar aakramanon ka lakshya bana. uttar se pikt, pashchim se Scott tatha poorv se samudri lutere saiksan aur joot aae. saiksan tyootan jaati ke the jismein aingal, joot aur shuddh saiksan bhi sammilit the. Britain ne jooton ki sahaayata maaaingi. jooton ne 449 E. mein Britain mein pravesh kar, pikton ko paraast kar, keint pradesh mein apni satta sthaapit ki. iske uparaant saiksan jatthon ne britnon ko jeet saseks, veseks aur eseks ke pradesh mein prabhutv sthaapit kar liya. ant mein ainglon ne uttar aur madhya se desh par aakraman kiya aur aingleeya vyavastha sthaapit ki. ye teenon vijeta jaatiyaaain saamaanyat: english naam se prasiddh huin. ainglosaiks vijay ki yeh prakriya lagbhag 150 varshon tak chali jismein adhikaansh britnon ka daman hua aur ek nai sabhyata aaropit hui.

ainglosaiksan vijyoparaant saat raajyon ka saptashaasan kendra, saseks, veseks, eseks, naarthanbriya, poorveeya aingliya aur marsiya par sthaapit hua. ye raajya satat paarasparik yuddhon mein nirt rahe aur teen raajya (marsiya, naarthanbriya tatha veseks) apni vijyon ke kaaran adhik shaktishaali hue. ant mein veseks ne sarvopari shakti arjit ki. saptashaasan ke pramukh raajaaon mein keint ke ethelabart, naarthanbriya ke edavin, marsiya ke peda tatha veseks ke itni prasiddh hain. yahi vah samay hai jab ogasteen ke prayaas se (597 E.) England ne isaai dharm ki deeksha li aur ogasteen kaintarabari ke pratham aarchabishp niyukt hue. keint, naarthanbriya aur marsiya ne kram se naya dharm angeekaar kiya. udhaar seint paatrik tatha seint kolanba kramash: Ireland aur skaatalaind mein samaan kaarya mein nirt the. England ke is dharmaparivrtan ne raashtreeya ekat ka maarg prashast kiya.

veseks ka utkarsh

praacheen 15 saiksan raajaaon ki pankti ka praarambh egbart (802-39) se tatha ant lauhapurush edamand (1017) ke shaasan se hota hai. in do shataabdiyon mein naarthamainon athva denon ke aakraman hue aur iski paraakaashtha alafred mahan ke shaasan (871-901) mein hui jisne 878 E. mein ethenadan ke yuddh kshetr mein inko paraast kiya. alafred ka shaasan yuddh aur shaanti ki safalataaon se ullekhaneeya hai. usane veseks ko vyavasthit kiya, sainik sudhaar kiye, jalasena sthaapit ki, niyamon mein sanshodhan kiye aur gyaan protsaahan diya. ainglosaiksan vrutaant ka sangrah isi ke shaasan mein hua. is yug ka ek aur prasiddh vyakti, kaintarabari ka aarchabishp, tansten hua, jo alfred ke uttaraadhikaariyon ki chhatrachhaaya mein raashtranaayak aur dharmasudhaarak ke roop mein vikhyaat hua. saiksan raajakul lagbhag chauthaai shataabdi ke liye ethelared ki adooradarshi neeti ke kaaran sattaaheen kar diya gaya. antat: den apna nirankush raajatantr kainyoot ki adhyakshata mein sthaapit karne mein 1017 E. mein safal hue.

den vyavastha tatha saiksan punaraavrutti

1017 se 1042 E. tak England teen den raajaaon dvaara shaasit hua. kainyoot, jisne 18 varsh shaasan kiya, England, Denmark tatha naarve ka raaja tha. shaasan ka praarambh barbarata se kar, usane England mein niymavyavastha pun: sthaapit ki, denon aur sthaaneeya janta ko samadrushti se dekha aur rom ki teerthayaatra ki, jahaaain usane english yaatriyon ko suvidhaaen dilaain. uske ayogya putron ke shaasan mein den saamraajya ka ant ho gaya.

Edward (doshasveekaarak) ke vyaktitv mein veseks ka punaruddhaar hua. Edward videshi prabhaavon ka das ho gaya tha. veseks ke arl gaadavin ke netrutv mein is prabhaav ke viruddh ek raashtreeya aandolan hua. Edward ka shaasan (1042-66) usi aandolan ya sangharsh ke liye prasiddh hai. usaki mrutyu par gaadavin ka putr hairold shaasak chuna gaya, kintu gaddi ka daavedaar naarmandi ka Duke William ho gaya tha jo 1066 E. mein hestingj ke yuddhakshetr mein England par aakraman karne ke uparaant, hairold ko ukhaad feink chuka tha. saiksan raajyatantr samaapt hua aur William english sinhaasan par aaroodh hua.

naarman punarnirmaan

William pratham (vijeta) ka shaasanakaal (1066-87) punarnirmaan tatha vyavasthaanirt tha. usane apni sthiti nai saanmataneeti se english aur naarman praja ke samaan reeti se dabaakar tatha dhaarmik sudhaaron se sudrudh kar li. lene Frank ki popavirodhi sahaayata se usane apni svaadheenata sthaapit ki. bhoomi ka lekha, doomsde book, taiyaar kiya. uske putr William dviteeya (roofs) ka shaasan (1087-1100) shathata aur durvyavastha ka parichaayak hai. uske shaasanakaal ki pramukh ghatanaaeain hain, kaintarabari ke oopar raaja aur ensem ka sangharsh tatha pratham dharmayuddh (kroosed) jismein usaka bhaai roobart yuddhasanchaalan ke liye naarmandi ko girvi rakhakar sammilit hua tha. 1100 E. mein vijeta ka sabse chhota beta henari pratham (1100-1135) gaddi par baitha aur 1106 E. mein naarmandi ko, roobart ko haraakar pun: praapt kiya. uske prashaasakeeya sudhaar, jinmein kuriya rejis ya raaja dvaara nyaayaalaya ki sthaapana bhi sammilit hai, use "nyaaya ka Singh" ki padavi dilaane mein sahaayak hue. henari ki putri maitilda ka vaivaahik sambandh aaainjoo ke kaaunt Geoffrey plaintejanet ke saath ho jaane ke kaaran plaintejanet vansh ki sthaapana hui. aagaami varshon mein stifen (1135-1154) ke shaasan mein maitilda ke netrutv mein ek uttaraadhikaar ka yuddh chalta raha jab tak yeh nirnaya naheen ho gaya ki stifen ke uparaant maitilda ka putr navayuvak henari gaddi ka adhikaari hoga.

plaintejanet shaasak

henari dviteeya ka shaasan (1154-89) english itihaas mein ghor garbhasthiti mein tha. iske shaasan ki visheshataaon mein pradhaan theen England aur skaatalaind ke sambandhon mein saameepya, raajakeeya vyavastha ka eksachekar aur nyaaya par aadhaarit drudheekaran, kyooriya rejis ka udaya, saamaanya english niyam ka aavirbhaav tatha svaayatt shaasan evam gyaan ki paranparaaon ka vikaas hua. uske klainreindan vidhaan (1164) ne raaja aur church ke sambandhon ka nirdhaaran kiya. henari tatha kaintarabari ke aarchabishp taamas beket mein charchaneeti par paraspar sangharsh tatha beket ke vadh ne is charchaneeti ko asafal kar diya aur church viruddh raaja ka paksh kshatigrast ho gaya. henari ka putr richrd, jiska shaasan (1199-1216) truteeya dharmayuddh ke sanchaalan tatha salaadeen ke viruddh filisteen ki usaki vijyon ke liye prasiddh hai, sadaiv hi anupasthit shaasak raha. usaka shaasanakaal raabinhud ke kaaryon se sambandhit hai. usaki mrutyu ke uparaant usaka bhaai jaan gaddi par baitha, jiska shaasan nrushans atyaachaar tatha vishvaasaghaat ka prateek hai. France ke Phillip dviteeya se jhagadkar naarmandi tatha usaka satat adhikaar usane kho diya aur Pope se jhagadkar use ghor lajja ka saamana karna pada. uske bairanon se sangharsh ka ant english svaadheenata ki neenv mahaan pariptr (maignaakaarta - 1215) par hastaakshar ke saath hua.

henari truteeya (1216-72) ke deergh shaasan ko Simon di maantafart ke netrutv mein bairanon ki ashaanti tatha 1258 ki aaksaford ki dhaaraaon dvaara raaja par laade gaye niyantran ka saamana karna pada. iske uparaant raaja aur Simon ke netrutv mein sarvapriya dal ke beech gruhayuddh chhida jismein henari ki haar hui. yeh shaasan angreji sansthaaon ke vikaas ke liye prasiddh hai. 1265 E. mein maantaford ne parliament mein nagaron aur baron ke pratinidhi aamantrit kar house ov kaamans ka shilaanyaas kiya. Edward pratham (1272-1307) ki adhyakshata mein vels ki vijay poorn ki gayi. iska shaasan, angreji kaanoon, nyaaya aur sena mein sudhaar tatha 1295 ki maadal paarlaameint ke dvaara paarlaameint ko raashtreeya sanstha bana dene ke prayatn ke liye mahatvapoorn hai. apriya tatha shithil Edward dviteeya (1307-27) ki mrutyu par usaka putr Edward truteeya (1327-77), jiska shaasan ghatanaapoorn tha, gaddi par baitha. skaatalaind se hue ek yuddh ke uparaant England aur France ke beech shatavarsheeya yuddh ka sootrapaat hua jo 1453 E. tak paaainch angrej shaasakon ko vikshipt kiye hue tha. uske shaasan ki doosari ghatanaaeain, paarlaameint ka do sadanon mein vibhaajan, 1348 ki "kaali mrutyu" tatha veeklif ke upadesh aadi hain. veeklif ne baaibil ka angreji mein anuvaad kar sudhaar aandolan ka aabhaas de diya tha. richrd dviteeya ke shaasan (1377-99) mein krushak vidroh ke roop mein saamaajik kraanti ki pratham peeda ki anubhooti England ne ki aur angreji saahitya ke aaranbhayita chaasar ne kaintarabari tails likhi. plaintejanet shaasan ki pramukh safalataaeain paarlaameint ka vikaas, saadhaaran janta ka vidroh, church adhikaar ka patan tatha raashtreeya bhaavana ka udaya hai.

lankaastar tatha yaark vansh

gulaabon ka yuddh

lankaastar vansh ke teenon henariyon (chaturth se shashth tak) ka shaasan 1399 E. se 1461 E. tak aantarik drushti se, keval lolaadon athva veeklif ke anuyaayiyon ke daman ko chhod, koi ghatanaatmak mahatva naheen rakhata. baahya drushti se henari pancham ke shaasan mein shatavarsheeya yuddh ki punaraavrurtti, agin court ki 1415 ki vijay, rogen ka bandi hona tatha 1420 ki traayas ki sandhi sahaayak hui. henari pasht (1422-61) ke shaasan mein shatavarsheeya yuddh safalataapoorvak chalta raha, jab tak France ko krushakakumaari us aark ki jon ke vyaktitv mein traanakarta naheen mila, jiske josheele netrutv ke saamane angrej hataprabh ho gaye aur 1453 i. mein ek kaile ko chhod apne saare freinch pradesh gainva baithe. kintu is shaasan mein gruhayuddh--gulaabon ka yuddh (1455-1485) - hua jo shaasan satta ke hastaantaran ke liye lankaastar tatha yaarkavansh mein lada gaya. pakshon ka netrutv kramash: henari shashth tatha richrd ne kiya. antim vijyon ne raajamukut yaark vansh ke Edward ko diya jisne sansad ki sveekruti se 1461 E. mein Edward chaturth ke naam se raajyaarohan kiya. 1485 E. mein yaarkavansheeya saamant rishmaand ke arl henari ne vaasavarth ke yuddh mein richrd ko paraast kar henari saptam ke naam se, yaarkavansheeya Rajkumari Elizabeth ka byaah, England ko raajamukut le tyoodaravansh ki sthaapana ki.

lankaastar yug ki kuchh yugaantarakaari ghatanaaeain theen : sansadeeya shaktiyon ka vikaas, Loksabha ki svaatantrya vijay, gulaabon ke yuddhon ke saamanti gharaanon ke vidhvans ke saath raashtreeya bhaavana ko protsaahan tatha raajasatta ki vruddhi, Pope ke adhikaaron ka kramik hraas aur kaiksatan ke chhaapekhaane ke aavishkaar se janit saahitya mein badhti hui anurakti.

tyoodar yug

yadyapi tyoodar yug ka aavirbhaav madhyayug ka ant aur aadhunik yug ka aarambh hai, fir bhi kai drushtiyon se madhyayugeen pravruttiyon ke vistaar ko hi siddh karta hai. saath hi yeh angreji itihaas ke mahaan parivrtanon evam rachanaaon ka yug tha, jab England ne vah sthiti grahan ki jo aagaami itihaas mein poorvavat bani rahi. nae gyaan, bhaugolik khojon, aavishkaaron, nootan raashtravaad, sudhaar aandolan tatha saamaajik shaktiyon ne England ke svaroop mein poornat: parivartan kar diya. henari saptam (1485-1509) nootan raajatantr tatha chhalapoorn nirankushata ka vidhaata thaa1 yeh raajashakti kisi aupachaarik vaidhaanik parivartan ke kaaran naheen, janta ke vishvaas, samay ki aavashyakataaon tatha raajaaon ki dooradarshita ke parinaamasvaroop paida hui. tyoodar shaasakon ne saamanvaadi satta ko dabaaya tatha saarvajanaki sveekruti par aadhaarit saamantasatta ke bhagnaavashesh par drudh raajatantr sthaapit kiya. tyoodar shaasakon ne ek sahaayak sansad ke sahayog se, jo raajechha ka saadhan ban gayi thi, shaasan kiya. kintu sansad ka adhikaar siddhaantat: bhi samaapt naheen kiya gaya; varan sansad ke kaaryon ko protsaahan diya gaya jiske falasvaroop yug ke ant tak sansadeeya shaktiyon ki vruddhi hui. raajaaon ki lipsa ne unhein aarthik drushti se svaadheen kar diya tha.

dhaarmik vyavastha in shaasakon ki mahaan safalta thi. henari ashtam (1509-47) ke netrutv mein rom se jo sanbandhavichhed ek vidhaanamaala ke dvaara hua, vah Edward shashth ke shaasan mein (1547-53) bhi chala. yadyapi kuchh samay ke liye meri tyoodar ke shaasan mein (1553-58) vah vyavastha bhang hui thi, fir bhi Elizabeth pratham (1558-1603) ke shaasan mein usaki poornata ki or pragati hui aur ainglikn dharmavyavasthaaon ki sthaapana hui. tyoodar shaasakon ki vaideshik neeti, keval Elizabeth ke yug ko chhod, jab shaasak ko pratirodh aandolan ke anuyaayiyon ke viruddh sangharsh tatha meri stuart ki faansi ke falasvaroop Spain se yuddh karna padta tha, adhiktar shaanti aur England ko sudrudh karne mein lagi thi. is neeti ki ek abhivyakti raajavansheeya vivaahon mein hui. inke shaasakon ke drudh shaasan mein Ireland ka vightan kar skaatalaind ko pehle vaivaahik, fir dhaarmik bandhan mein England se baaaindhakar Britain ki ekta ko kriyaatmak sanjnyaa di gayi.

yeh yug, jaan tatha kaibet ki bhaugolik khojons, chaansalar, vilgabi, fraabishr, drek tatha haakins ke vyaapaarik maargasthaapan, chhaapaakhaana, baarood aur kutubanuma ke aavishkaar, vyaapaarik kapanniyon ki rachana (jismein East India company bhi thi) tatha Amreeki pramukh sthal par varjeeniya aise upaniveshon ki sthaapana aadi ke liye mahatvapoorn hai. Britain ki naavikkala ki sarvochchata bhi tabhi pratishthit hui jisse vaanijya aur krushi ka vikaas hua. vyaapaarik parivrtanon ke madhya varg ko janm diya jo saamaajik adhinimyan ki aavashyakta ka sanketak siddh hua. tyoodar shaasak ek aise svaayatt shaasan ke rachayita the jo 19veen shataabdi tak prachalit raha. nirdhanon ko niyamit dhang se laabhaanvit karne ka prayatn 1601 ke nirdhan kaanoon se hua. sukh aur sabhyata ka bhautik star bhi ooaincha utha. navajaagruti ko majaboot aadhaar mila aur buddhi evam sanskruti ke kshetr mein iska pramaan mila. Elizabeth ke shaasan mein saahitya ko bada protsaahan mila. tab naatakon ki parinti sheksapiyr tatha maarlo ne, kavita ka vikaas spensar ne aur nootan gadya hookar tatha bekan ne kiya.

praarambhik stuart shaasak, gruhayuddh, raajatantr ka pun: sthaapana tatha kraanti-1603 E. mein James pratham ke raajyaarohan se England aur skaatalaind ke raajamukut ek ho gaye tatha England mein vaideshik Scott vansh ki sthaapana praarambh hui. tyoodar nirankush vyavastha tatha sansad se saamanjasya ki aavashyakta ke samaapt ho jaane se England ki baahya aur aantarik sthiti mein ek nae yug ka aavirbhaav hua. stuart shaasak vikaasamaan raashtra ki shaktiyon se sangharsh kar bethe jiske parinaam gruhayuddh, ganatantreeya anubhav, raajatantr ka pun:sthaapan tatha kraantikaari vyavastha hue. raashtra ka vikaas, raajaaon ka charitra, stuart shaasakon ko daivi adhikaarajanya raajaneeti mein roodhivaadi aastha tatha ugr pyooreetanavaad ityaadi ka saamoohik parinaam hua raaja aur sansad ke beech ek mahaan vaidhaanik sangharsh. yeh sangharsh James pratham (1603-25) tatha Charles pratham (1625-49) ke shaasan ki pradhaan ghatna hai. raaja ke visheshaadhikaaron ki prushthabhoomi se utpann is sangharsh ke pradhaan paksh dharm, arth, tatha vaideshik neeti the. 1628 E. mein Loksabha apne adhikaaron ka pariptr praapt karne mein safal hui. kintu Charles fir svechhaapoorn shaasan par drudh ho gaya aur sansad ke deergh adhiveshan ke uparaant ghatanaachakron ne raaja tatha sansand ke dalon ke beech gruhayuddh ko drutagaami kar diya. 1648 E. tak raaja ke pakshapaati ukhaad feinke gaye tatha doosare varsh Charles par abhiyog lagaakar use faansi de di gayi.

ganatantreeya vishkanbhak (1649-60) mein England ko ganatantr ghoshit kiya gaya aur olivr kraamavel ne mahaan sanrakshakapad se 1658 tak shaasan kiya. aantarik drushti se yeh yug sainik shaasanasthaapana, ghor pyooritnavaadi prayog tatha kai vaidhaanik yojanaaon ke liye ullekhaneeya hai. kraamavel ki vaideshik neeti ke parinaamasvaroop dach aur Spain se yuddh hue tatha England ko jal aur sthal donon yuddhon mein yash mila. usaka pradhaan uddeshya british vyaapaar tatha pyooritn mat ki vruddhi karna tha. use England, skaatalaind tatha Ireland ki ekta ke prayatn mein safalta mili. kintu aantarik shaasan mein jantantra ko samaapt kar dene ke kaaran raajatantr fir se sthaapit karne ke paksh mein ek raashtreeya pratikriya hui aur kraamavel ki mrutyu ke uparaant uske putr richrd ke shaasanakaal mein saare desh par araajakata chha gayi. parinaamasvaroop 1660 E. mein stuart raajatantr pun: sthaapit hua.

1660 E. ki vyavastha ne raajatantr tatha paarlaameint donon ko pun: sthaapit kiya. Charles dviteeya ke shaasan (1660-85) ne klainreindan sanhita ke antargat aimlin dharmavyavastha sthaapit ki, panratu Charles dviteeya ne kaitholikon ko bhi dhaarmik sahishnuta deni chaahi. bahishkaar-niyam (eksaklyoojn bill) janya sangharsh ne England mein do dal, kramash: petishnar tatha abhorar, paida kiye jo aage chalakar hvig aur tori kahalaae. uske shaasan ki visheshata vaidhaanik pragati tatha netik heenata mein hai. 1665 E. mein taaoon ka prakop hua tatha 1666 mein bheeshan agnikaand. apni vaideshik neeti ka aarambh Charles dviteeya ne France se maitreepoorn vyavahaar, Spain se shatruta tatha dachon se yuddh kiya. uske shaasan (1685-88) mein raaja aur paarlaameint ka sangharsh fir apne praarambhik bindu par pahuaincha. usane Catholic mat ke prati sahishnuta, sthaayi sena tatha French mantri par aadhaarit stuart nirankushata ko punarjeevit karne ka prayatn kiya. usaka roman mat ka saarvajanik pratipaadan, raajashakti ka prayog, dharm-svaatantrya-ghoshana ka prakaashan tatha isi se mishrit, uske putr ho jaane ke kaaran, Catholic mat ke bhaavi sunahare avsar, saamoohik roop se 1688 E. ki tathaakathit gauravashaali kraanti mein parilkshit hue. parinaamat: William truteeya evam meri ka raajatilk hua.

kraantipravarti yug

William truteeya aur meri (1689-94) ke sammilit tatha William truteeya (1694-1702) ke akele shaasan mein 1688 ki kraanti dvaara arjit safalataaon ka samyak pratipaadan hua. 1689 ka adhikaaron ka prastaav tatha uske uparaant 1702 E. ke vyavastha kaanoon ne angreji svaadheenata ke kshetr ko aur bhi vyaapak kar diya. tab bhoomi mein sansadeeya sarkaar ke beej daale gaye, dhaarmik sahishnuta tatha press svaatantrya praapt hua aur aarthik sudhaaron ko kaaryaanvit kiya gaya. vaideshik kshetr mein pramukh ghatanaaeain lui chaturdash ke viruddh english uttaraadhikaar ka yuddh tatha Spain ke uttaraadhikaar ke prashn ko saral kar dene ke uddeshya se ki gayi vibhaajanasandhiyaaain theen, jinhonne England ko France se dviteeya yuddh karne ke liye baadhya kiya. William ke uparaant raani N (1702-14) ke shaasan mein maarlabaron ki vijyon ke kaaran prasiddh Spain ke uttaraadhikaar ka yuddh tatha 1713 ki utraikt ki sandhi hui. desh ki pramukh ghatanaaeain raajaneetik dalagat sarkaar ki rachana tatha 1707 mein ekta kaanoon ke dvaara England aur skaatalaind ka ek raashtra mein vilyan hai.

stuart kaaleen England ki visheshata vyaapaarik prasaar, vest Indies tatha uttari amareeka ke upanivesheekaran aur Bhaarat tatha amareeka mein vyaapaarik keindron ki sthaapana thi. vyaapaar se dhan mein vruddhi hui aur samudra mein dach aur fraanseesiyon ko paraast kar Britain jal ka svaami ban gaya. isi kaal hui England ke bank ki sthaapana vishesh mahatva rakhati hai. saanskrutik aur bauddhik unnati bhi paryaapt maatra mein hui. vikhyaat vyaktiyon mein angreji kraanti tatha gruhayuddh ke lekhak klainreinden, kavita mein jaan miltan, mahaan aalankaarik lekhakon mein jaan banyan, vyangyalekhakon mein jaan draaiden, daarshanikon mein jaan laak tatha ganitjnyaon evam bhautiki daarshanikon mein aaijk nyootan aadi ullekhaneeya hain.

praarambhik hainovar shaasak

George pratham (1714-27) ne ek shaantipoorn yug ka aarambh kiya jo keval 1715 ke skaatalaind ke jaikobas sambandhi vidroh ke kaaran kuchh samay ke liye bhang hua tha. vaidhaanik drushtikon se raaja ke mantriyon ki baithak mein sammilit na hone ke kaaran mantrimandal (cabinet) pranaali ke vikaas ki drushti se is shaasan ka mahatva hai. pehle koi pradhaanamantri naheen hota tha, kintu jab 1721 E. mein vaalapol ne mantripd ka kaaryabhaar sainbhaala, usane apni sarvochchata cabinet ke prateet kara di aur vyaavahaarik reeti se pratham pradhaanamantri bana. vaalapol tatha uske uttaraadhikaariyon ke shaasan mein bhi hvig mantrimandal kaaryabhaar sainbhaale raha. 1702 E. mein dakshini saagar ki baboola naam ki vyaapaarik barabaadi ghatit hui. George dviteeya (1727-60) ke bhi shaasan mein 1739 tak shaanti rahi tatha 1742 tak vaalapol mantrimandal chalta raha. vaalapol gruhasamruddhi tatha vaideshik shanti mein aastha rakhata tha. usaki aarthik neeti ka lakshya vyaapaar ka prasaar tha. 1739 E. mein Spain ke Amreeki upanivshon mein vyaapaarik adhikaar ke prashn par Britain ka Spain se yuddh hua, taduparaant Maria therisa ke paksh mein France aur prasha ke viruddh England ko aastriya-uttaraadhikaar-yuddh mein pravesh karna pada. 1745 E. mein saptavarsheeya yuddh France aur Britain mein chhida jiska sanchaalan chaitham ke arl William pit ne badi kushalata se kiya. veseli ke netrutv mein methodist church ka udaya aur vikaas England ke dhaarmik itihaas mein mahatvapoorn ghatna hai.

George truteeya (1760-1820)

iska shaasan England ke itihaas ke atyadhik, ghatanaapoorn yugon mein se hai. iske pratham bhaag mein saptavarsheeya yuddh ka peris ki sandhi (1763) dvaara ant hua. Canada par England ka adhikaar bhi isi beech hua aur saath hi isi kaal ki ve ghatanaaeain hain jinka ant amareeka ke yuddh tatha 1783 mein usaki svaadheenata mein hua. great Britain ke netrutv mein Ireland ko adhiniyman ki svaadheenata (1782) mil gayi. Bhaarat mein vaaren hestingj ki adhyakshata mein british satta sudrudh hui tatha Australia ka upanivesheekaran praarambh hua. aantarik drushti George truteeya ne raaja ke vilupt visheshaadhikaaron ko pun: jeevit karna chaaha tatha laard North (1770-82) ke mantritvakaal mein us lakshya ki siddhi hui. audyogik kraanti ke pramukh aavishkaar, jinhonne shaareerik shram ke sthaan par machine tatha jalataran ke sthaan par bhaap ka engine diya, isi yug ki den hain. 1783 E. se 1801 E. tak William (putr) pit ka mantrikaal hai jiske pratham das varsh shaanti, aarthik sudhaar tatha France ki raajyakraanti ke prati Britain ke sahaanubhootipoorn drushtikon ke liye ullekhaneeya hain. kraanti ke yuddhon ke 1793 E. mein praarambh ho jaane tatha pratham raashtramandal gut ke udghaatan ke kaaran Britain ka France se yuddh hua. kraanti ke siddhaanton se gruhavyavastha ke aatankit ho jaane ke kaaran pit ki pratikriyaavaadi neeti tatha tori dalaprabhaavashaali hue. 1800 E. mein ekta ka aayareeya vidhaan paas kiya gaya.

naipoliyn ke yuddh, jo vyaapaarik sangharsh, dveepeeya yuddh tatha vaataraloo ke 1815 ke nirnaya se sambandhit the, us shaasan ke antim bhaag ke hain. sanyukt raashtra (amareeka) se 1812 ka yuddh nepoliyn se England ke sangharshon ka parinaam tha. iske uparaant Europe ki punarrachana tatha Europeeya sangathan ka praadurbhaav hua jo Europeeya kanasart ke naam se vikhyaat hai aur jismein England ka pramukh bhaag raha. gruh ki drushti se yeh vyaapaarik naash, aarthik ashaanti aur tajjanya hinsa ka yug tha. audyogik kraanti ne lambe Doug bhare the tatha steemar aur railway injanon ke aavishkaar kiye the. maanavataavaadi pragati ka anumaan vilbar fors ke daasata-unmoolan-aandolan, haavard ke jal sambandhi sudhaar tatha 1802 ke pratham kaarkhaana kaanoon se lagaaya ja sakta hai. George chaturth (1820-30) tatha William chaturth (1830-37) ke shaasan mein gruh ki durvyavyavastha jaari rahi aur anek dangon ko usane janm diya. yeh sudhaaron ka yug tha, jismein 1829 ka Ireland ke Catholic ke traan ka kaanoon, iske vyaapaarik sudhaar, peel ke dandavidhaan ke sudhaar, 1832 ka pratham sudhaar kaanoon, 1833 ke factory tatha shikshaasudhaar aur 1835 ka sthaaneeya Corporation kaanoon ullekhaneeya hai. aaksaford aandolan ka janm 1833 E. mein hua. vaideshik kshetr mein, kaining dvaara maiternink ki anudaar neeti ka virodh, greek svaadheenata sangraam, France ki 1830 ki kraanti tatha paamarstan kaal ka udaya tab ki vishesh ghatanaaeain hain.

Victoria kaal

raani Victoria ka deergh shaasan (1837-1901) laard melaborn ke sanrakshan mein praarambh hua. usane use vaidhaanik siddhaanton ki shiksha di tatha usaka vivaah saiksakobarg ke alabart se kara diya jo usaka salaahakaar bana. uske praarambhik shaasan ki pramukh ghatanaaeain chaartist aandolan, anaaj kaanoon ka 1846 E. mein vightan, 1844 ka bank chaartar kaanoon tatha 1847 ka factory kaanoon hai. peel ne anudaar dal ka pun: sanghatan kiya aur dal ke drushtikon ko aur udaar kiya. Ireland mein O" kaanal ke netrutv mein vightan aandolan chhida tatha navayuvak Ireland dal ki rachana se is aandolan ko aur bhi prashraya mila tatha 1848 ka vidroh hua. isi yug mein 1837 ka Canada vidroh tatha Canada upanivesh mein uttaradaayi shaasan ka janm hua. nyoojeelaind saamraajya mein mila liya gaya auraaastreliya ka vikaas hua. cheeni yuddh (1840-42) ke uparaant haaaingakaang ki praapti hui aur bhaarateeya saamraajya ka drudheekaran hua. Victoria ke shaasan ke madhya 1865 E. tak gruhaneeti mein paamarstan ka vyaktitv pradhaan roop se karmanya raha. pashchaat dijreli aur glaidstan ki raajaneetik pratispardha ka yug aaya. gruhashaasan ki disha mein 1867 ka dviteeya sudhaar kaanoon, 1870 ka shiksha kaanoon, 1873 ka nyaayavidhaan, 1876 aur 78 ke factory kaanoon bane tatha trade union ka vikaas hua. Ireland ki dharmavyavastha pun: sthaapit hui tatha vahaaain ki bhoovyavastha ka vidhaan paas hua. 1867 E. mein Canada ko dominiyn tatha Victoria ko Bhaarat ki samraajnyai ghoshit kiya gaya. vaideshik kshetr mein jo ghatanaaeain ghateen unamein nimnalikhit ullekhaneeya hain : 1854 E. ko roos se kreemiya ke liye yuddh, 1857 ka bhaarateeya vidroh, Italy ki svatantrataapraapti, 1857 ka dviteeya cheeni yuddh, amareeka ka gruhayuddh (1861-65) tatha ve ghatanaaeain jo 1878 ki barlin Congress ki janmadaatri theen.

Victoria ke shaasan ke ant mein truteeya sudhaar kaanoon (1884), punarvibhaajan kaanoon (1885) tatha svaayatt shaasan kaanoon (1888) ke nirmaan se jantantra mein prabhoot pragati hui. udaar dal ke vightan (1886) ne shatruon ko shaasan ki deergh avadhi de di thi. 1900 E. mein shramadaan ki sthaapana hui. Ireland ki samasya ka antim nidaan dhoondhne ke uddeshya se prastut glaidstan ke 1886 aur 1893 E. ke homarool prastaav asafal rahe. 1878 ke baad Britain kramash: dviteeya afgaan yuddh (1878-80), pratham boar yuddh (1881) tatha misr par adhikaar karne mein laga raha. Australia kaamanavelth ki sthaapana 1900 E. mein paida hui. vaideshik maamale mein yeh gauravashaali tatasthata ka yug tha.

20veen shataabdi ke praarambhik varsh

Edward saptam ka shaasan (1901-10) shram ki kathinaaiyon se, jo bahudha hadtaal ki janmadaatri theen, praarambh hua. 1906 E. mein udaar dal ke kaaryabhaar sainbhaalane se aise kaanoonon ka janm hua jo saamyavaadi bhaavana se prerit the aur jinpar majadoor dal ke utthaan ki chhaap thi. in kaanoonon mein vruddhaavastha ki penshan (1908) aur svaasthya tatha berojaagaari ki raashtreeya beema yojana (1909) apni visheshata rakhati hain. 1909 E. mein dakshin Africa sangh kaanoon tatha bhaarateeya pratinidhi niyam paas kiye gaye. vaideshik kshetr mein Germany ki aupaniveshik tatha samudri mahatvaakaankshaaon ne british drushtikon sandehaaspad kar diya aur Britain tatasthata ka tyaag karne ke liye baadhya ho gaya. 1902 ki aangl Japani, 1904 ki aangl fraanseesi, tatha 1907 ki aangl roosi sandhiyaaain antararaashtreeya raajaneeti mein Germany, aastriya tatha Italy ke gut ko pratisantulan dene lageen. George pancham ke shaasan (1910-36) mein 1912 ka sansadeeya kaanoon paas hokar uchch sadan ko aarthik shaktiyon se rahit karne mein samarth ho saka. ab raajamukut ke prati angreji vidhaan mein apaar sammaan paida hua. Ireland ka prashn sarvopari tha jisse homarool kaanoon 1915 E. mein paas hua. Germany ki mahatvaakaankshaaon ke kaaran Europeeya sthiti shankaakul ho gayi tatha morakko ki kathinaaiyon evam baalkan yuddhon ne visfot ki prushthabhoomi taiyaar kar di. 1914 E. mein pratham vishvavyaapi yuddh chhida aur belajiym par aakraman hone se London sandhi ki hatya dekhkar Britain ne Germany ke viruddh yuddhaghoshana kar di tatha 1918 E. tak Britain sthal aur jalayuddhon mein vyast raha.

vishvavyaapi yuddhon ke beech Britain

yadyapi yuddh se Britain ko aupaniveshik laabh adhik hue, tathaapi uske udyog aur vyaapaar ko bheeshan aaghaat pahuaincha jisse usaki samruddhi aur prabhaav ksheen hue. yuddh ne Britain ke saamaajik svaroop ko parivrtit kar diya. Britain mein striyon ka traan, bade raajyon ka vightan, nagaron ke sameepavarti pradeshon ki pragati tatha vaigyaanik evam kala sambandhi vikaas hue. shaantipoorn yug ki aarthik vyavastha ki aavashyakta ne Britain ko audyogik vikaas ki or drut gati se agrasar kiya jiske falasvaroop shram ki samasya ki abhivyakti 1926 ki saadhaaran hadtaal mein hui. iske uparaant 1931 E. mein baajaaron mein vastuon ki dar gir gayi jisse aarthik aur audyogik sankat utpann ho gaya. utpaadan vruddhi ke upaaya dhooaindhe jaane lage aur aniyantrit vyaapaar ke siddhaant ka parityaag kar diya gaya. vyaya mein kami, shramamoolya ki katauti tatha karon ki vruddhi aadi se sthiti mein sudhaar kiya gaya. samaajavaadi siddhaant tatha samaajavaadi kaaryon ko protsaahan mila. 1936 mein Edward ashtam ke raajyatyaag ki samasya ne raashtra ka dhyaan kuchh samay ke liye keindrit rakha tha aur George shashth ke raajatilk mein sahaayak hua.

saamraajyavaadi itihaas mein british raashtrasangh ko janm denevaala 1931 ka vestaminstar vidhaan, 1937 ke vidhaan se Ireland ka saarvabhaum jantantra raajya, bhaarateeya raashtreeya aandolan ki 1947 ke svaadheen raashtra mein parinti ityaadi ghatanaaeain hain. vaideshik kshetr mein british neeti 1936 E. tak, jab tak shanai:shanai: pun:shastreekaran praarambh naheen hua, antararaashtr sangh se baindhi hui thi. 1937 E. mein nevil cheinbaralen ki raashtreeya sarkaar ki, jiske Germany ko prasann karne ke saare prayatn asafal rahe, rachana hui. hitlar ki ek ke baad ek raashtra hadp lene ki neeti pehli September, 1939 E. ko Poland par aakraman karne ko badhi, tab Britain bhi Germany ke viruddh yuddh mein kood pada. May, 1940 mein cheinbaralen ko vinstan charchil ke liye pradhaan mantri ka sthaan rikt karna pada. charchil ke satat prayatn aur roos ko asaadhaaran kshamata tatha balidaanon ne yuddh ko 1945 E. mein safalta ki seema par pahuainchaaya. usi varsh saadhaaran nirvaachan mein paarlaameint mein klemeint aitali samaajavaadi bahusankhyak dal ke saath, saamaajik utthaan, suraksha evam anivaarya udyogon aur sevaaon ke raashtreekaran ki vyaapak neeti liye apna mantrimandal banaane mein safal hue.

aadhunik England

England athva Britain ke sansaar bhar mein abhi tak kai upanivesh vartamaan hain, yatha-Brunei, shiseleej, faaklaind dveepasamooh, jibraaltar, haaaingakaang, seint helena tatha antaarkatik, hind mahaasaagar, West Indies aur pashchimi prashaant sthit pradesh. dviteeya vishvayuddh ke baad Bhaarat, malayeshiya, Ghana, naaijeeriya, tanjaaniya, saaipras, jamaika, Trinidad tatha anya kai desh british upanivesh na rahakar svatantr ho gaye hain aur sanprati raashtramandal ke niyamit sadasya hain. 1970 E. mein fiji tatha taanga aur 1971 E. mein pashchimi samoaa bhi aajaad hokar raashtramandal mein sammilit ho gaye hain.

November, 1965 E. mein rodeshiya naamak british upanivesh ke alpasankhyak shvet logon ne is desh ko svatantr ghoshit karke balaat satta sainbhaal li aur 2 March 1970 E. ko naya samvidhaan laagoo karke yeh desh ganatantr raashtra ke roop mein saamane aaya, haalaaainki naya samvidhaan ganatantreeya bhaavana se katai mel naheen khaata, kyonki ismein prashaasakeeya evam vidhi sambandhi saare adhikaar alpasankhyak goron ko hi praapt hain, kaale vyaktiyon (rodeshiya ke mool nivaasi) ko maatr naam ke liye hi adhikaar diye gaye hain. ispar Britain tatha anya raashtron ne rodeshiya par kade aarthik pratibandh laga diye. 1966 E. ke December mein raashtrasangh ne kuchh chuninda vastuon ko lekar rodeshiya ke saath vyaapaar karne par pratibandh lagaane ka prastaav paarit kar diya. 1971 E. ke dauraan rodeshiya tatha England ki sarkaarein ubhaya pakshon ko sveekaarya samjhaute ki rooparekha taiyaar karne ko sahamat ho gain aur 1972 E. ki January mein laard piyrsein ke netrutv mein ek shishtamandal rodeshiya gaya taaki rodeshiyaavaalon ke rukh ka poora-poora jaayaja liya ja sake.

hairaald Wilson ke netrutv mein 1964 E. ke dauraan udaar dal ne England ka shaasan sainbhaala. parantu desh ki aarthik dasha ladkhada chuki thi aur sthiti yahaaain tak pahuainch gayi thi ki bhugataan ki raashi chukaane mein bhi sarkaar ko kathinaai ka saamana karna pad raha tha. at: aarthik sanyam ke liye kadam uthaaya gaya. rinon par rok lagaai gayi aur keematon tatha aay par niyantran rakhane hetu kaanoon banaaya gaya. November, 1967 E. mein pound ka 14.3 pratishat avmoolyan hua. January, 1968 E. mein aarthik raahat ke liye kuchh aur upaaya kiye gaye jinmein 1971 E. tak Singapore, malayeshiya tatha faaras ki khaadi se british faujon ko vaapas bulaane ka kaaryakram bhi sammilit tha. lekin 1969 E. aate-aate Britain ki aarthik dasha mein apekshaakrut sudhaar hua aur uparyukt niyamon mein dhilaai barati jaane lagi. June, 1970 ke chunaav mein anudaar dal ki vijay hui aur Edward heeth England ke pradhaanamantri bane. nai sarkaar ne October mein keindreeya prashaasan ka punargathan kiya aur vaanijya tatha udyog mantraalaya evam paryaavaran mantraalaya naam se do aur mantraalaya sthaapit kiye. 1970 E. ke dauraan anudaar dal ki sarkaar ne mudraasthiti, hadtaalon tatha majadoori badhaane ki maaaingon par rok lagaane ke liye niyam banaae. bekaari rokane ke 1971 E. mein is sarkaar ne raashtreeya star par vyaapak audyogik prashikshan yojana laagoo ki.

22 January 1972 E. ko Britain ne "Europeeya aarthik samudaaya" mein sammilit hone ki sandhi par hastaakshar kiye aur british sansad se sveekruti milne par 1 January 1973 E. ko Britain ukt samudaaya ka niyamit sadasya ban gaya. iske liye use "Europeeya mukt vyaapaar sangathan" se isteefa dena pada.

inhein bhi dekhein