Dwivedi yug

mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi ka saahitya aadhunik hindi saahityetihaas ka aadikaal hai. iska pehla charan bhaaratendu-yug hai evam doosra charan Dwivedi-yug. mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi ek aise saahityakaar the, jo bahubhaashaavid hone ke saath hi saahitya ke itar vishyon mein bhi samaan ruchi rakhate the. unhonne sarasvati ka athaarah varshon tak sanpaadan kar hindi patrakaarita mein ek mahaan keertimaan sthaapit kiya tha. ve hindi ke pehle vyavasthit samaalochak the, jinhonne samaalochana ki kai pustakein likhi theen. ve khadi boli hindi ki kavita ke praarambhik aur mahatvapoorn kavi the. aadhunik hindi kahaani unheen ke prayatnon se ek saahityik vidha ke roop mein maanyata praapt kar saki thi. ve bhaashaashaastri the, anuvaadak the, itihaasajnya the, arthashaastri the tatha vigyaan mein bhi gahari ruchi rakhane vaale the. antat: ve yugaantar laane vaale saahityakaar the ya doosare shabdon mein kahein, yug nirmaata the. ve apne chintan aur lekhan ke dvaara hindi pravesh mein nav-jaagaran paida karne vaale saahityakaar the.

mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi hindi ke pehle saahityakaar the, jinko 'aachaarya' ki upaadhi mili thi. iske poorv sanskrut mein aachaaryon ki ek parampara thi. May, 1933 E. mein naagari prachaarini sabha ne unki sattaraveen varshagaaainth par banaaras mein ek bada saahityik aayojan kar Dwivedi ka abhinandan kiya tha unke sammaan mein Dwivedi abhinandan granth ka prakaashan kar, unhein samarpit kiya tha. is avsar par Dwivedi ji ne jo apna vaktavya diya tha, vah 'aatm-nivedan' naam se prakaashit hua tha. is 'aatm-nivedan' mein ve kehte hain, ''mujhe aachaarya ki padaveen mili hai. kyon mili hai, maaloom naheen. kab, kisne di hai, yeh bhi mujhe maaloom naheen. maaloom sirf itna hi hai ki main bahudha-is padavi se vibhooshit kiya jaata hooain.....shankaraachaarya, madhvaachaarya, saankhyaachaarya aadi ke sadrush kisi aachaarya ke charanaraj: kan ki baraabari main naheen kar sakta. banaaras ke sanskrut college ya kisi vishvavidyaalaya mein bhi mainne kadam naheen rakha. fir is padavi ka mustahak main kaise ho gaya ?'' mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi ne maitrik tak ki padhaai ki thi. tatpashchaat ve railway mein naukri karne lage the.

usi samay inhonne apne liye siddhaant nishchit kiye-vakt ki paabandi karna, rishvat na lena, apna kaam imaandaari se karna aur gyaan-vruddhi ke liye satat prayatn karte rahana. Dwivedi ji ne likha hai, ''pehle teen siddhaanton ke anukool aacharan karna to sahaj tha, par chauthe ke anukool sachet rahana kathin tha. tathaapi satat abhyaas se usamein bhi safalta hoti gayi. taarabaaboo hokar bhi, ticket babu, maalabaaboo, station master, yahaaain tak ki rel patariyaaain bichhaane aur usaki sadak ki nigraani karanevaale plate-leyar (Permanent way Inspector) tak ka bhi kaam mainne seekh liya. fal achha hi hua. afsaron ki nazar mujh par padi. meri tarakkee hoti gayi. vah is tarah ki ek dafe mujhe chhodkar tarakki ke liye darakhvaast naheen deni padi.'' Dwivedi ji 15 rupaye maasik par railway mein bahaal hue the aur jab unhonne 1904 E. mein naukri chhodi, us vakt 150 rupaye mool vetan evam 50 rupaye bhatta milta tha, yaani kul 200 rupaye.

us jmaane mein yeh ek bahut badi raashi thi. ve 18 varsh ki umr mein railway mein bahaal hue the. unka janm 1864 E. mein hua tha aur 1882 E, se unhonne naukri praarambh ki thi. naukri karte hue ve Ajmer, Mumbai, Nagpur, hoshangaabaad, itaarasi, jabalapur evam jhaaainsi shaharon mein rahe. isi dauraan unhonne sanskrut evam brajabhaasha par adhikaar praapt karte hue pingal arthaat chhandashaastr ka abhyaas kiya. unhonne apni pehli pustak 1895 E. mein shreemahimnastotr ki rachana ki, jo pushyadant ke sanskrut kaavya ka brajabhaasha mein kaavya roopaantar hai. Dwivedi ji ne sabhi padyarachanaaon ka bhaavaarth khadi boli gadya mein hi kiya hai. unhonne iski bhoomika mein likha hai, ''is kaarya mein hushangaabaadasth babu harishchandr kulashreshth ka jo saanprat Madhya Pradesh rajdhani Nagpur mein viraajamaan hain, main param krutajnya hooain.'' apne 'aatm-nivedan' mein unhonne likha hai, ''bachapan se mera anuraag tulaseedaas ki raamaayan aur brajavaaseedaas ke brajavilaas par ho gaya tha. futakar kavita bhi mainne saikadon kanth kar liye the. hushangaabaad mein rahate samay bhaaratendu harishchandr ke kavivchan sudha aur Goswami raadhaacharan ke ek maasik patra ne mere us anuraag ki vruddhi kar di. vaheen mainne babu harishchandr kulashreshth naam ke ek sajjan se, jo vaheen kachahari mein mulaajim the, pingal ka paath padha. fir kya tha, main apne ko kavi hi naheen, mahaakavi samajhne laga.

mera yeh rog bahut dinon tak jyon ka tyon bana raha.'' 1889 se 1892 E. tak Dwivedi ji ki is prakaar ki kai pustakein prakaashit huin-vinaya-vinod, vihaar-vaatika, snehamaala, ritu tarangini, devi stuti shatak, shri gangaalahari aadi. 1896 E. mein inhonne Lord bekan ke nibandhon ka hindi mein bhaavaarth moolak rupaantar kiya, jo bekan-vichaar-ratnaavali pustak mein sankalit hain. 1898 E. mein inhonne hindi kaalidaas ki aalochna likhi, jo hindi ki pehli aalochanaatmak pustak hai. 1988 E. mein shreeharsh ke naishadheeyacharitm par inhonne naishadh-charit-charcha naamak aalochanaatmak evam gaveshanaatmak pustak likhi. yeh silsila jo shuroo hua, vah 1930-31 E. tak chala aur Dwivedi ji ki kul pachchaasi pustakein prakaashit huin.

January, 1903 E. se December, 1920 E. tak inhonne sarasvati naamak maasik patrika ka sanpaadan kar ek keertimaan sthaapit kiya tha, iseeliye is kaal ko hindi saahityetihaas mein 'Dwivedi-yug' ke naam se jaana jaata hai. apne prakaand paanditya ke kaaran inhein 'aachaarya' kaha jaane laga. unke vyaktitv ke baare mein aachaarya kishori das Vajpayee ne likha hai, ''unke sudrudh vishaal aur bhavya kalevar ko dekhkar darshak par sahasa aatank chha jaata tha aur yeh prateet hone lagta tha ki main ek mahaan jnyaaanaraashi ke neeche aa gaya hooain.'' Dwivedi ji ka maanana tha ki 'gyaan-raashi' ke sanchit kosh ka hi naam saahitya hai.' Dwivedi ji swayam to ek 'mahaan gyaan-raashi' the hi unka sampoorn vaaङamaya bhi sanchit jnyaaanaraashi hai, jisse hokar gujrana apni jaateeya parampara ko aatmasaat karte hue vishvachintan ke samaksh bhi hona hai. dau॰ raamavilaas sharma ne Dwivedi ji ke mahattv ko pratipaadit karte hue likha hai, ''Dwivedi ji ne apne saahitya jeevan ke aarambh mein pehla kaam yeh kiya ki unhonne arthashaastr ka adhyayan kiya. unhonne jo pustak badi mehnat se likhi aur jo aakaar mein unki aur pustakon se badi hai, vah sanpattishaastr hai......arthashaastr ka adhyayan karne ke kaaran Dwivedi ji bahut-se vishyon par aisi tippaniyaaain likh sake jo vishuddh saahitya ki seemaaeain laaaingh jaati hain.

iske saath unhonne raajaneeti vishyon ka adhyayan kiya aur sansaar mein jo mahattvapoorn raajaneeti ghatanaaeain ho rahi theen, un par unhonne lekh likhe. raajaneeti aur arthashaastr ke saath unhonne aadhunik vigyaan se parichay praapt kiya aur itihaas tatha samaajashaastr ka adhyayan gaharaai se kiya. iske saath Bhaarat ke praacheen darshan aur vigyaan ki or inhonne dhyaan diya aur yeh jaanane ka prayatn kiya ki ham apne chintan mein kahaaain aage badhe hue hain aur kahaaain pichhde hain. is tarah ki taiyaari unase pehle kisi sampaadak ne na ki thi. parinaam yeh hua ki hindi pravesh mein naveen saamaajik chetna ke prasaar ke liye vah sabse upayukt vyakti siddh hue.''

aise mahaan gyaan-raashi ke punj the aachaarya mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi. kintu raamavilaas sharma ke poorv jitne bhi aalochak hue, unhonne Dwivedi ji ka uchit moolyaankan to naheen hi kiya, apitu unka avmoolyan hi kiya. in mahaan aalochakon mein raamachandr shukl, nandadulaare Vajpayee evam hajaari prasaad Dwivedi pramukh hain. raamachandr shukl ne hindi saahitya ka itihaas mein Dwivedi ji par jo tippani ki hai, us par ek najar daalein, ''Dwivedi ji ne san 1903 E. mein sarasvati ke sanpaadan ka bhaar liya. tab se apna saara samay likhne mein hi lagaaya. likhne ki safalta ve is baat mein maanate the ki paathak bhi usase bahut-kuchh samajh jaaeain. kai upayogi pustakon ke atirikt unhonne futakar lekh bhi bahut likhe. par in lekhon mein adhiktar lekh 'baaton ke sangrah' ke roop mein hi hai. bhaasha ke nootan shakti chamatkaar ke saath nae-nae vichaaron ki udbhaavana vaale nibandh bahut hi kam milte hain.

sthaayi nibandhon ki shreni mein chaar hi lekh, jaise 'kavi aur kavita', 'pratibha' aadi aa sakte hain. par ye lekhanakaal ya sookshm vichaar ki drushti se likhe naheen jaan padte. 'kavi aur kavita' kaisa gambhir vishay hai, kehne ki aavashyakta naheen. par is vishay ki bahut moti-moti baatein bahut mote taur par kahi gayi hain.'' isi prasang mein raamachandr shukl aage likhte hain, ''kehne ki aavashyakta naheen ki dviveji ji ke lekh ya nibandh vichaaraatmak shreni mein aaeainge. par vichaar ki vah goodh gunfit parampara unamein naheen milti jisse paathak ki buddhi uttejit hokar kisi nai vichaar-paddhati par daud pade. shuddh vichaaraatmak nibandhon ka charam utkarsh vahi kaha ja sakta hai jahaaain ek pairaagraaf mein vichaar daba-dabaakar kase gaye hon aur ek-ek vaakya kisi sambaddh vichaarakhand ke liye hon. Dwivedi ji ke lekhon ko padhne mein aisa jaan padta hai ki lekhak bahut moti akl ke paathakon ke liye likh raha hai.''

ab aap dekhein ki mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi ke lekhan ke prati raamachandr shukl ki ye tippani padhkar hindi ka koi bhi paathak usase virkt hoga ya aasakt. raamachandr shukl ke itihaas ko hindi ke vidyaarthi saath-painsath varshon se aapt vachanon ki tarah yaad karte aa rahe hain. aise mein mool paath se unke aapt vaakyon ka yadi Milan kar pareekshan na kiya jaae, to anarth hoga hi. raamachandr shukl hindi ke sabse bade samaalochak, sabse bade saahityetihaas-lekhak hain. isi itihaas mein ve mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi ke aitihaasik yogadaanon ko sirf bhaasha-parishkaarakartta ke roop mein sveekaar karte hain. unke shabd hain, ''yadyapi Dwivedi ji ne hindi ke bade-bade kaviyon ko lekar gambhir saahitya sameeksha ka sthaayi saahitya naheen prastut kiya, par nai nikli pustakon ki bhaasha ki khari aalochna karke hindi saahitya ka bada bhaari upakaar kiya hai.

yadi Dwivedi ji na uth khade hote to jaisa avyavasthit, vyaakaranaviruddh aur ootapataaaing bhaasha chaaron or dikhaai padti thi, usaki parampara jaldi na rukati. uske prabhaav se lekhak saavdhaan ho gaye aur jinmein bhaasha ki samajh aur yogyata thi unhonne apna sudhaar kiya.'' daraasal shukl ji jis aalochna-paddhati ka sahaara lekar ukt baatein likh rahe the, use angrejee mein Judicial Criticism aur hindi mein nirnayaatmak aalochna kehte hain aur iska sabse bada dosh yeh hai ki iske aalochna ke kshetr mein aalochakon ka dhyaan aitihaasik yug, vaataavaran evam jeevan se hataakar adhikaanshat: kalaapaksh tak hi seemit kar diya hai. kalaapaksh ki or dhyaan dene vaale aalochakon ka kehna hain ki yugeen paristhitiyaaain, yugeen chetna aur yug satya nirantar parivrtanasheel hain ataev inhein aadhaar naheen banaaya ja sakta. unki parivrtanasheelata ke kaaran inhein saahitya ka sthaayi maanadand sveekaar kiya ja sakta. lekin isi ke saath yeh bhi satya hai ki aisi dasha mein nirnayaatmak aalochna ka koi moolya naheen rahega.

iska mukhya kaaran hai aise aalochak ka rachanaakaar aur rachana par fatwe jaari karna. yahi kaaran hai ki raamachandr shukl ne Dwivedi ji ke vichaaron ko, unke sanchit gyaan-raashi par dhyaan naheen diya aur unki bhaasha par vichaar kiya. 'moti-moti baatein bahut mote taur par'-yeh abhivyakti ki pranaali par baat ki ja rahi hai, jo nissandeh bhaasha hai. jab Dwivedi ji moorkh ya mote dimaag vaalon ke liye likhte the aur moti tarah se likhte the to unhonne bhaasha parishkaar kaise kiya ? jis lekhak ko bhaasha ki satahi samajh hogi, vah doosare lekhakon ki bhaasha ko durust kaise karega ? pun: raamachandr shukl ki baaton par vichaar karein-mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi ne shaashvat saahitya ya sthaayi saahitya naheen likha. unka mahattv bhaasha-sudhaar mein hai aur unki bhaasha kaisi hai-moti aklavaalon ke liye hai. is tarah ki baaton se aachaarya shukl ka itihaas bhara hua hai. mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi ne hindi-navaratn ki sameeksha likhte hue likha hai, ''is tarah ki baatein kisi itihaas car ke granth mein yadi pai jaaeain to uske itihaas ka mahatva kam hue bina naheen rah sakta. itihaas-lekhak ki bhaasha tuli hui honi chaahiye. use betuki baatein na haaainkani chaahiye. atishyoktiyaaain likhna itihaasakaar ka kaam naheen. use chaahiye ki vah pratyek shabd aur vaakyaansh ke arth ko achhi tarah samajhakar usaka prayog kare.''

san 1933 E. mein aachaarya Dwivedi ko naagari prachaarini sabha dvaara abhinandan granth bheint kiya gaya. iski prastaavana shyaamasundar das evam raayakrushnadaas ke naam se prakaashit hui, kintu yeh likhi gayi nandadulaare Vajpayee dvaara. isliye yeh 1940 E. mein prakaashit Vajpayee ji ki pustak hindi saahitya: beesaveen shataabdi mein sankalit hai. ismein yeh vichaar kiya gaya hai ki sthaayi ya shaashvat saahitya mein Dwivedi ji ka saahitya parignit ho sakta hai ya naheen. is drushtikon se mahaaveer prasaad Dwivedi dvaara likhit sampoorn saahitya ko ayogya thahara diya gaya. sirf unke dvaara sanpaadit sarasvati ke ankon ko hi mahattv diya gaya.;