Diego gaarsiya

Diego gaarsiya
Diego Garcia

Diegogarcia.jpg

IATA: NKWICAO: FJDG
saar
vimaanakshetr prakaar Naval Air Facility
svaami United kingadam - British Territory
sanchaalak raksha mantraalaya, Her Majesty's Government
sthiti british hind mahaasaagareeya kshetr, hind mahaasaagar
nirmit 1971-1976; Major Extensions 1982-1986
prayog mein 1971 - vartamaan
samudra tal se AMSL 9 fi. / 3 mi.
nirdeshaank 7°a18′a48″aS 72°a24′a40″aE / 7.31333°aS 72.41111°aE / -7.31333; 72.41111
udaanapattiyaaain
disha lambaai satah
fi. mi.
13/31 12,003 3,659 Concrete

Diego gaarsiya ek ushnakatibandheeya, padachihn-aakaar ka moonge ka pravaaladveep (etol) hai jo bhoomadhya rekha ke dakshin mein madhya hind mahaasaagar mein saat degree, chhabbees minute dakshin akshaansh (bhoomadhya rekha ke dakshin mein) par sthit hai. yeh british hind mahaasaagareeya kshetr [BIOT] ka hissa hai aur iski avasthiti 72°a23' poorv deshaantar mein hai. yeh etol afreeki tat ke lagbhag 1,800 samudri meal (3,300 kimi) poorv mein aur Bhaarat ke dakshin sire se 1,200 samudri meal (2,200 kimi) dakshin mein hai (chitr 2.3). Diego gaarsiya jin pravaal bhittiyon, etol aur dveepon ki lambi shrrunkhala ke sudoor dakshini chhor par padta hai ve lakshadveep, maaladeev aur chhaagos dveepasamooh, jismein Diego gaarsiya bhaugolik roop se sthit hai ka gathan karte hain. sthaaneeya samay hai GMT + 6 ghante varsh-bhar (koi dainik samay badlaav naheen).

chhaagos dveepasamooh ke antargat - jismein paros baanhos, sauloman dweep samooh, three brothers (dveepasamooh), egmont dweep aur great chhaagos bank shaamil hain - Diego gaarsiya sabse bada bhoomi ka tukada hai aur ek etol ke roop mein yeh lagbhag 174 varg kilometer (67 varg meal) par faila hai, jismein se 27.19 varg kilometer (10 varg meal) sookhi bhoomi hai.[1] etol rim ka satat hissa ek chhor se doosare chhor tak 40 meal (64 kimi) lamba hai, jismein 13 meal (21 kimi) lamba aur 7 meal (11 kimi) chauda ek laigoon ghira hai aur uttar ki taraf 4 meal (6 kimi) ka ek paas hai. paas mein teen chhote dweep sthit hain.[2]

Diego gaarsiya ko 16veen sadi mein jab yooropiyn dvaara khoja gaya to vahaan koi sthaai nivaasi naheen tha aur aisi sthiti 1793 tak bani rahi jab use ek fraanseesi upanivesh bana liya gaya.[3] nepoliyn yuddh ki samaapti par ise peris ki sandhi (1814) mein chhaagos dveepasamooh ke anya hisson ke saath England ko saunp diya gaya.[4] Diego gaarsiya aur chhaagos dveepasamooh, maureeshas dweep ki aupaniveshik sarkaar dvaara 1965 tak prashaasit the, jab jab United kingadam ne unhein £a3 meeliyn mein maureeshas ki sv-shaasit sarkaar se khareed liya aur unhein pruthak british ovaraseej teritri ghoshit kar diya.[5] 1968 mein maureeshas ki svatantrata ke baad BIOT prashaasan ko seshels le jaaya gaya jahaan vah 1976 mein seshels ki svatantrata tak raha,[6] aur uske baad se London mein videsh aur raashtramandal kaaryaalaya mein ek desk se sanchaalit hota hai.[7]

dweep ke sampoorn itihaas mein naariyl baagaan praathamik udyog raha hai jahaan khopara aur/ya naariyl tel ka utpaadan hota tha,[8] is baagavaani ko October 1971 mein band karke iske vaasiyon ko Diego gaarsiya se sthaanaantarit kar diya gaya. 1880 ke dashak mein ek alp-avadhi ke liye iska upayog svej nahar se hote hue hind mahaasaagar se Australia ko jaane vaale bhaap ke jahaajon ke liye koling station ke roop mein kiya gaya.[9]

1793 se lekar 1971 ki sampoorn avadhi ke dauraan Diego gaarsiya ke nivaasiyon ka adhikaansh tabaka baagaan shramik the. vahaan shramikon ki kai shreniyaan theen, jismein shaamil the freinko-maureeshas prabandhak, indo-maureeshas prashaasak, maureeshas aur seshel ke sanvida karmachaari aur 19veen sadi ke uttaraardh mein kuchh cheeni aur somaali karmachaari bhi the. in majadooron mein se, nivaasiyon ka ek bada samooh ek pruthak kriol sanskruti mein viksit hua jise ilois kaha gaya, French mein jiska arth hai "dveepavaasi". ilois (jinhein ab chhaagos aailaindar ya chhaagosiyn kaha jaata hai) mool roop se French dvaara 1793-1810 ke aaspaas medaagaaskar se laae gaye daason ke vashanj hain aur paaulo nyaas ke das baajaar se malaya ke daason ko laaya gaya. paaulo nyaas sumaatra ke uttari-pashchimi tat par ek dweep hai jahaan se daason ko 1820 se tab tak laaya jaata raha jab tak ki das unmoolan adhiniyam 1833 ke baad das vyaapaar antat: samaapt naheen ho gaya.[10] ilois ne ek French aadhaarit kriyol boli bhi viksit kar li jise ab chhaagosiyn kriyol kaha jaata hai.

jab America ne yahaan apne adde ka nirmaan kiya to 1966 mein hastaaksharit UK/yooes exchange of nots ki aavashyakataaon ko poora karne ke liye 1971 tak Diego gaarsiya ke kisi bhi vansh ya rojagaar vaale sabhi nivaasiyon ko anaichhik aur kuchh ka daava hai ki jabaran tareeke se chhaagos dveepasamooh, ya Mauritius ya seshels mein anya dveepon par sthaanaantarit kar diya gaya.[11] yeh anaichhik sthaanaantaran nirnaya, yatha 2010, mukadame ke adheen hai.[12][13]

1971 ke baad se, Diego gaarsiya aur uske 3 samudri meal (6 kimi) jal kshetr ko BIOT sarkaar ki anumati ke bina janta ki pahunch se pratibandhit kar diya gaya hai aur iska upayog vishesh roop se sainya adde ke roop mein kiya jaata hai, mukhya roop se America dvaara. is laigoon mein America, ek vishaal samudri jahaaj aur panadubbi samarthan adde, sainya havaai thikaane, sanchaar aur antariksh sanchaar par nazar rakhane ki suvidha ko sanchaalit karta hai aur kshetreeya sanchaalanon ke liye militri seelift command par poorv-tainaat sainya aapoorti ka sangrah rakhata hai.[14]

vahaan paudhon, pakshiyon, ubhayacharon, saaainpon, ghonghe, krasateshiyn ya stanadhaariyon ki koi sthaanik prajaatiyaan naheen hain. vahaan kai sthaanik machhaliyaan aur jaleeya reedhrahit jeev hain. sabhi paudhon, vanya jeevon aur jaleeya prajaatiyon ko ek kisi na kisi roop mein sanrakshit kiya gaya hai. iske alaava, laigoon ka adhikaansh jal ek naamit raamasar (RAMSAR) site hai aur dweep ka bada hissa praakrutik sanrakshan kshetr hai.[15]

anukram

itihaas

naariyl baagaan, East point (poorv mukhya basti)

ye dweep us samooh ka hissa hain jise praacheen Bhaarat mein praacheen kaal mein lakshadveep (sanskrut mein "sau hajaar dweep") kaha jaata tha aur inhein dakshin Bhaarat ke saamraajya ka hissa maana jaata tha.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

700 si.E. ke aaspaas austroneshiyn daayaspora ke dauraan is dweep ka ho sakta hai daura kiya gaya tha aur kuchh ka kehna hai ki is dweep ka praacheen maaladeevi naam maalaagaasi mool ka tha. aisa bhi sujhaav diya gaya ki un arab logon ne jo 900 si.E ke kareeb lakshadveep aur maaladeev pahunche the unhonne ho sakta hai chhaagos ka daura kiya hoga aur ho sakta hai cheing ho 1413-1415 isvi mein iske najdeek gaya hoga. haalaanki, aaj tak in anumaanon ke liye koi saboot naheen mila hai.[16]

purtagaali khojakarta ho sakta hai pratham Europeeya the jinhonne Diego gaarsiya ke dweep ki khoj ki. purtagaali naavik pedro di maskaarenhaas (1470-June 13, 1555) ne ho sakta hai apne 1512-13 ki yaatra ke dauraan is dweep ki khoj ki ho, lekin ise pusht karne ke liye saakshya bahut kam hain; kaartograafik vishleshan 1532 ya baad ki taraf ishaara karte hain.

parampara se pata chalta hai ki is dweep ka naam usi Diego gaarsiya de moguer ke naam par rakha gaya jo 1526 mein rio de la plaata pahuncha tha, sanbhavat: harnaando de soto ki yaatra ke saath.[krupaya uddharan jodein] gaarsiya ne 1554 mein hind mahaasaagar mein ek purtagaali abhiyaan shuroo kiya aur vaapasi ki yaatra poori karne se pehle hi usaki mrutyu ho gayi.[krupaya uddharan jodein] kuchh purtagaali vidvaanon ka maanana hai ki dweep ke khojakarta ka isaai naam "Diego" ek mithya naam hai ya ek glat vyaakhya hai jo solahaveen shataabdi ke ant mein prayog mein aaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein] haalaanki kainteeno plainisfeyar (1504) aur ruish maanachitr (1507) spasht roop se maaladeev ko chitrit karte hain aur unhein samaan naam dete hue ve dakshin ki or aise koi dweep ko naheen darshaate hain jinhein chhaagos dveepasamooh ke roop mein pahachaana ja sake.

Diego gaarsiya ka ek vyakti jiski tasveer 1969 mein ameriki raashtreeya jiodetik sarvekshan team dvaara kheenchi gayi thi. tasveer mein upasthit vyakti ko sabhi "Samson" upanaam se jaante the aur usaka daava tha ki vah naariyl ke chhilke nikaalne ke saaptaahik kote ko teen dinon mein poora kar sakta hai.

sebastiyn kabot maanachitr (1544 entavarp) dakshin ki or kai dveepon ko dikhaata hai jo maskaaren samooh ho sakta hai. pehla naksha jo pehchaan karte hue 'loss chhaagos' ka naam deta hai (kareeb sahi sthiti mein) vah piyre deseliar (dippe 1550) haalaanki Diego gaarsiya ka naam naheen rakha gaya hai. 'Don gaarsiya' naam ka ek dweep Abraham ortelias ke nova totias teraaram orbis mein prastut hota hai (entaverp 1564), thoda uttar ki taraf 'daus kompaagnos' ke saath. yeh maamala ho sakta hai ki 'Don gaarsiya' ka naam gaarsiya de noronha par rakha gaya ho, haalaanki aisa koi saboot maujood naheen hai jo is anumaan ka samarthan kare.[krupaya uddharan jodein] is dweep ko 'Don gaarsiya' ke roop mein marketar ke nova eight aukta orbis tera diskripshan (dyoosabarg 1569) par bhi dikhaaya gaya hai. haalaanki, jodokas hondiks (London 1589) ke vera totias ekspedisionis nautika deskripshan par 'Don gaarsiya' ka naam rahasyamaya tareeke se 'I. de diyo graasiya' ho gaya jabki 'I. de chegues' najdeek prakat hota hai.

pehla naksha jisne is dweep ko iske vartamaan naam, Diego gaarsiya ke tahat chitrit kiya vah hai Edward raait (landan 1599) ka vishv maanachitr, jo sanbhavat: diyo (Dio) (ya sirf 'D') ko galati se Diego aur graasiya ko gaarsiya ke roop mein padhne ka parinaam tha. henareekas hondiks (entavarp 1630) ka nova totias teraaram orbis jiograafika, raait dvaara naam ke galat uchchaaran ko doharaata hai, jo fir us samay ke sabhi dach maanachitron mein fail jaata hai aur aaj tak hai.

Diego gaarsiya aur baaki chhaagos dweep 18veen sadi ke uttaraardh tak nirjan the. 1778 mein Mauritius ke fraanseesi Governor ne shreemaan dupit de la faaye ko Diego gaarsiya ka dweep de diya aur aise saboot maujood hain jo bataate hain ki vahaan machhali aur naariyl lene ke liye asthaayi fraanseesi daura hota tha.[17] kai fraanseesiyon ne jo "darjnon jhopadiyon" mein rahate the, Diego gaarsiya ko us vakt chhod diya jab british East India company ne April 1786 mein vahaan par ek upanivesh sthaapit karne ki koshish shuroo ki.[17] base hue 275 logon ki aapoorti ko british East Indian jahaaj etalas ke May mein dhvast ho jaane ke kaaran bache hue 250 logon dvaara tabaah kar diya gaya aur yeh colony October mein vifal ho gayi.[18] angrejon ke prasthaan ke baad, Mauritius ke fraanseesi upanivesh ne Diego gaarsiya par kushth rogiyon ko chhodna shuroo kar diya,[19] aur 1793 mein fraanseesiyon ne das shramikon ka upayog karte hue ek naariyl baagaan ki sthaapana ki, jo naariyl ki jata se bani rassiyon ka niryaat bhi karte the aur samudri kheere jinhein eshiaai deshon mein bade chaav se khaaya jaata tha.[20] nepoliyn yuddh ke baad Diego gaarsiya United kingadam ka ek upanivesh ban gaya aur 1814-1965 se ise maureeshas se prashaasit kiya jaane laga.[21] Diego gaarsiya par mukhya baagaan East point par the, jo pravaaladveep ke poorvi rim ka mukhya basaav tha; minni minni, 4.5 kilometer (2.8 meal) East point ke uttar mein; aur pauinte mariaan, pashchimi rim par, sabhi etol rim ke laigoon paksh par sthit the. shramik in sthaanon par rahate the aur dweep ke chaaron or bikhre hue gaanvon mein rahate the.

1881 se lekar poore 1888 mein, Diego gaarsiya, hind mahaasaagar ko paar karne ke vaale bhaap jahaajon ke liye do koling stationon ka sthaan tha.[22]

1882 mein, French-vittaposhit, maureeshas sthit sosiyet huilere de Diego eight peros ("Diego aur peros ki aayal kain company") ne chhaagos ke sabhi baagaanon ko apne niyantran ke tahat samekit kiya.[23]

1914 mein, is dweep par jarman laait kroojr SMS emden pahuncha, jo pratham vishv yuddh ke pehle maheene ke dauraan apne aitihaasik vaanijyik chhaape ke aadhe raaste par ruka tha.[24]

baraachois mauris, Diego gaarsiya.

1942 mein, british ne East point ke baagaan par adavaansd flaaing bot adda sthaapit kiya, jahaan 205 aur 240 squadron lage the, jo baad mein seelon par tainaat hua. kataalina aur sundaralaind, donon ko dviteeya vishv yuddh ke dauraan Japani aur jarman panadubbiyon aur satahi hamlaavaron ki talaash mein udaaya gaya. sangharsh ki samaapti ke baad, adde ko 30 April 1946 ko band kar diya gaya.[25]

1962 mein, seshels ke british upanivesh ki chhaagos agalega company ne sosiyet huilere de Diego eight peros ko khareed liya aur company ke mukhyaalaya ko seshels le jaaya gaya.[26]

1960 ke dashak ke aarambh mein, hind mahaasaagar kshetr se Britain apni sena ki upasthiti vaapas kar raha tha aur usane America ko apne ek dweep par nausena sanchaar station ki sthaapana karne ki anumati di. ameriki ne Britain ke svaamitv vaale bina aabaadi vaale ek dweep ka anurodh kiya taaki nav-svatantr deshon se kisi raajaneetik kathinaai ka saamana na karna pade aur ant mein Britain aur America sahamat hue ki Diego gaarsiya ek upayukt sthaan hai.[27]

November 1965 mein, ameriki/british aapasi raksha rananeeti ko poora karne ke liye Britain ne, british Indian oshan teritri (BIOT) ka nirmaan karne ke liye chhaagos dveepasamooh ko, jismein Diego gaarsiya shaamil tha maureeshas ke sv-shaasan vaale upanivesh se £a3 meeliyn mein khareed liya. jiske tahat usaka iraada tha ki vah antat: us kshetr mein baagaan ki gatividhiyon ko samaapt karke us british pradesh ko America ko de dega jo vahaan se apne sainya sanchaalan ko aayojit kar sakega.[27] 30 December 1966 ko, America aur Britain ne exchange of nots ke jariye ek samjhaute ko antim roop diya, jisse America ko BIOT ko agale 50 saalon tak (December 2016 tak) raksha uddeshyon ke liye istemaal karne ki anumati mil gayi, jiske baad 20 saal ka ek vaikalpik vistaar hoga (2036 tak) jiske liye donon pakshon ko December 2014 tak raaji ho jaana chaahiye.[28]

is samjhaute ke hisse ke roop mein ya baad ke kisi bhi sanshodhan ke liye America ki taraf se Britain ko koi maudrik bhugataan naheen kiya gaya aur America dvaara Diego gaarsiya ke istemaal ko varnit karne ke liye aamtaur par istemaal kiya jaane wala shabd "patta" vaastav mein sateek naheen hai. yeh balki, ek anumodit kabja hai jise raajanayik nots aur samjhauton ke maadhyam se praadhikrut kiya gaya hai. haalaanki, 1966 ke samjhaute ke parishisht mein jo ab gair-gopaneeya ban chuka hai, United kingadam ko panadubbi se daage jaane waali bailistik misaail pranaali polaaris misaail ke adhigrahan mein America se US$14 meeliyn ki chhoot mili.[29]

April 1966 mein british sarkaar ne BIOT mein chhaagos agalega company ki sampoorn sampatti ko £a600000 mein khareed liya aur unhein ek sarkaari udyam ke roop mein prashaasit kiya jabki prastaavit suvidhaaon ke liye ameriki aarthik sahaayata ka intajaar kiya, jahaan usaka antarim uddeshya tha nae kshetr ke prashaasanik vyaya ke liye bhugataan karna.[26] haalaanki, ye baagaan, antararaashtreeya baajaar mein nae tel aur lubrikeints ke aane ke kaaran aur fileepeens aur East Indies mein vishaal naariyl baagaanon ki sthaapana ke kaaran, poorv ke niji svaamitv ke tahat aur sarkaari prashaasan ke tahat, donon hi maamalon mein lagaataar alaabhakaari siddh hue.[30]

March 1971 mein ameriki nausena nirmaan battalion (SEABEES) sanchaar station aur ek havaai kshetr ka nirmaan shuroo karne ke liye Diego gaarsiya pahunche.[31] ek nirjan dweep ke liye America aur Britain ke beech hue samjhaute ke niyamon ko poora karne ke liye, Diego gaarsiya ke baagaanon ko us varsh October mein band kar diya gaya.[32] baagaan shramik aur unke parivaar, jinmein se kai Diego gaarsiya par peedhiyon se rah rahe the, unhein uttar-pashchim mein peros baanos aur soloman pravaal-dweep ke baagaanon mein sthaanaantarit kar diya gaya, kuchh ko unke anurodh par seshels ya Mauritius bhej diya gaya.[33] 1972 mein, Britain ne peros baanos aur sauloman dweep sahit sampoorn chhaagos mein baagaanon ko band karne ka faisala kiya aur ilois ko unke Patrick gharon seshels ya maureeshas nirvaasit kar diya gaya.[33] us samay ki svatantr maureeshas sarkaar ne bina bhugataan ke in dweep-vaasiyon ko sveekaar karne se inkaar kar diya aur 1973 mein, Britain ne in dveepavaasiyon ke basaav ke liye maureeshas sarkaar ko atirikt ₤a650000 bhugataan kiya.[34]

1973 tak, nausena sanchaar station (NAVCOMMSTA) ka nirmaan poora kar liya gaya tha.[35] 1970 ke dashak ke aarambh mein, America ki sainya kshamata ko kai jhatke lage jismein shaamil tha station saaigaun par kabja, kanbodiya mein khamer rooj ki jeet, laaos par uttari viytanaam ka aakraman, Pakistan mein peshaavar air station shravan post aur ithiyopiya mein kaagnyu station ki samaapti, maayaaguej haadasa aur aaden mein soviyt nausena ki maujoodagi aur berabera, somaaliya mein soviyt air base jinke kaaran America ko Diego gaarsiya mein sainya bede ke nirmaan aur havaai kshetr ko vistaarit karne ka Britain se anurodh karna pada,[36] aur SEABEES ne in suvidhaaon ka nirmaan kar rahe shramikon ki sankhya doguni kar di.[37]

1979-1980 mein sankat bandhak shaah ki giraavat ke Iran aur Irani ke baad, pashchim hormuj ke seedhe ke maadhyam se pravaah sunishchit ban chintit saath khaadi faarasi se, tel aur America ke vistaar ke liye $ ek 400000000 anumati praapt Diego gaarsiya sainya suvidhaaon par 12 samaanaantar nirvaachakagan ke do 000 fut-long (0 mi) (3657.6 mi) runway, America ya Britain mein laigoon paani ghaat, gahari, ek bandargaah suvidhaaon ke liye sabse badi nausena ke jahaajon mein anchorages hamlaavaron, bees naya bhaari prashast parking aprons ke liye beda, vimaan haingar, rakharakhaav imaaraton aur ek air terminal, ek 13,40,000 barrel (2,13,000 mi$3) kshetr indhan bhandaaran aur naavikon aur sahaayata karmiyon ke hajaaron ke liye aur billeting khilvaad ki suvidha.[38]

1 October 1977 ko, nausena sahaayata suvidha, Diego gaarsiya ko dweep par varishth ameriki nausena kamaan mein sthaapit kiya gaya. us samay jab NAVCOMMSTA praathamik kiraayedaar tha, lekin jaise hi pramukh nai suvidhaaon ko poora kiya gaya, ullekhaneeya roop se vistrut langaravaani aur ghaat kshetr aur havaai kshetr ko badhaaya gaya, anya kiraayedaaron ko bhi niyukt kiya gaya.[39]

1980 mein, ameriki nausena ne 16 jahaajon ke niar-tarm preeposishn fors ki sthaapana ki. tab NTPF, aflot preeposishn fors (AFP) ban gaya aur antat: kampojit squadron tu (COMPSRON 2) jo laigoon mein khade gahre paani ke 20 poorv-sthaapit rasad poton se nirmit tha.[40]

1981 mein, nausena vaayu suvidha ko niyukt kiya gaya. 1987 mein iski niyukti ko samaapt kar diya gaya aur aur iski jimmedaariyon ko NSF ko lauta diya gaya.[39]

1982 mein, nirmaan gatividhiyon ko SEABEES se hastaantarit karke naagrik thekedaaron ke ek sangh ko de diya gaya aur adhikaansh pariyojanaaon ko 1988 tak poora kar liya gaya.[36] 26 March 1982 ko, baarabara shuping aur paanch anya mahilaaon ko NSF mein niyukt kiya gaya. is kaam se pehle, 1971 mein baagaanon mein kaam karne waali mahilaaon ko chhodkar kisi mahila ne dweep par nivaas naheen kiya tha.[41]

1985 mein, nae bandargaah ki suvidhaaon ko poora kar liya gaya tha aur samjhauta karne wala yooesaes saaraatoga (60-CV) pehla vimaan vaahak tha.[42]

saamarik vaayu kamaan ne 1987 mein haal hi mein bani havaai adde ki suvidhaaon par bi -52 bamavarshak aur havaai indhan bharne vaale vimaanon ki tainaati shuroo ki.[43]

August 1990 mein Kuwait par Iraqi aakraman ke baad COMPSRON 2 ke do jahaajon ko bheja gaya, jisne Iraq par hamla karne ke liye ek marine abhiyaan briged ko pahunchaaya. anya COMPSRON 2 jahaajon ne Diego gaarsiya par yuddh ke saamaan, bam aur indhan utaare jiski jarurat ameriki bamavarshak bede ko thi jo havaai kshetr mein tainaat tha. iske baad, B-52G bamavarshak 44 dinon tak 20017-ghante se adhik bamabaari mission mein lage rahe aur 800000 tan (727300000 kilogram [keegra]) se adhik bamon ko Iraq aur Kuwait mein Iraqi balon par giraaya. ek bi-52 yaantrik vifalta ke kaaran dweep ke uttar mein durghatanaagrast ho gaya jiske chaalak dal ke chhah sadasyon mein se teen ki mrutyu ho gayi.[43]

America ne New York city aur Pentagon par hamla karne ke baad Afghanistan mein shatru ke thikaanon par hamla karne ke liye bi-1, bi-2 aur bi-52 bamavarshak ka upayog karte hue 7 October 2001 ko fir se Diego gaarsiya se sainya sanchaalan shuroo kar diya. 12 December 2001 ko ek bi-1 bamavarshak, dweep se udaan bharne ke turant baad hi yaantrik viflataaon ke kaaran kho gaya, lekin chaalak dal bach gaya aur use yooesaes Russel (DDG-59) dvaara bacha liya gaya.[44] ladaai ko 2003 ke vasant mein fir shuroo kiya gaya, jiske tahat MPSRON tu ko operation Iraqi freedom ke liye faaras ki khaadi mein tainaat kiya gaya aur bamabaari abhiyaan fir shuroo ho gaya, is baar iraak ke khilaaf.[45] Diego gaarsiya se bam varshan sanchaalan ko 15 August 2006 ko band kar diya gaya.[46]

2004 mein, Britain ne lagoon aur Diego gaarsiya ke anya jal ke liye raamasar saait ka aavedan kiya aur praapt kiya.[47]

1 April 2010 ko, Britain mantrimandal ne chhaagos dveepasamooh ko ek marine sanrakshit kshetr ghoshit kiya aur machhali pakadne aur tel aur gas ki khoj sahit sabhi nishkarshan udyog ko nishiddh kar diya. yeh spasht naheen hai ki Diego gaarsiya MPA mein shaamil hai.[48]

nivaasi

apne sampoorn darj itihaas ke dauraan, chhaagos dveepasamooh ke baagaanon ki aabaadi lagbhag 1000 vyaktiyon ki rahi, jinmein se do-tihaai Diego gaarsiya par rahate the. sabhi dveepon par 1,142 ki charam aabaadi ko 1953 mein darj kiya gaya tha.[49] chhaagos mein janme shramikon ko 1990 ke dashak ke uttaraardh tak ilois ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai, yeh ek fraanseesi kriyol shabd hai jiska arth hai "dveepavaasi", jiske baad un logon ne chhaagosiyn ya chhaagos dveepavaasi ka naam apnaaya. chhaagosiyn un daason ke vanshaj hain jinhein fraanseesiyon dvaara medaagaaskar se laaya gaya tha,[10] 1820-1840 ke beech sumaatra ke uttar-pashchim ke najdeek paaulo nyaas ke dweep se malaya daason ko aayaatit kiya gaya,[10] maureeshas, seshels, cheen, somaali aur bhaarateeya shramiko ko 19veen sadi ke uttaraardh aur 20veen sadi ki shuruaat mein alag-alag samay par dweep par kaam mein lagaaya gaya aur saath hi saath dviteeya vishv yuddh mein dweep par baagaan prabandhakon aur prashaasakon aur british aur bhaarateeya sainikon ki chauki ko dweep par tainaat kiya gaya.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

sainya adde ki sthaapana ko suvidhaajanak banaane ke liye etol ki kul janasankhya ko 1971 tak hata diya gaya. aisa koi maujooda samjhauta naheen hai ki vahaan se hataae gaye logon mein se kitne ilois hone ke maapdand ko poora karte hain aur is prakaar sthaanaantarit kiye jaane ke samay svadeshi the, lekin Britain aur maureeshas ki sarkaar 1972 mein sahamat huin ki 426 parivaar,[50] jinmein vyaktiyon ki sankhya 1151 hai,[34] unhein nirvaasit ilois ke roop mein muaavaje ka bhugataan kiya jaana hai. maureeshas sarkaar ke ilois trast fund board dvaara 1982 mein ilois ke roop mein pramaanit logon ki kul sankhya 1579 thi.[51]

1971 aur 2001 ke beech, Diego gaarsiya par rahane vaale ekamaatr nivaasi Britain aur America ke sainya karmi aur un deshon ke naagrik karmachaari the. inmein kuchh ilois sahit Mauritius aur fileepeens ke anubandh karmachaari shaamil hain.[52] etol se Afghanistan ke khilaaf (2001-2006) aur Iraq (2003-2006) ke khilaaf yuddh sanchaalanon ke dauraan, dweep par kai deshon ki senaaen tainaat thi jinmein shaamil theen Australiaee,[53] Japani aur dakshin Korea ki sena.[54]

aaj nivaasi, jeevika ke liye dweep aur aaspaas ke paani par nirbhar naheen hain. haalaanki, khapat ke liye manoranjan svaroop machhali pakadne ki anumati hai, anya sabhi khaadya vaayu maarg ya samudra maarg se bheja jaata hai.[55]

raajaneeti

Diego gaarsiya ka vistrut maanachitr.

british hind mahaasaagar kshetr mein, jise aamtaur par "BIOT" ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, Diego gaarsiya sabse bada aur ekamaatr basa hua dweep hai. yeh ek Britain ka overseas kshetr hai aur BIOT ki sarkaar mein mahaaraani dvaara niyukt commissioner shaamil hai. aayukt ko kuchh karmachaariyon ki sahaayata pradaan ki jaati hai aur yeh London mein sthit hai aur videshi raashtramandal kaaryaalaya ka nivaasi hota hai. yeh prashaasan, Diego gaarsiya "brit rape" par commanding british bal adhikaari dvaara kshetr mein pratinidhitv karta hai. kaanoon aur viniymon ko aayukt dvaara pravartit kiya jaata hai aur brit rape dvaara laagoo hota hai.

yahaan koi naagrik ya prashaasak naheen hain aur Britain is kshetr ka pratinidhitv antararaashtreeya star par karta hai. ek saamaanya roop se apekshit ek sthaaneeya sarkaar astitv mein naheen hai.[56]

BIOT sarkaar ke liye pramukh chinta Diego gaarsiya par ameriki sainya balon nivaasi ke saath sambandh hai. ek vaarshik baithak jise "the pol-mil vaarta" (raajanaitik-sainikon ke liye) kehte hain, mein sabhi praasangik muddon se ko hal karne ke liye London mein videshi aur raashtramandal kaaryaalaya mein aayojit ki jaati hai. in sankalpon ko ek "exchange of nots" ya 2001 ke baad se ek "exchange of letars" dvaara nishchit roop diya jaata hai.[32]

yahaan do antararaashtreeya raajaneetik mudde hain jo british sarkaar ke maadhyam se Diego gaarsiya aur BIOT ko prabhaavit kar rahe hain.

sabse pehla hai, maureeshas dweep desh dvaara chhaagos dveepasamooh par daava (jo BIOT ke saath sah-sambaddh hai) jismein Diego gaarsiya bhi shaamil hai. 1 April 10 ko Britain sarkaar ki ghoshana ke pratikriya svaroop Mauritius ka virodh ek sahaayak mudda hai, jismein BIOT ko sanrakshit samudri kshetr ke roop mein ghoshit kiya gaya jahaan machhali aur nishkarshan udyog varjit hai (jismein tel aur gas khoj shaamil hai).[57]

doosra, 1973 ke baad se nirvaasit poorv nivaasiyon ki kshatipoorti aur pratyaavartan ka mudda tha, poorv nivaasiyon ke ek samooh dvaara ise jvalant roop se rakha gaya hai aur is lekhan tak (23 August 2010) ise ek maanav adhikaar ke Europeeya nyaayaalaya mein prastut kiya gaya hai.[58]

choonki in muddon ne keval diygo gaarsiya ke dveepon ko hi naheen balki BIOT ko sampoorn roop se prabhaavit kiya, unhein vikipeediya lekh british Indian osiyn teritri aur dipopuleshan of diygo gaarsiya mein adhik uchit aur poori tarah se sambodhit kiya gaya hai.

anya mudde jo Diego gaarsiya par ameriki adde ke liye chinta ka vishay hain ve hain- yeh aarop ki islaami aatankvaadi ya to pravaaladveep ya ameriki jahaaj mein ek jheel ke shivir par maujood hain, ya pravaaladveep par ameriki havaai kshetr ke maadhyam se ekstraaodanari renadeshan vimaan ke vistaar mein.

jail site aarop

2004 June mein, british videsh mantri Jack strau ne kaha ki ameriki adhikaariyon ne use lagaataar aashvaasan diya tha ki Diego gaarsiya ke maadhyam kisi bhi bandi ko paarit naheen kiya gaya tha ya ya vahaan kisi ko jahaaj se utaara naheen gaya tha.[59] October 2007 mein sarvadaleeya british sansad ke videsh maamalon ki samiti ne ghoshana ki ki Diego gaarsiya par ek jail shivir ke jaari aaropon ke ek jaanch ko shuroo kiya jaaega, jo ki ek sevaanivrutt ameriki sena general bairi maikakaifre dvaara tippani se do baar pushti karne ka isne daava kiya tha.[60] 31 July 2008 ko ek anaam poorv white house ke adhikaari ne aarop lagaaya ki America ne 2002 ke dauraan aur sanbhavat: 2003 mein Diego gaarsiya ke kam se kam ek sandehi ko kaid kiya tha usase poochh-taachh ki thi.[61]

yaatana par sanyukt raashtra ke vishesh dooton mein se ek doot, mainafred novaak ka kehna hai ki aaropit aatankvaadiyon ke liye sajaae kaala paani ke roop mein Diego gaarsiya ke istemaal kiye jaane ka kathit taur par aarop maujood hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] maanavaadhikaar sangathan reepraaiv ka aarop hai ki America-sanchaalit Diego gaarsiya ke jal kshetr ke baahar poton ka istemaal bandiyon ko kaid karne aur yaatana dene ke liye kiya gaya tha.[62]

rendishn flight reefyooling edamishn

kai samoohon ka daava hai ki ameriki sarkaar dvaara Diego gaarsiya par aadhaarit sainya ka istemaal bandiyon ko ek sthaan se doosare sthaan mein le jaane ke liye kiya jaata tha jismein vivaadaaspad asaadhaaran rendishn program shaamil tha, jismein ek June 2007 mein kaaunsil of Europe mein soochana dene ka aupachaarik aarop hai.[63] 21 fravari 2008 ko british videsh sachiv David malibaind ne sveekaar kiya ki do ameriki asaadhaaran rendishn vimaan ko 2002 mein Diego gaarsiya par indhan bhara gaya tha. haalaanki us samay kaidiyon ko vimaan mein laaya gaya tha ki naheen iske baare mein koi ullekh naheen kiya gaya hai.[64]

bhoogol

Diego gaarsiya ki avasthiti ka maanachitr.

is dweep mein duniya ka sabse bada akhandit pravaaladveep shaamil hai. chaudaai mein shushk kinaara kareeb sau meter se 2.4 kilometer tak ki ho sakta hai. koral etol ki vishishtata hai ki, kam paani vaale kshetron ke aage saagar ke kinaare vaale bhaag ke ret vaale hisson mein adhik se adhik oonchaai sirf nau meter (30 foot) ki hai. yeh kinaara lagbhag 19 kilometer (12 meal) lambe aur 8 kilometer (5.0 meal) chaude lagoon ko ghere hue hai. yeh etol, lagoon ke chaaro or sampoorn ret vaalon jameen se ghira hua hain, jo iske paridhi ke 90 pratishat ko ghere hue hai jiski shurooaat uttar se hoti hai. mukhya dweep kareeb saath dveepon mein sabse bada hai aur jo chhaagos dveepasamooh ka nirmaan karti hain. mukhya dweep ke alaava, yahaan lagoon mein teen chhote dweep hain : pashchim dweep (3.4 ha/8.4 ekad);6 madhya dweep (6 ha/14.8 ekad); aur poorvi dweep (11.75 ha/29 ekad). ek chauthe dweep ko kuchh maanachitron mein dekha ja sakta hai, eneevarsari aaisalaind jo ki madhya dweep ke dakshinpashchim mein ek kimi (1100 yaards) doori par hai, upagrah chhaviyon mein ek ret dweep ke roop mein dikhaai deta hai. madhya dweep aur eneevarsari dweep donon spar reef complex ka hissa hain.[65]


pravaaladveep ka kul kshetr 65.6 varg meal (170 kimi2) hai. 80 foot (25 meter) ki gaharaai ke saath laigoon kshetr 47.9 varg meal (120 kimi2) hai. kul bhoomi kshetr (paridheeya bhittiyon ko chhodkar) 11.6 varg meal (30 kimi2) hai. koral reef jo etol ke samudra ki or ghira hua hai vah aamtaur par chaudi, samatal aur adhikaansh sthaanon mein ausat samudri star se kareeb 3 fut (1 mi) uthali hai aur chaudaai mein 300-650 feet (100-200 mi) tak hai. samudra ki or baahari chattaan mein lagbhag 13.61 varg meal (35.2 km2) ka kshetr shaamil hai. reef shelf ke baahari kinaare par, gahre paani mein neeche ke dhalaan bahut hi gahre hain, kuchh jal sthaanon par tat 0.6 meal (1 kimi) ke bheetar 1500 feet (457 meter) se bhi adhik hain.[65]

lagoon mein, pravaal ke kai sire, aavaagaman ke liye khataron ko prastut karte hain. samudra ki or dweep ko ghere hue uthale reef maidaan, saagar ki taraf koi langaravaani pradaan naheen karte. 1971-poorv jahaaj ke besin mod ke saath, uttar ki or lagoon ke aadhe hisse mein channel aur sthirn kshetr seepiyon ka jaal hota hai. dakshin ki or lagoon ke aadhe hisson mein mahatvapoorn namakeen-jal aardr pradesh maujood hai jise baaraachois kehte hain. vahaan mukhya lagoon ka laghu lagoon uchch jvaar mein samudri jal se bhara hota hai aur nyoon jvaar par shushk hota hai. 1996 aur 2006 mein vaigyaanik abhiyaan, shesh chhaagos dveepasamooh ke saath-saath gaarsiya ke lagoon aur aas-paas ke paani ko "asaadhaaran adooshit" aur "aparivrtit" ke roop mein varnit karte hai.[66]

Diego gaarsiya mein aksar bhookamp hota hai jiska mukhya kaaran dweep ke pashchim mein sthit kaarlsabarg rij ke saath-saath vivrtanik plate gatividhi hai. ek ko 1812 mein darj kiya gaya tha; 30 November 1983 ko 21:46 ke sthaaneeya samay par ek richter skel par 7.6 paimaane par bhookamp aaya aur jo 142 second tak chala, jiske parinaamasvaroop ek laghu sunaami ka roop le liya aur lagoon mein iski tarangon ki oonchaai 1.5 meter (5 foot) thi, 2 December 2002 mein ek aur bhookamp aaya jo ki dweep par subah 12:21 mein riktar skel par 4.6 paimaane par aaya.[67]

December 2004 mein Indonesia ke nikat utpann hue soonaami ne baarton bindu (Diego gaarsiya ke etol ka poorvottar bindu) par tatarekha-bhooksharan kiya. [68]

samudra vigyaan

Diego gaarsiya, varsh bhar dakshin bhoomadhya-saagareeya dhaara ke prabhaav mein rahata hai. hind mahaasaagar ki satahi dhaaraaon ki ek maanasooni vyavastha, Asiaee maanasooni vaayu vyavastha ke saath sambaddh hai. samudri satah ka taapamaan varsh bhar 80-84 °aF/26-28 °aC ki seema mein rahata hai.[69]

Diego gaarsiya par giben-harjabarg (taaja paani) leins

Diego gaarsiya jal se oopar utha hua koral etol ka failaav hai jo holoseen kaal ke 36 meter (120 feet) ki gaharaai vaale pravaal malabe aur ret se bana hai, uske oopar pleestoseen kaal ka choona patthar faila hua hai jo ek samudri pahaad ki satah par jama hota raha, yeh pahaad hind mahaasaagar ke tal se lagbhag 1800 meter (6000 feet) ooncha hai. holoseen avasaad chhidrapoorn hain aur poori tarah se samudra ke paani se santrupt hain. varsha ka koi bhi jal jo oopar se girta hai vah turant hi satah ki ret ke maadhyam se ris jaata hai aur neeche khaare paani mein mil jaata hai. Diego gaarsiya ki chaudaai itni hai ki vah ekvifr mein hone vaale jvaareeya utaar-chadhaav ko kam kar deta hai aur varsha (ausatan prati varsh 102.5/260 semi)[70] niyamit roop se paryaapt hoti hai jisse santrupt avasaadon mein apekshaakrut bhaari khaare paani ke oopar tairate hue uttal, taaje paani ke giben-harjabarg[71] leins ki shrrunkhala ka nirmaan hota hai.[72]

pratyek leins ki kshaitij sanrachana, up-satahi jamaav ke prakaar aur paaragamyata ki bhinnata se prabhaavit hoti hai, jo Diego gaarsiya par chhote hain. gaharaai mein, leins golaakaar hai, satah ke paas yeh aam taur par dweep ke aakaar ke anuroop hota hai.[73] jab ek giben-harjabarg leins ka poorn gathan hota hai, iski asthaayi prakruti meethe paani ke sire ko ausat samudri star se oopar dhakelegi aur agar dweep kaafi chauda hai to ausat samudri star ke neeche leins ki gaharaai samudra tal se oopar jal star ki oonchaai se 40 guna adhik hogi. Diego gaarsiya par yeh 20 meter ki adhiktam gaharaai ke baraabar hai. haalaanki, pratyek leins ka vaastavik aakaar aur gaharaai, us bindu par dweep ki chaudaai aur aakaar, ekvifr ki paaragamyata aur pun: varshan aur vaataavaran mein vaashpeekaran se hui haani ke beech santulan, paudhon dvaara bhaap-nikaas, jvaareeya abhivhan aur maanav upayog par nirbhar karti hai.

baagaan ki avadhi mein, uthale kune aur unke saath kundon mein varsha ka ekatrit poorak paani chhoti aabaadi ke dehaati jeevan shaili ke liye paryaapt paani upalabdh kara deta tha. Diego gaarsiya par aaj, dweep ke uttar-pashchimi failaav par sainya adde 100 uthale "kshaitij" kuon se prati din "chhaavani" leins se 560,000 liter se adhik ka upayog karte hain, jo 3500 ki aabaadi ke liye pashchimi shaili ke upayog ke liye paryaapt paani hai. yeh anumaan hai ki is 3.7 km2 leins mein 19 meeliyn m3 meetha paani hai aur ismein varsha se pratidin ausat 10,000 m3 paani milta hai, jismein se 40% leins mein rahata hai aur 60% vaashpan-utsarjan ke maadhyam se nasht ho jaata hai.[74]

maanav upabhog ke liye ek leins se taaja paani nikaalne ke liye mausam ke aadhaar par leins ke sthaayi upaj ki ganana aavashyak hai kyonki ati-upayog ya sookhe ki vajah se pratyek leins mein khaare paani ke shaamil hone ki sambhaavana hoti hai. iske alaava, sunaami aur ushnakatibandheeya toofaanon se maaladeev aur kai prashaant dveepon mein leins gande ho gaye hain. khade kuen, leins mein namak ke jamaav ko prerit kar sakte hain aur adhik nikaasi se taaja paani ka dabaav kam ho jaayega jisse samudri jal ka paarshv pravesh falit hoga. satah ki mitti ki paaragamyata ke parinaamasvaroop lagbhag shoonya apavaah falit hota hai, leins aasaani se malavisrjan, antyeshti aur raasaayanik bahaav se pradooshit ho jaate hain. ek leins ki gandagi ko baahar hone aur pun: svachh banane mein kai saal lag sakte hain, jo haani ke punarbharan ke anupaat par nirbhar karta hai.[75]

etol rim par vahaan kuchh praakrutik gart hain jo prachur maatra mein varsha jal ko sangruheet karte hain aur meethe paani ke kshetron ka nirmaan karte hain.[76] inmein se do dweep ke vanya jeevan ke liye mahatva ke hain aur jo apne sambandhit taaje paani ke leins ka punarbharan karte hain. inmein se ek etol ke ke uttar pashchimi bindu par keindrit hai, doosra havaai adde ke dakshin-poorv chhor par point mariyn kabristaan ke paas hai. anya, chhote meethe paani ki jheelein havaai patti ke poorv ki or sthit hain aur etol ke uttar-pashchimi failaav par riseevar aintena kshetr ke aaspaas hai.[77]

vahaan kai maanav nirmit meethe paani ke taalaab hain jo etol rim ke pashchimi bhaag par havaai adde aur sadak ke nirmaan ke dauraan kiye gaye utkhananon se utpann hue the. varsha aur giben-harjabarg leins mein vistaarit hone se upaje ye bharaav dweep par paae jaate hain.[78]

jalavaayu

grahan bindu

varsha: sabhi varshan, varsha ke roop mein hota hai, jo vaayu-raashi prakaar ki fuhaar se charitaarth hota hai. vaarshik varsha ka ausat 260 semi (102 inch) hai aur sarvaadhik varsha October se February tak hoti hai. 25 semi (14 inch) varsha ke saath January sabse naam maheena hota hai aur August sabse sookha, jab varsha ka ausat 100 mimi (4.2 inch) hota hai.[69]

taapamaan: aaspaas ke samudra ki satah ka taapamaan praathamik jalavaayu niyantran hai aur taapamaan aam taur par saal bhar ek samaan rahata hai, jiske tahat March aur April mein din ke dauraan ausat adhiktam 31 degree celcius (88 °aF) hota hai aur July se lekar September tak 29 degree celcius (84 °aF) rahata hai. pratidin ki bhinnata lagbhag 3-4 degree celcius (10 °aF) hai, jo raat ko girkar 20 °aC (70 °aF) ho jaati hai.[69] aardrata saal bhar adhik rahati hai. lagbhag satat chalne waali hava, maahaul ko kaafi aaraamadaayak rakhati hai.

pavan: December se lekar March tak, havaaen lagbhag 6 not (11 kimi/ghanta) ke saath aam taur par pachhuaa hoti hain. April aur May ke dauraan havaaen halki aur asthir hoti hain, jo ant mein poorv-dakshinpoorvi disha mein vaapas jaati hain. June se lekar September tak dakshin-poorvi vyaapaarik pavanon ka prabhaav rahata hai, jinki gati 10-15 samudri meal hoti hai. October aur November ke dauraan havaaen ek baar fir halki aur asthir paristhitiyon ki avadhi se gujrati hain aur dakshini golaardh mein garmi ki shuruaat ke saath pachhami disha ki or mud jaati hain.[69]

aandhi-toofaan: aamtaur par garmiyon ke maheenon (December se March) mein dopahar aur shaam ko is tarah ki gatividhiyon ko dekha jaata hai aur jab dweep ke aas-pados mein intarataupikl kanvarjeins jon hota hai.[79]

bhoomadhya rekha se iski niktata ke chalte Diego gaarsiya mein ushnakatibandheeya chakravaat ka jokhim kam se kam hota hai jahaan oopari vaayumandal ke sanchalan ko vyavasthit karne ke liye nyoonatam roop se kairiyolis pairaameetar ki aavashyakta hoti hai. haalaanki, kuchh kam teevrata vaale toofaan dweep mein aate rahate hain, jismein 1901 ka toofaan shaamil hai, ismein kareeb 1500 se bhi adhik naariyl ped ujad gaye the,[80] 16 September 1944 ko[81] iske chalte royal ear fors peebeevaaijo kaitaleena malabe mein mil gayi thi, September 1990 mein jiske chalte tamboo shahar dhvast ho gayi aur uske baad fir operation dessert storm ke dauraan USAF hamlaavar samoohon ke liye iska nirmaan kiya gaya,[82] aur 22 July 2007 ko jab havaaon ki gati 60 not (110 kimi/ghanta) se paar hui aur 24 ghante se 10 inch (250 mimi) se adhik baarish hui.[82]

kainan point par sooryaast

2004 ke hind mahaasaagar bhookamp se utpann soonaami dvaara yeh dweep thoda bahut prabhaavit hua. dweep ki pashchimi bhuja par sevaarat karmiyon ne tarang gatividhiyon mein ek chhoti si vruddhi ki soochana di. yeh dweep apne anukool saagar sthalaakruti dvaara kaafi had tak sanrakshit raha. etol ke lagbhag 80 kimi (50 meal) poorv mein 650 kimi (400 meal) lambi chhaagos treinch faili hui hai, jo ki ek paani ke neeche 4900 meter se adhik (16,000 feet) doobne waali ghaati hai. trech ki khaai aur etol ke dhalaan aur shelf kinaara ke liye usaki gred poorv se etol ko paar karne se pehle paryaapt soonaami tarangon ke nirmaan ke liye ise adhik kathin banaati hai. iske alaava, kinaare ke koral reef aur shaivaal yukt chattaani parat laharon ke adhikaansh prabhaav ko nasht kar sakte hain.[83][84] 2005 ke shurooaat mein kiye gaye ek jaivik sarvekshan ne Diego gaarsiya aur chhaagos dveepasamooh ke anya dveepon par soonaami lahar ki bhooksharan prabhaav ka sanket diya. soonaami tarang dvaara bhang ek 200 se 300 meter (220 se 330 gaj) tatarekha ke vistaar ko paaya gaya, jo ki poorvi bhooja ke 10 pratishat ka pratinidhitv karta hai. chhaagos sanrakshan trast dvaara ek jaivik sarvekshan ne report ki ki jiske parinaamasvaroop sailaab atirikt tatarekheeya jhaadiyon aur chhote se madhyam aakaar ke naariyl taad ko bahaakar door le gaye.[84]

vanaspati

Diego gaarsiya par ek mishrit prajaati ka meethe paani ki aardrabhoomi.

dweep ke sarvapratham vaanaspatik prekshan 1883 mein hyoom dvaara us samay kiye gaye, jab poori sadi bhar se naariyl ke baagaan prachaalan mein rahe the. paravarti adhyayan va ropan yug ke dauraan sangrahan 1885, 1905, 1939 aur 1967 mein sampann hue.[85] is prakaar, sampark se poorv ki vanaspati ki prakruti ke baare mein bahut hi kam jaankaari maujood hai.

smithsoniyn dvaara prakaashit 1967 ka sarvekshan,[86] haal hi ke anusandhaan ke liye sabse praadhikrut aadhaar-rekha ke roop mein prayukt kiya jaata hai. in adhyayanon se sanket milta hai ki shaayad dweep ki vanaspati mein teji se badlaav aa rahe hain. udaaharan ke liye, JMW top ne 1993-2003 ke beech vaarshik roop se aankade sangrahit kiye aur paaya ki mukhya roop se Diego gaarsiya mein, ausatan pratyek varsh paudhon ki teen prajaatiyaan aa rahi hain. unke shodh ne stodaart ki prajaatiyon mein ek tihaai se adhik prajaatiyon ko joda.[87] top aur kyoo garden ke Martin haimiltan ne 2009 mein abhi haal hi ki vanaspati jaanchasoochi ko sankalit kiya, jise iski paad tippani mein dekha ja sakta hai.[88]

Diego gaarsiya par ek abhedya "kokos baun dyoo" jungle (kuchh naheen balki naariyl).

1967 mein, stodaart ne Diego gaarsiya ke bhoo kshetr ko skevola takaada ke tatavarti baad se ghira hua aur andar ki or kokos nyooseefera (naariyl) ko dweep ka adhikaansh bhaag aachhaadit karne vaale pramukh ped ke roop mein varnit kiya. up-khand baag ke samaan vyavasthit tha, jahaan nichle khand mein 0.5 meter oonchaai se kam paudhe ya ve paudhe maujood the, jinhein unhonne "kokos baun-diyu" naam diya, jo tarun vrukshon ka madhyavarti khand tha aur nichla star sv-ropit paudhon se samruddh, jo un kshetron ko apekshaakrut abhedya banaata tha.[89]

ropan-yugeen gram sthalon par ushnakatibandheeya sakht kaashth ke van aur kaishurina ikvisetifoliya (aayaran vud paain) ke jungle bhi shesh hain.[90]

Diego gaarsiya mein harnaandiya ke varchasv wala van.

1997 mein, ameriki nausena ne ek vanaspati sarvekshan karavaaya aur Diego gaarsiya mein sthaleeya sanvahani paudhon ki lagbhag 280 prajaatiyon ki pehchaan ki.[91] inmein se koi bhi sthaanikmaari naheen theen aur 2005 mein ek aur sarvekshan ne 36 prajaatiyon ki "desheeya" ke roop mein pehchaan ki, yaani maanavon ki sahaayata ke bina ugane waali aur duniya mein kaheen aur na paae jaane waali.[92] is samay sthaleeya paudhon ki koi bhi prajaati, kisi sanrakshan chinta ka kaaran naheen hain.[93]

Diego gaarsiya ke 36 desheeya paudhon mein, 12 vruksh, paanch jhaadiyaan, saat dvibeejapatri shaak, teen ghaas, chaar bail aur paanch frn hain.[94]

vruksh ki baarah prajaatiyaan hain: bairingtoniya eshiyaatika (machhali-vish ped), kailofaailam inofaailam (alekjeindriyn laarel), kokos nyoosifera, kaurdiya sabakaurdeta , gvetaarda spishiyosa , intsiya bijuga , harnaandiya sonora , morinda sitrifoliya , neisosparma opojitifoliym ,[95] paaisoniya graindis , tarminaaliya kaataapa aur heeliyotropiym fortheriyenam . anya teen ped saamaanya hain aur desheeya ho sakte hain, lekin sambhav hai ki inhein manushyon ne ropa ho: kaishurina ikvisetifoliya, haaibiskas tiliyaasshiys , aur paaipaturas arjenshiys .

paanch desheeya jhaadiyaan hain: sisaalapiniya baundak , pemfis esidula , premna seraatifoliya , skevola takaada (aksar “askeviyolaa” ke roop mein glat uchcharit) aur suriyaana maritima .

Diego gaarsiya mein premana bahul jhaadi bhoomi

iske saath hi "apatrun se bhare" ya "desheeyakrut videshi prajaatiyaan" ke roop mein vargeekrut paudhon ki 134 prajaatiyaan bhi maujood hain, jo anajaane mein manushya dvaara ropi gayi ya jaanaboojh kar sajaavati ya fasali paudhon ke roop mein ropi gayi ho sakti hai, jo ab "deshi ban gayi" hain, jinmein 1995 se 32 nai prajaatiyaan darj ki gayi hain, jo rope jaane vaale paudhon ke dar mein teevr vruddhi darshaate hain.[96] prajaatiyon ki soochi mein shesh mein shaamil hain ugaai jaane waali khaadya ya sajaavati prajaatiyaan, jinmein adhikaansh pratibandhit vaataavaran mein ugaai jaati hain, jinmein kuchh ekal ropak ke vyaktigat gamale mein ugaai gayi ho sakti hain.[97]

2004 mein, pravaaladveep ke kinaare par 10 maanyata praapt paudhon ke samudaaya maujood the:[65]

1. kailofilm van mein prachur kailofilm inofilm maujood the jinke tane 2 meter vyaas se adhik viksit hote the. is van mein aksar kinaaron par premna obtusifoliya sahit harnaandiya sonora, kokos nyoosifera aur gvetaarda spishiyosa shaamil hote hain. samudra tat par paae jaane par, kailifaailam aksar pravaaladveep ke jal mein fail jaate hain aur laal taangon vaale boobees ko chhipne mein madad dete hain, jaisa ki bairingtoniya eshiyaatika bhi karte hain. adhikaanshat: pravaaladveep ke poorvi disha mein paae jaate hain.

2. kokos van, anivaarya roop se ek-pratiroopi ("kokos baun diyu") hai, jiski nichli pankti mein kokos ke paudhe hote hain.

3. kokos-harnaandiya van, do vitaani prajaatiyon se chhaaya rahata hai - kokos nyooseefera aur harnaandiya sonora .

4. kokos-gvetaarda van, kokos nyoosifera aur gvetaarda spishiyosa se chhaae rahate hain. iski nichli pankti mein neisosparma opojiteefoliym ka mishran aur samudra tat par skevola taakaada aur toornefortiya arjenti maujood rahate hain.

ek taaje paani ka daladal jo sirf naagarmotha se bana hai. yeh Diego gaarsiya mein baumbar rainp ke poorvi chhor par sthit hai.

5. haranaandiya van, vitaan star par adhik haranaandiya sonora dvaara chhaae hote hain. is tarah ke van pravaaladveep ke aviksit bhaag mein, adhikaanshat: poorvi kshetr mein dekhe ja sakte hain. aksar kailofilm inofaailam aur kokos nyooseefera maujood rahate hain. is van ki sangrahit prajaatiyon mein aksar morinda sitrifoliya, kokos paudhe aur espleniym nids (pakshi ka frn ghonsala) aur kabhi-kabhi, nisosparma opositifoliym aur gvetaarda spishiyosa shaamil hote hain.

theth samudri kinaare ka tateeya baada jiske andar ki taraf kajurina ki jhaalar hai.

6. premna shrabalaind, aam taur par daladali kshetr aur van kshetron ke beech maujood hote hain. sabse vishisht vanaspati hai premna obtusifoliya, jab ki seemaant par kaishurina ikvisetifoliya aur skevola taakeda hain. ghane bhoo-aavaran mein fimbristilis saaimosa , ipomoi peskapre (beech maurning glori) aur traayamafeta prokambens jaisi prajaatiyaan shaamil hain. premna shrabalaind adhikaanshat: pravaaladveep ke viksit kshetron ke aas-paas, visheshakar kunon vaale kshetron mein viksit hota hai.

7. dweep ke lagbhag sampoorn samudri tat aur samudratal ke kinaare tateeya jhaadiyon ki panktiyaan. ismein takaada skevola adhik hain, lekin chhitre hue naariyl ke ped, gvetaarda spesiosa aur paaisoniya graindis bhi dekhe ja sakte hain. samudra ki or, ismein tooraneforshiya arjeinti aur suriyaana maritima bhi shaamil hai. samudreetaal ki or, ismein lepturas ripens , traaiyamafeta prokambens aur saaipras ligulairis bhi shaamil ho sakte hain. vahaan samudreetaal ke poorvi chhor par baisingatoniya eshiyaatika ke bade sanchaya bhi maujood hain.

8. anurakshit ghaas aur narakat kshetr jo niyamit roop se kaate gaye hon. dweep ki havaai tasveerein spasht roop se ghaas ke bade maidaan aur bageeche jaise savaana kshetr pradarshit karti hain jin par ameriki sena ne entena feeld aur havaai adde jaisi vishaal aautador suvidhaaon ka nirmaan kiya hai.[98]

9 mishrit mool van, jismein koi pramukh vitaan prajaatiyaan maujood naheen.

10. daladal teen alag prakaaron mein vibhaajit hai: kaitel (taaifa dominjenasis ), aardrabhoomi aur mishrit prajaati. kaitel daladal mein lagbhag poori tarah se kaitel nihit hai. ye kshetr aksar maanav nirmit jalaashayon ya nikaas-jal hote hain joki lagbhag poori tarah se pratiroopi hote hain. aardrabhoomi kshetr mein maujood vanaspati aur kuchh maatra mein taaje paani par aadhaarit hain. mishrit prajaati ke daladal bahut hi parivrtaneeya rahe hain aur aam taur par yahaan koi sthir paani naheen tha.

vanya-jeevan

red "vaureear" kekada, Diego gaarsiya.

kuchh khel machhaliyon, choohon aur billiyon ke apavaad sahit Diego gaarsiya ke sabhi sthaleeya aur jaleeya jeev sanrakshit hain, ullanghanakartaaon ke prati bhaari jurmaana lagaaya jaata hai.[99], ,

kokonat kekadon ko Diego gaarsiya mein sanrakshit kiya jaata hain.

kekade . dweep kai prakaar ke kekadon ke liye aashray hai, "yoddha kekade" (kaardisoma kaarnifeks ) raat ko jungle mein ubhar aate hain. bahut hi bade 4 kilogram (8.8 paaund) naariyl kekade, ya "daakoo kekade" (bargas laitro ') yahaan badi sankhya mein paae jaate hain. is pravaaladveep par prajaatiyon ko upalabdh karaai gayi suraksha aur pravaaladveep ke poorvi kinaare ke alagaav ki vajah se poore kshetr ki tulana mein vahaan bhaari maatra mein prajaatiyon ki maujoodagi darj ki gayi hai (339 kekade/ha).[100]

stanadhaari . Diego gaarsiya mein koi mool stanapaayi prajaatiyaan maujood naheen hain aur chamagaadadon ke koi abhilekh naheen hain.[101] choohon ke alaava (raitas raitas ) sabhi stanapaayi prajaatiyaan paalatoo prajaatiyon ke jangali vanshaj hain. ropan yug ke dauraan, Diego gaarsiya sisiliyn gadahon (ikvas esins ), darjanon ghode (ikvas kaabaalas ), saikadon kutte (kainis femiliyaaris ) aur ghareloo billiyon (felis kaitas ) ke bade jhund ke liye nivaas-sthaan tha. 1971 mein, BIOT aayukt ne kaaryakarta pichhle antim ropan kaaryakartaaon ke prasthaan ke baad jangali kutton ke unmoolan ka aadesh diya aur yeh kaaryakram 1975 tak chalta raha, jab antim jangali kutte ko dekha gaya aur goli maar di gayi.[102] gadahe, jo 1972 mein 400 se adhik the, 2005 tak keval 20 rah gaye the.[103] antim ghoda 1995 mein dekha gaya,[104] aur 2005 tak, dweep bhar ke unmoolan kaaryakram mein keval do billiyaan bachi maani gain.[krupaya uddharan jodein]

ghonsale mein ek chooje ke saath ek vayask laal taangon wala boobi.

mool pakshi. Diego gaarsiya sahit chhaagos dveepasamooh ke pakshiyon ki soochi mein kul 91 prajaatiyaan shaamil theen, jinmein vishaal prajanan aabaadi waali 16 prajaatiyaan shaamil theen. haalaanki koi sthaanikmaari pakshi naheen hain, lekin antarraashtreeya roop se mahatvapoorn samudri-pakshiyon ke mandal base hain. Diego gaarsiya ke samudri pakshi samudaaya mein prajaatiyon ki falati-foolati aabaadi shaamil hai, jo hind mahaasaagar ke anya bhaagon mein teji se ksheen ho rahi hain. Diego gaarsiya mein bhoore naudis (enaaus stolids ), bridld turn (starna enithetas ), chhote naudi (enaaus tenyirostris ), laal taangon wala boobi (soola soola ) aur chhote friget pakshiyon (fregaata eriyl ) ke asankhya ghonsalon mein basi aabaadi maujood hain. anya ghonsalon mein basane vaale pakshiyon mein shaamil hain laal dum vaale ushnakatibandheeya pakshi (fethaun roobrikauda ), faan jaisi dum vaale sheenavaatar (pafeenas paasifiks ), odubaun ka sheenavaatar (pafeenas ibapaminiyeri ), kaale kandhon vaale turn (starna sumaatraana ), safed (ya shvet) turn (gaaigis Alba ), dhaareedaar heraun (butoraaidas striyaatas ) aur safed chhaati vaale vaatarahen (amaaurornis fonikuras ).[105]

prajanan pakshati mein ek maada medaagaaskar fodi.
udti hui laal poonchh waali ushnakatibandheeya chidiya. etol ki chhaavani kshetr ke aas-paas kai jode ghonsala banaate hain.

pravesh karaae gaye pakshi. dweep mein kai alag kshetron se pravesh karaai gayi pakshiyon ki prajaatiyaan maujood hain jinmein shaamil hai kaitar igrets (' bubulkas aaibis ), bhaarateeya bhoo varjit kabootar, jo jebara kabootar (jiyopeeliya striyaata ) bhi kahalaata hai, kachhuaa kabootar (streptopeeliya pikcharaata ), bhaarateeya maina (ekridotheres traaistis ), madagaaskar fodi (faaudiya madagaaskarensis ) aur murgiyaan (gailas gailas).[106]

sthaleeya sareesrup aur meethe paani ke ubhayachar. is samay Diego gaarsiya mein jaankaari ke anusaar teen chhipkaliyaan aur ek meindhk aur sanbhavat: ek saanp base hain. sabhi maanav gatividhi ke dvaara pravartit maane jaate hain. ghareloo chhipkali (hemidektils frenaatas), shokagrast chhipkali (lepidodaiktils lugubris), bageeche ki chhipkali (ek agaamid) (kelotas varsiklar)) aur ken tod (bafo merins) .[107] vaise taaiflopide parivaar se andhe saanp ke ek prakaar ki vyavahaarya aabaadi, sanbhavat: braahmani andha sarp (raimafotiflaups braahmins ) bhi maujood ho. yeh saanp cheentiyon aur deemak ke laarva, ande aur pyoopa ko khaata hai aur ek bade keinchue jitne aakaar ka hota hai.

kona, havaai mein yeh hara kachhuaa hava ke liye satah ko todne wala hai.

samudri kachhue. Diego gaarsiya donon baajthonthi kachhuaa (eretmokilis imbrikaata ) aur hara kachhuaa (kiloniya midaas ) ke liye upayukt chaara aur need-shaavak aavaas upalabdh karaata hai. tarun baajthonthi kachhue pravaaladveep ke dakshini hisse mein samudrataal aur baaraakois silven (jo tartal kov ke naam se bhi vikhyaat hai) mein saamaanya roop se paae jaate hain. vayask baajthonthi kachhue aur hare kachhue aas-paas ke samudri kshetr mein aam taur par paae jaate hain aur pravaaladveep ke samudri kinaaron par niyamit roop se chhipe pade rahate hain. baajthonthi kachhue June aur July ke dauraan aur November se March ke beech chhipe rahate hain. hare kachhuon ko har maheene chhipe pade hue dekha gaya hai; ausat maada kachhuaa prati mausam teen jhol deti hai. pratyek ausat jhol ka 113 andon wala aakaar hota hai. donon prajaatiyon mein pratidin chhipe pade rahana aam hai. yeh anumaan hai ki chhaagos mein 300-700 baajthonthi kachhue aur 400-800 hare kachhue ande dete hain.[108]

luptapraaya prajaatiyaan: chaar sareesrup aur chhah seteshiyn khatre mein hain aur sanbhavat: Diego gaarsiya mein ya aas-paas paae ya na paae jaaen:[109] baajthonthi kachhuaa (eretmochilis imbrikaata - gyaat; chamade ki peeth wala kachhuaa (darmochilis koriyaashi - sambhav, hara kachhuaa (kiloniya midaas) - gyaat; oliv ridle kachhuaa (lepidochilis oliveshi - sambhav; shukraanu vhel (fisiter maikrosefailas - sambhav; sei vhel (baalenoptera boreelis ) - sambhav; finbaik vhel (baalenoptera fiselas - sambhav; braaides vhel (edeni baalenoptera) - sambhav; neela vhel (baalenoptera maskulas - sambhav; kubada vhel (megaaptera novaanajile) - sambhav.

saamarik mahatva

Afghanistan mein bamabaari abhiyaan ke dauraan Diego gaarsiya par November, 2001 ko bi-1bi laansar baumbar.

sheet yuddh yug ke dauraan, roosi prabhaav ke pratikool aur madhya poorv se tel ki dhulaai ke liye samudri-maargon ki raksha ke liye sanyukt raajya America hind mahaasaagar mein sainya adda sthaapit karne ka ichhuk tha. America ne dweep ko saamarik roop se mahatvapoorn maana.[110] Irani kraanti, Kuwait par iraaki dhaave, svatantrata paane ke liye aakraman aur iraaki svatantrata sangraam ke dauraan America ke liye "niyat vimaan vaahak" upalabdh karaate hue dweep ka mahatva kai baar saabit ho chuka hai.

Diego gaarsiya par ameriki sainya adde ke prati bhaarateeya manovrutti

Diego gaarsiya mein ameriki sena ki gatividhiyon ne ateet mein America aur Bhaarat ke beech gharshan paida kiya hai.[111] Bhaarat ke vibhinn raajaneetik dalon ne baaranbaar sainya adde ko dhvast karne ka aahvaan diya, kyonki Diego gaarsiya mein ameriki nausena ki maujoodagi ko unhonne hind mahaasaagar ki shaanti mein ek baadha ke roop mein dekha.[112] haal ke varshon mein, naatakeeya roop se Bhaarat aur America ke beech sambandhon mein sudhaar hua hai. 2001 aur 2004 ke beech ameriki aur bhaarateeya nausena ke beech kai nausainik abhyaason ke liye Diego gaarsiya ek aayojan sthal raha.[113]

vimaan parking kshetr, Diego gaarsiya.

ameriki poorv-tainaat pot

yeh pravaaladveep ameriki samudri poorv-tainaat squadron too ke jahaajon ko aashray deta hai. in jahaajon mein tank, sashastr karmi vaahak, ladaai ke saamaan, indhan, kal-purje aur kshetreeya chal-aspataal sahit pramukh sena ke sahaayataarth upakaran aur maal ki aapoorti shaamil hoti hai. is upakaran ka upayog faaras khaadi yuddh mein kiya gaya tha jab squadron ne upakaranon ko Saudi arab pahunchaaya tha.

MPSRON TWO ki pot rachana gatisheel hai. vartamaan mein (August 2010) iska padaav hai:

  • MV captain steven L. benet (T-AK-4296)
  • USNS SGT William aar. batan (T-AK-3012),[114]
  • MV SSG Edward A. Carter, junior ( T-AK-4544),[115]
  • MV major barnaard ef. fishr (T-AK-4396)
  • USNS Lawrence H. jiaanella (T-AOT-1125)
  • USNS SGT maatej kokaak (T-AK-3005,[116]
  • USNS 1st LT baaldomero lopej (T-AK-3010),[117]
  • MV LTC John you.di. pej[118]
  • USNS GYSGT fred dablyoo. staukahaim (T-AK-3017)

inmein se paanch jahaaj 30 dinon ke liye samudri vaayu-thal taask fors ke bharan-poshan ke liye paryaapt ameriki marine corps hetu rasad dhoti hai: USNS batan, USNS kokaak, USNS lopej, USNS staukahaim, aur USNS fishr .

2001 se pehle, COMPSRON 2 mein lagbhag 20 jahaaj maujood the, jismein ameriki sena mein thal sena ko upakaranon ki tvarit-pratikriya supurdagi pradaan karne vaale chaar ladaakoo sena ki jahaajein shaamil theen. teen jahaaj par savaar maal bot (LASH) the, jo baarjas kahalaane vaale maal jahaaj dhote the, jinmein tat par pahunchaane ke liye sena ka gola-baarood maujood hota hai: MV ameriki jalakaag, SS green haarbar (LASH), SS green valley, (LASH), MV Jeb stuart, (LASH). ameriki vaayu sena, ameriki nausena aur raksha sanbhaar-tantr agency ki tvarit supurdagi aavashyakataaon ke liye sevaarat sanbhaar-tantr pot maujood the. inmein vaayu sena ke hathiyaaron, misaail aur kal-purjon ke liye kantenar jahaaj; raksha rasad agency ke bharan-poshan ke liye sainya samudri utthaapak kamaan ko supurd 500 bistaron wala aspataal jahaaj aur chalaayamaan bhandaaran aur maal utaarane vaale ekak aur ek apatateeya petrolium utsarjan pranaali (OPDS) tanker jahaaj shaamil hai. kuchh jahaajon ke naam the MV bafelo soljar, MV green ridj, aspataal jahaaj USNS henari J. kaisar, aur tanker USNS potomaik (T-AO-181).

vaishvik avasthiti pranaali

Diego gaarsiya, sanyukt raashtra America ki sena dvaara sanchaalit vaishvik avasthiti pranaali ke liye paanch niyantran addon mein se ek hai. ameriki vaayu sena ke havaai, kvaajaaleen, eseinshan dweep aur Colorado springs mein bhi nigraani kendra maujood hain. kendra GPS riseevaron dvaara prayukt sanketon ko utsarjit karne vaale 24 kaksheeya upagrahon par parmaanu ghadiyon ko tulyakaalik aur adyatan karte hain.

ETOPS aapaatkaaleen lainding sthal

Diego gaarsiya ko vaanijyik vimaanon ke udaan yojana ke uddeshya se ek ETOPS (vistaarit range judva engine prachaalan) aapaatkaaleen lainding sthal (vaikalpik maarg mein) ke roop mein abhijnyaapt kiya ja sakta hai. isse judva engine vaanijyik vimaanon ke liye (jaise ki eyarabas A330, Boeing 767 ya Boeing 777) ko Perth aur dubai (9,013.61 kimi/5,600.80 meal), Hongkong aur Johannesburg (10,658 kimi/6,623 meal) ya Singapore tatha saao paaulo (15,985.41 kimi/9,932.87 meal) jaise jodeedaar shaharon ke beech saiddhaantik aviraam udaan bharna anumat hai, jabki ek nishkriya engine ke saath 180 minute udaan samay mein upayukt vipthan havaai adda anurakshit ho.[119]

antariksh shatal

dweep naasa (NASA) antariksh shatal ke liye 33 aapaatkaaleen lainding vaishvik sthalon mein se ek hai.[120] shatal lainding ke liye in suvidhaaon mein se kisi ka upayog naheen kiya gaya hai.

kaargo seva

emavi bafin stret maheene mein ek baar Singapore aur Diego gaarsiya ke beech sankraman karta hai.

Diego gaarsiya mein sabhi upabhojya bhojan aur upakaranon ko samudri ya havaai maarg se laaya jaata hai aur sabhi gair-jaivanimneekaraneeya apashisht ko bhi dweep se baahar bhej diya jaata hai.

1971 se 1973 tak, ameriki nausena LST ne yeh seva pradaan ki. 1973 mein shurooaat ke saath, in sevaaon ko pradaan karne ke liye asainik jahaajon ko anubandhit kiya gaya.

2004 se ameriki-dhvajaankit kantenar jahaaj MV Baffin Strait ko, jise aksar "DGAR shatal" ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai, Singapore se Diego gaarsiya tak prati maah 250 kantenar pahunchaane ke liye adhikrut kiya gaya hai.[121] jahaaj ne pratyek varsh dweep ko 200,000 tanon se bhi zyaada maal pahunchaaya hai."[121] Singapore ki vaapasi yaatra par, vah punarchakreeya dhaatuon ko dhota hai.[122]

2004 mein TransAtlantic Lines ne Singapore aur Diego gaarsiya ke beech parivhan ke liye Sealift se boli mein baaji maar li.[123] is maarg ke liye pehle ameriki meritaaim adhikaariyon aur seeferars intaranaishalal union ke sadasyon dvaara sanchaalit Sealift Inc. ke MV Sagamore ne seva pradaan ki thi.[123] TransAtlantic Lines ne kathit taur par lagbhag 10 pratishat se anubandh jeeta tha, jahaan laagat mein antar lagbhag 2.7 million ameriki dollar raha tha.[123]

Baffin Straits ka chaartar US$12,550 dainik dar par 10 January 2005 se 30 September 2008 tak chala.

inhein bhi dekhein

atirikt pathan

  • edis, richrd, peek of limura .the story of Diego gaarsiya end chhaagos aarkipelego. chipnaham, viltashaayar: Antony ro limited, 2004.
  • eriksan, Andrew S vaaltar, si. laadavig III aur Justin di. mikole, "Diego gaarsiya aur sanyukt raajya America ki ubharati hind mahaasaagar rananeeti," asian security, vaulyoom. 6, na. 3 (2010 sharad ritu), peepi 214-37.
  • hatsan eem, etol research buletin na. 175. aubjrveshan on the bards of Diego gaarsiya, chhaagos aarkipelego, vith nots on adar vartibrets Washington deesi, smithsoniyn insteetyooshan, 1975.
  • Pilger, John (2006). Freedom Next Time. Bantam Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0593055527. adhyaaya 1: steeling a nation pp19-60
  • saind, Peter H., Diego gaarsiya mein Britain aur America - vivaadaaspad adde ka bhavishya, new yaurk: pailagrev maikamiln, 2009.
  • shepard, Charles aarasi aur mark RD, seevaard, ikoloji of the chhaagos aarkipelego, landan: liniyn society, 1999.
  • stodaart, deeaar aur jedi Taylor, etol research buletin na. 149. Diego gaarsiya etol, chhaagos dveepasamooh ka bhoogol aur paaristhitiki, Washington deesi, smithsoniyn insteetyooshan, 1971.
  • top, jeemadabloo, etol research buletin na. 313. N enoteted check list of the flora of Diego gaarsiya, british oshan teritri, Washington deesi, smithsoniyn insteetyooshan, 1988
  • vaain, David, aailaind of shem: the seekret histari of the military base on Diego gaarsiya. prinsatan, new jersey: prinsatan university press, 2009.
  • vinchestar, Simon, aautapost: jarni tu the sarvaaiving reliks of the british impaayar (2004)

sandarbh

  1. Diego gaarsiya samekit praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya, sitmbar 2005, paira 2.4.1.
  2. Diego gaarsiya samekit praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya, sitmbar 2005, paira 2.5.1
  3. "smithsoniyn insteetyooshan etol research buletin na. 149, pi. 210"
  4. "smithsoniyn insteetyooshan etol research buletin na. 149, pi 211.
  5. richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" chipenhaam, UK, pi. 84.
  6. richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" chipenhaam, UK, pi. 80
  7. richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" chipenhaam, UK, pi. 89.
  8. "smithsoniyn insteetyooshan etol research buletin na. 149, pi. 211-214"
  9. richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" chipenhaam, UK, pi. 49-54.
  10. a aa i "chhaagos dveepasamooh mein gulaami."
  11. "England aur vels haai court of Justice, kveens bench diveejan parishisht, anuchhed 396"
  12. "british Indian oshan teritri ke saath Europeeya sangh ke sambandh"
  13. "chhaagos aailainds ekjaail amejd baai speed of fauren ofises opojishn tu seebed klem baai maaladeev"
  14. Diego gaarsiya samekit praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya, sitmbar 2005, paira 2.4.3.
  15. [1] "chhaagos sanrakshan prabandhan yojana", british hind mahaasaagareeya kshetr prashaasan, videsh aur raashtramandal kaaryaalaya London . 2003. adhyaaya 6.
  16. richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipenhaam (UK) 2004, pi 21.
  17. a aa richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipenhaam (UK) 2004, pi. 29.
  18. richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipenhaam (UK) 2004, pi. 32.
  19. richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipenhaam (UK) 2004, pi. 32
  20. richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipenhaam (UK) 2004, pi. 33
  21. richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipenhaam (UK) 2004, pi. 80
  22. "smithsoniyn insteetyooshan etol anusandhaan buletin na. 149, pi. 212."
  23. "smithsoniyn insteetyooshan etol anusandhaan buletin na. 149, pi. 213."
  24. "helmuth vaun muke 'the emden', 1916, pi. 130"
  25. richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipenhaam (UK) 2004, pi. 70.
  26. a aa richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipenhaam (UK) 2004, pi. 82.
  27. a aa Peter H. saind, "Diego gaarsiya mein Britain aur sanyukt raajya America - ek vivaadaaspad adde ka bhavishya", 2009, paalagrev mekamiln, New York, pi. 3.
  28. Peter H. saind, "Diego gaarsiya mein Britain aur sanyukt raajya America - ek vivaadaaspad adde ka bhavishya", 2009, paalagrev mekamiln New York, pi. 72.
  29. Peter H. saind, "Diego gaarsiya mein Britain aur sanyukt raajya America - ek vivaadaaspad adde ka bhavishya", 2009, paalagrev mekamiln, new york, pi. 6-8.
  30. "England aur vels haai court of Justice, kveens bench diveejan parishisht, anuchhed 267-277"
  31. "Diego gaarsiya par utarane ke vyaktigat vivran, 1971."
  32. a aa Peter H. saind, "Diego gaarsiya mein Britain aur sanyukt raajya America - ek vivaadaaspad adde ka bhavishya", 2009, paalagrev mekamiln New York, pi. 24.
  33. a aa richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipenhaam (UK) 2004, pi. 84.
  34. a aa saind, "Diego gaarsiya mein Britain aur sanyukt raajya America - ek vivaadaaspad adde ka bhavishya", 2009, paalagrev mekamiln New York, pi. 25.
  35. richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipenhaam (UK) 2004, pi. 88.
  36. a aa richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipenhaam (UK) 2004, pi. 90.
  37. richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipenhaam (UK) 2004, pi 90
  38. richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipenhaam (UK) 2004, pi 90
  39. a aa Diego gaarsiya samekit praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya, sitmbar 2005, paira 2.4.2.
  40. [2]
  41. richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipenhaam (UK) 2004, pi. 91
  42. richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipenhaam (UK) 2004, pi. 93.
  43. a aa richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipenhaam (UK) 2004, pi. 94.
  44. richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipenhaam (UK) 2004, pi. 96
  45. richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipenhaam (UK) 2004, pi. 97.
  46. http://www.zianet.com/tedmorris/dg/realhistory.html
  47. [3] "raamasar anuprayog aur Diego gaarsiya raamasar site, 2004"
  48. [4]
  49. videsh aur raashtramandal kaaryaalaya, BIOT:, svaasthya London dweep aur mrutyu dar mein chhaagos, 2000
  50. "England aur vels haai court of Justice, kveens bench diveejan apeindiks, anuchhed 417"
  51. [5] anuchhed 629
  52. [6] "John ridiaan ka imel daava dekhein."
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  55. [9] videsh aur raashtramandal kaaryaalaya London "chhaagos sanrakshan prabandhan yojana", british hind mahaasaagareeya kshetr prashaasan,. 2003. 28 pi.
  56. [10] "CIA world faiktabuk, 23 August 2010 ko abhigm"]
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  58. "the Sunday times, 23 August 2010 ko abhigm"
  59. "Written Answers to Questions 21 June 2004" (– Scholar search). Hansard House of Commons Daily Debates (UK Parliament) 422 (part 605). http://www.publications.parliament.uk/pa/cm200304/cmhansrd/vo040621/text/40621w13.htm#40621w13.html_wqn9. abhigman tithi: 2008-02-21. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  60. Ian Cobain; Richard Norton-Taylor (2007-10-19). 2194649,00.html "Claims of secret CIA jail for terror suspects on British island to be investigated". The Guardian (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/usa/story/0, 2194649,00.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-10-21.
  61. Zagorin, Adam (2008-07-31). "Source: US Used UK Isle for Interrogations". Time. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1828469,00.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-05-01.
  62. Jamie Doward (2008-03-02). "British island 'used by US for rendition'". The Observer (London). http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2008/mar/02/ciarendition.unitednations. abhigman tithi: 2008-03-27.
  63. Dick Marty, Switzerland, ALDE (2007-06-07) (.PDF). Secret detentions and illegal transfers of detainees involving Council of Europe member states: second report. Section 70; page 13. Committee on Legal Affairs and Human Rights. http://www.sacc.org.uk/sacc/docs/coe-rendition-second-marty-report.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2008-02-21.
  64. Staff writers (2008-02-21). "UK apology over rendition flights". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk_politics/7256587.stm. abhigman tithi: 2008-02-21.
  65. a aa i Diego gaarsiya samekit praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya, sitmbar 2005, paira 2.5.1.
  66. "chhaagos science - chhaagos sanrakshan trast"
  67. [12]
  68. [13] chhaagos samaachaar, na. 25, pi. 2
  69. a aa i E [14] "nausena mausam samudra vigyaan aur kamaan, Diego gaarsiya ke liye lokal area forakaastar haindabuk - NAVCENTMETOCDETDGINST, 3140.2, 5 April 2002" 13 prushth
  70. Diego gaarsiya samekit praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya, sitmbar 2005, paira 2.5.2.
  71. [15]
  72. [16] urish, dainiyl dablyoo, "fresh vautar on the koral etol aailaind", sainya abhiyanta, January, February, 1974, pi. 27
  73. urish, dablyoo dainiyl, "fresh vautar on the koral etol aailaind", sainya abhiyanta, January, February, 1974, pi. 28
  74. hant, si. (1997). Diego gaarsiya ke haaidrojyoloji. vaacher, H.L aur queen, ti. (eds), bhoovijnyaaan aur kaarbonet dweep samooh, talachhat vigyaan ke kshetr mein vikaas ki haaidrojyoloji.
  75. http://geography.about.com/library/misc/ucghyben.htm
  76. "smithsoniyn insteetyooshan etol anusandhaan buletin naheen, 149, pi. 139."
  77. Diego gaarsiya samekit praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya, sitmbar 2005, paira 3.3.2.1.
  78. Stefan dablyoo sarfes aur Edward efasi laaoo, "Diego gaarsiya mein viksit svachh paani ki aapoorti pranaali", civil nausena engineer, winter 1985
  79. [17] "lokal area forakaastar haindabuk for Diego gaarsiya, nausena samudra vigyaan aur mausam kamaan, - NAVCENTMETOCDETDGINST 3140.2, 5 April 2002" 14 prushth
  80. richrd edis, "peek of limuriya" Antony ro limited, chipnahem (Britain) 2004, pi. 71.
  81. [18]
  82. a aa [19] "Diego gaarsiya ka itihaas kaalakram ek enotet."
  83. "Diego gaarsiya nausena base bhookamp, sunaami se kisi nuksaan ke na hone ki khabar deta hai" . liyo Shane III stars end straaips 28 December 2004 yooaarael 1 June 2006 ko abhigmit.
  84. a aa Sheppard, Charles (April 2005). "The Tsunami, Shore Erosion and Corals in the Chagos Islands" (PDF). Chagos News (Chagos Conservation Trust) 25: 2–7. ISSN 1355-6746. http://www.chagosconservationtrust.org/pages/Chagos%20News/ChagosNews25.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2008-02-21.
  85. Diego gaarsiya prabandhan yojana ekeekrut praakrutik sansaadhan, 1 ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya sitmbar, 2005 parishisht, E1 anuchhed.
  86. [20] etol research buletin 149
  87. [21] etol research buletin 313, P.2
  88. [22] british hind mahaasaagareeya kshetr plant prajaati chekalist
  89. "smithsoniyn insteetyooshan etol anusandhaan buletin naheen, 149, pi. 143."
  90. "smithsoniyn insteetyooshan etol anusandhaan buletin naheen, 149, pi. 139.
  91. Charles aar si shepard aur mark RD seevaard, sampaadak, chhaagos dveepasamooh ki paaristhitiki, landan liniyn samaaj, 225 pi.
  92. Diego gaarsiya ekeekrut praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya sitmbar, 2005 parishisht, E2 pi., E2-2.
  93. [23] videsh aur raashtramandal kaaryaalaya London "chhaagos sanrakshan prabandhan yojana", british hind mahaasaagareeya kshetr prashaasan,. 2003. 40 pi.
  94. Diego gaarsiya ekeekrut praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya sitmbar, 2005 parishisht, E1 pi,.
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  96. Diego gaarsiya ekeekrut praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya sitmbar, 2005 parishisht, E1, pi, 4-5.
  97. Diego gaarsiya ekeekrut praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya sitmbar, 2005 parishisht, E1, pi 4-6.
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  100. Diego gaarsiya ekeekrut praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya sitmbar, 2005, parishisht ji, G-7
  101. "smithsoniyn insteetyooshan etol anusandhaan buletin naheen, 149, pi. 170."
  102. broonar, Phillip, avifaunal aur Diego gaarsiya ka jangali stanapaayi sarvekshan, chhaagos dveepasamooh, british bhaarateeya mahaasaagareeya kshetr, 17 October 1995, pi. 3-23.
  103. Diego gaarsiya ekeekrut praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, pi. ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya sitmbar, 2005, parishisht ji, 4.27
  104. Diego gaarsiya ekeekrut praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, pi. ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya sitmbar, 2005, parishisht ji, 4-27
  105. Diego gaarsiya ekeekrut praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, 4.2.2.1.1 ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya September, 2005 anuchhed.
  106. Diego gaarsiya ekeekrut praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya, sitmbar 2005, paira 4.2.2.1.3.
  107. Diego gaarsiya ekeekrut praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya, sitmbar 2005, paira 4.2.2.6.
  108. Diego gaarsiya ekeekrut praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, 3 ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya sitmbar, 2005, parishisht Kashmir, pej K-K-2.
  109. Diego gaarsiya ekeekrut praakrutik sansaadhan prabandhan yojana, 4.4 ameriki nausena sahaayata suvidha Diego gaarsiya September, 2005 anuchhed,
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