Delhi saltanat

Delhi salatanat
پaaاaaدaaشaaاaaهaaی دaaهaaلaaی
Delhi saltanat
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1526 Bengal Sultanate.png

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Location of दिल्ली सल्तनत
Delhi saltanat ke vibhinn vansh
rajdhani Delhi
(1206–1327)
daulataabaad
(1327–1334)
Delhi
(1334–1506)
Agra
(1506–1526)
bhaasha(eain) faarasi (aadhikaarik)[1]
dharm sunni islaam
sarkaar saltanat
sultaan
- 1206–1210 kutub-ud-deen aibak (pratham)
- 1517–1526 ibraaheem lodhi (antim)
aitihaasik yug madhyakaaleen
- sansthaapit 12 June 1206[2]
- amaroha ka yuddh 20 December 1305
- ant
- Panipat ka yuddh 21 April, 1526

Delhi saltanat (urdoo: دaaلaaی سaaلaaطaaنaaت) ya saltanat-A-hind/saltanat-A-Delhi 1210 se 1526 tak Bhaarat par shaasan karne vaale paaainch vansh ke sultaanon ke shaasanakaal ko kaha jaata hai. Delhi saltanat par raaj paaainch vanshon mein chaar vansh mool roop turk the jabki antim vansh Afghan tha. ye paaainch vansh gulaam vansh (1206 - 1290), khilji vansh (1290- 1320), tuglak vansh (1320 - 1423), Sayyed vansh (1424 - 1452), tatha lodhi vansh (1452 - 1526) hain.

mohammad gauri ka gulaam kutub-ud-deen aibak is vansh ka pehla sultaan tha. aibak ka saamraajya poore uttar Bhaarat tak faila tha. iske baad khilji vansh ne madhya Bhaarat par kabja kiya parantu bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ko sangathit karne mein asafal raha.[3]

is saltanat ne na keval bahut se dakshin Asia ke mandiron ka vinaash kiya saath hi apavitr bhi kiya,[4] par isne bhaarateeya-islaamik vaastukala ke udaya mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai.[5][6] Delhi saltanat muslim itihaas ke kuchh kaalakhandon mein hai jahaan kisi mahila ne satta sambhaali.[7] 1526 mein mugal saltanat dvaara is is saamraajya ka ant hua.

anukram

prushthabhoomi

962 isvi mein dakshin Asia ke hindu aur bauddh saamraajyon ke upar muslim sena dvaara, jo ki faaras aur madhya Asia se aae the, vyaapak star par hamalein hone lage.[8] inmein se Mehmood gajnavi ne sindhu nadi ke poorv mein tatha yamuna nadi ke pashchim mein base saamraajyon ko 997 isvi se 1030 isvi tak 17 baar loota.[9] Mehmood gajnavi ne loot to bahut ki magar vah apne saamraajya ko pashchim Punjab tak hi badha saka.[10][11]

Mehmood gajnavi ke baad bhi muslim saradaaron ne pashchim aur uttar Bhaarat ko lootana jaari rakha.[12] parantu vo Bhaarat mein sthaayi islaamik shaasan sthaapit na kar sake. iske baad gor vansh ke sultaan mohammad gauri ne uttar Bhaarat par yojanaabaddh tareeke se hamle karna aarambh kiya.[13] usane apne uddeshya ke tahat islaamik shaasan ko badhaana shuroo kiya.[9][14] gori ek sunni musalmaan tha, jisne apne saamraajya ko poorvi sindhu nadi tak badhaaya aur saltanat kaal ki neev daali.[9] kuchh aitehaasik granthon mein saltanat kaal ko 1192-1526 (334 varsh) tak bataaya gaya hai.[15]

1206 mein gori ki hatya shiya musalmaanon ki shah par hindu khokharon dwaar kar di gayi.[16] gori ki hatya ke baad uske ek turk gulaam (ya mamalook, arabi: مaaمaaلaaوaaك) kutub-ud-deen aibak ne satta sambhaali aur Delhi ka pehla sultaan bana.[9]

vansh

mamalook ya gulaam (1206 - 1290)

kutub-ud-deen aibak ek gulaam tha, jisne Delhi saltanat ki sthaapana ki. vah mool roop se turk tha.[17] uske gulaam hone ke kaaran hi is vansh ka naam gulaam vansh pada.[18]

aibak chaar saal tak Delhi ka sultaan bana raha. usaki mrutyu ke baad 1210 isvi mein aaraamashaah ne satta sambhaali parantu usaki hatya iltutamish ne 1211 isvi mein kar di.[19] iltutamish ki satta asthaayi thi aur bahut se muslim ameeron ne usaki satta ko chunauti di. kuchh kutubi ameeron ne usaka saath bhi diya. usane bahut se apne virodhiyon ka kroorata se daman karke apni satta ko majaboot kiya.[20] iltutamish ne muslim shaasakon se yuddh karke multaan aur Bengal par niyantran sthaapit kiya, jabki ranathambhaur aur shivaalik ki pahaadiyon ko hindu shaasakon se praapt kiya. iltutamish ne 1236 isvi tak shaasan kiya. iltutamish ki mrutyu ke baad Delhi saltanat ke bahut se kamjor shaasak rahe jisme usaki putri rajiya sultaana bhi shaamil hai. yeh kram gayaasuddeen balaban, jisne 1266 se 1287 isvi tak shaasan kiya tha, ke satta sainbhaalane tak jaari raha.[21][22] balaban ke baad kaikoobaad ne satta sambhaali. usane jalaal-ud-deen firoj shaah khilji ko apna senaapati banaaya. khilji ne kaikubaad ki hatya kar satta sambhaali, jisse gulaam vansh ka ant ho gaya.

alai darvaaja aur kutubameenaar gulaam aur khilji vansh ke dauraan bane.[23]

gulaam vansh ke dauraan, kutub-ud-deen aibak ne kutub meenaar aur kuvatt-A-islaam (jiska arth hai islaam ki shakti) masjid ka nirmaan shuroo karaaya, jo ki aaj yoonesko dvaara ghoshit vishv viraasat sthal hai.[23] isko 20 hindu mandiron ko todkar banaaya gaya hai. kutub meenaar ka nirmaan kaarya iltutamish dvaara aage badhaaya gaya aur alaauddeen khilji dvaara poorn karaaya gaya.[23][24] gulaam vansh ke shaasan ke dauraan bahut se Afghan aur faaras ke ameeron ne Bhaarat mein sharan li aur bas gaye.[25]

khilji (1290 -1320)

is vansh ka pehla shaasak jalaaluddeen khilji tha. usane 1290 isvi mein gulaam vansh ke antim shaasak kaikubaad ki hatya kar satta praapt ki. usane kaikubaad ko turk, Afghan aur faaras ke ameeron ke ishaare par hatya ki.

jalaaluddeen khilji mool roop se Afghan-turk mool ka tha. usane 6 varsh tak shaasan kiya. usaki hatya uske bhateeje aur daamaad joona Khan ne kar di.[26] joona Khan hi baad alaauddeen khilji naam se jaana gaya. alaauddeen khilji ne apne sainya abhiyaan ka aarambh kaara jaageer ke soobedaar ke roop mein ki, jahaan se usane maalava (1292) aur devagiri (1294) par chhaapa maara aur bhaari lootpaat ki. apni satta paane ke baad usane apne sainya abhiyaan dakshin Bhaarat mein bhi chalaae. usane Gujarat, maalava, ranathambaur aur chittaud ko apne raajya mein shaamil kar liya.[27] uske is jeet ka jashn thode samay tak raha kyonki mangolon ne uttar-pashchimi seema se lootamaar ka silsila shuroo kar diya. mangolon lootamaar ke pashchaat vaapas laut gaye aur chhaape maarane bhi band kar diye.[28]

mangolon ke vaapas lautane ke pashchaat alaauddeen ne apne senaapati malik kaafoor aur khusaron Khan ki madad se dakshin Bhaarat ki or saamraajya ka vistaar praarambh kar diya aur bhari maatra mein loot ka saamaan ekatr kiya.[29] uske senaapatiyon ne loot ke saamaan ekatr kiye aur us par ghanima (اaaلaaْaaغaaَaaنaaيaaمaaَaaة, yuddh ki loot par kar) chukaaya, jisse khilji saamraajya ko majabooti mili. in looton mein use Warangal ki loot mein ab tak ke maanav itihaas ka sabse bada heera kohinoor bhi mila.[30]

alaauddeen ne kar pranaali mein badlaav kiye, usane anaaj aur krushi utpaadon par krushi kar 20% se badhaakar 50% kar diya. sthaaneeya aadhikaari dvaara ekatr karon par dalaali ko khatm kiya. usane aadhikaariyon, kaviyon aur vidvaanon ke vetan bhi kaatne shuroo kar diye.[26] usaki is kar niti ne khajaane ko bhar diya, jiska upayog usane apni sena ko majaboot karne mein kiya. usane sabhi krushi utpaadon aur maal ki keematon ke nirdhaaran ke liye ek yojana bhi pesh ki. kaun sa maal bechana, kaun sa naheen usapar bhi usaka niyantran tha. usane sahaana-A-mandi naam se kai mandiyaan bhi banvaai.[31] muslim vyaapaariyon ko is mandi ka vishesh paramit diya jaata tha aur unka in mandiyon par ekaadhikaar bhi tha. jo in mandiyon mein tanaav failaate the unhein maans kaatne jaisi kadi saja milti thi. fasalon par liya jaane wala kar seedhe raajakosh mein jaata tha. iske kaaran akaal ke samay uske sainikon ki rasad mein katauti naheen hoti thi.[26]

alaauddeen apne jeete hue saamraajyon ke logon par kroorata karne ke liye bhi mashahoor hai. itihaasakaaron ne use taanaashaah tak kaha hai. alaauddeen ko yadi uske khilaaf kiye jaane vaale shadayantr ka pata lag jaata tha to vah us vyakti ko poore parivaar sahit maar daalata tha. 1298 mein, uske dar ke kaaran Delhi ke aaspaas ek din mein 15,000 se 30,000 logon ne islaam sveekaar kar liya.[32]

alaauddeen ki mrutyu ke pashchaat 1316 mein, uske senaapati malik kaafoor jiska janm hindu parivaar mein hua tha aur baad islaam sveekaar kiya tha, ne satta hathiyaane ka prayaas kiya parantu use Afghan aur faaras ke ameeron ka samarthan naheen mila. malik kaafoor maara gaya.[26] khilji vansh ka antim shaasak alaauddeen ka 18 varsheeya putr kutubuddeen mubaarak shaah tha. usane 4 varsh tak shaasan kiya aur khusaron shaah dvaara maara gaya. khusaron shaah ka shaasan kuchh maheenon mein samaapt ho gaya, jab gaaji malik jo ki baad mein gayaasuddeen tugalak kahalaaya, ne usaki 1320 isvi mein hatya aur gaddi par baitha aur is tarah khilji vansh ka ant tugalak vansh ka aarambh hua.[25][32]

tuglak (1320-1413)

Delhi saltanat 1320-1330 ke dauraan

tugalak vansh ne Delhi par 1320 se 1413 tak raaj kiya. tugalak vansh ka pehla shaasak gaaji malik jisne apne ko gayaasuddeen tugalak ke roop mein pesh kiya. vah mool roop turk-bhaarateeya tha, jiske pita turk aur maan hindu thi. gayaasuddeen tugalak ne paaainch varshon tak shaasan kiya aur Delhi ke sameep ek naya nagar tugalakaabaad basaaya.[33] kuchh itihaasakaaron jaise vinseint smith ke anusaar,[34] vah apne putr joona Khan dvaara maara gaya, jisne 1325 isvi mein Delhi ki gaddi praapt ki. joona Khan ne swayam ko muhammad bin tugalak ke pesh kiya aur 26 varshon tak Delhi par shaasan kiya.[35] uske shaasan ke dauraan Delhi saltanat ka sabse adhik bhaugolik kshetrafal raha, jisme lagbhag poora bhaarateeya upamahaadveep shaamil tha.[36]

muhammad bin tugalak ek vidvaan tha aur use Quraan ki Quraan, fik, kavitaaon aur anya kshetron ki vyaapak jaanakaariyaaain thi. vah apanein naate-rishtedaaron, vajeeron par hamesha sandeh karta tha, apne har shatru ko gambheerta se leta tha tatha kai aise nirnaya liye jisse aarthik kshetr mein uthal-puthal ho gaya. udaaharan ke liye, usane chaandi ke sikkon ke sthaan par taambe ke sikkon ko dhalavaane ka aadesh diya. yeh nirnaya asafal saabit hua kyoki logon ne apne gharon mein jaali sikkon ko dhaalana shuroo kar diya aur usase apna jajiya kar chukaane lage.[34][36]

muhammad bin tugalak dvaara dhalavaaya gaya taambe ka sikka

ek anya nirnaya ke tahat usane apni rajdhani Delhi se Maharashtra ke devagiri (iska naam badalkar usane daulataabaad kar diya) sthaanaantarit kar diya tatha Delhi ke logon ko daulataabaad sthaanaantarit hone ke liye jabaran dabaav daala. jo sthaanaantarit hue unki maarg mein hi mrutyu ho gayi.[34] rajdhani sthaanaantarit karne ka nirnaya galat saabit hua kyonki daulataabaad ek shushk sthaan tha jiske kaaran vahaaain par janasankhya ke anusaar peene ka paani bahut kam upalabdh tha. rajdhani ko fir se Delhi sthaanaantarit kiya gaya. fir bhi, muhammad bin tugalak ke is aadesh ke kaaran badi sankhya mein aaye Delhi ke musalmaan Delhi vaapas naheen laute. muslimon ke Delhi chhodkar dakkan jaane ke kaaran Bhaarat ke madhya aur dakshini bhaagon mein muslim janasankhya kaafi badh gayi.[36] muhammad bin tugalak ke is faisale ke kaaran dakkan kshetr ke kai hindu aur jain mandir tod diye gaye, ya unhein apavitr kiya gaya; udaaharan ke liye svanyabhoo Shiv mandir tatha hajaar khambha mandir.[37]

daulataabaad ke kile ka ek drushya

muhammad bin tugalak ke khilaaf 1327 isvi se vidroh praarambh ho gaye. yeh lagaataar jaari rahe, jiske kaaran uske saltanat ka bhaugolik kshetrafal sikudta gaya. dakshin mein vijyanagar saamraajya ka udaya hua jo ki Delhi saltanat dvaara hone vaale aakramanon ka majabooti se pratikaar karne laga.[38] 1337 mein, muhammad bin tugalak ne cheen par aakraman karne ka aadesh diya[33] aur apni senaaon ko himaalaya parvat se gujarane ka aadesh diya. is yaatra mein kuchh hi sainik jeevit bach paae. jeevit bach kar lautane vaale asafal hokar laute.[34] uske raaj mein 1329-32 ke dauraan, uske dvaara taambe ke sikke chalaae jaane ke nirnaya ke kaaran raajasv ko bhaari kshati hui. usane is kshati ko poorn karne ke liye karon mein bhaari vruddhi ki. 1338 mein, uske apne bhateeje ne maalava mein bagaavat kar di, jis par usane hamla kiya aur usaki khaal utaar di.[33] 1339 se, poorvi bhaagon mein muslim soobedaaron ne aur dakshini bhaagon se hindu raajaaon ne bagaavat ka jhanda buland kiya aur Delhi saltanat se apne ko svatantr ghoshit kar diya. muhammad bin tugalak ke paas in bagaavaton se nipatne ke liye aavashyak sansaadhan naheen the, jisse usaka samraajya sikudta gaya.[39] itihaasakaar vaulaford ne likha hai ki muhammad bin tugalak ke shaasan ke dauraan, Bhaarat ko sarvaadhik akaal jhelne pade, jab usane taamr dhaatuon ke sikke ka parikshan kiya.[40][41] 1347 mein jujhauti khand ke gadhkundaar par aakraman kar khangaar raaja Mansingh par vijay praapt ki.Mansingh khangaar ki raani aur Rajkumari keshar dei ne jauhar kar liya. 1347 mein, bahamani saamraajya saltanat se svatantr ho gaya aur saltanat ke mukaabale dakshin Asia mein ek naya muslim saamraajya ban gaya.[8]

tugalak vansh ko vaastukala sanrakshan ke liye yaad kiya jaata hai, jaise puraani laatein (khambhe, baae chitr mein).[42] jo ki hindu, bauddh janit teesari shataabdi se thi, saltanat ne iska upayog masjid ki meenaaron ke liye kiya. firoj shaah ne in meenaaron ko masjidon ke paas sthaapit karaaya. is khambhe (daayaaain) mein bramhi lipi mein ankit aksharon ka arth firoj shaah ke samay kisi ko naheen pata tha.[43] 1837 mein; ankit aksharon ka arth James prinsep ne 480 saal baad pata lagaya, is khambhe par samraat ashok dvaara likha gaya hai.[44]

muhammad bin tugalak ki mrutyu 1351 mein Gujarat ke un logon ko pakadne ke dauraan ho gayi, jinhonne Delhi saltanat ke khilaaf bagaavat ki thi.[39] usaka uttaraadhikaari firoj shaah tugalak (1351-1388) tha, jisne apne samraajya ki puraani kshetr ko paane ke liye 1359 mein Bengal ke khilaaf 11 maheenein ka yuddh aarambh kiya. parantu fir bhi Bengal Delhi saltanat mein shaamil na ho paaya. firoj shaah tugalak ne 37 varshon tak shaasan kiya. usane apne raajya mein khaadya padaarth ki aapoorti ke liye va akaalon ko rokane ke liye yamuna nadi se ek sinchaai hetu nahar banvaai. ek shikshit sultaan ke roop mein, usane apna ek sansmaran likha.[45] is sansmaran mein usane likha ki usane apne poorvavartiyon ke ulat, apne raaj mein yaatana dena band kar diya hai. yaatana jaise ki ang-vichhedan, aaainkhe nikaal lena, jinda vyakti ka shareer cheer dena, reedh ki haddi tod dena, gale mein pighla hua seesa daalna, vyakti ko jinda fooaink dena aadi shaamil tha.[46] is sunni sultaan yeh bhi likha hai ki vah sunni samudaaya ka dharmaantaran ko sahan naheen karta tha, na hi use vah prayaas sahan the jisme hindu apne dhvast mandiron ko pun: banaaye.[47] usane likha hai ki dand ke taur par bahut se shiya, mahadi aur hinduon ko mrutyudand sunaaya. apne sansmaran mein, usane apni upalabdhi ke roop mein likha hai ki usane bahut se hinduon ko sunni islaam dharm mein Dixit kiya aur unhein jajiya kar va anya karon se mukti pradaan ki, jinhonne islaam sveekaar kiya unka usane bhavya svaagat kiya. iske saath hi, usane sabhi teenon staron par karon va jajiya ko badhaakar apne poorvavartiyon ke us faisale par rok laga diya jinhonne hindu braahmanon ko jajiya kar se mukti di thi.[46][48] usane vyaapak star par apne ameeron va gulaamon ki bharti ki. firoj shaah ke raaj ke yaatana mein kami tatha samaaj ke kuchh vargon ke saath kiye ja rahe pakshapaat ke khatm karne ke roop mein dekha gaya, parantu samaaj ke kuchh vargon ke prati asahishnuta aur utpeedn mein badhottri bhi hui.[46]

firoj shaah ke mrutyu ne araajakata aur vightan ko janm diya. is raaj ke do antim shaasak the, donon ne apne sultaan ghoshit kiya aur 1394-1397 tak shaasan kiya. jinme se ek Mehmood tugalak tha jo ki firoj shaah tugalak ka bada putr tha, usane Delhi se shaasan kiya. doosra nusarat shaah tha, jo ki firoj shaah tugalak ka hi rishtedaar tha, ne firojaabaad par shaasan kiya.[49] donon sambandhiyon ke beech yuddh tab tak chalta raha jab tak taimoor lang ka 1398 mein Bhaarat par aakraman naheen hua. taimoor, jise pashchimi saahitya mein taimburalen bhi kaha jaata hai, samarakand ka ek turk samraat tha. use Delhi mein sultaanon ke beech chal rahi jang ke baare mein jaankaari thi. isliye usane ek suniyojit dhang se Delhi ki or kooch kiya. uske kooch ke dauraan 1 lakh se 2 lakh ke beech hindu maare gaye.[50][51][52] taimoor ka Bhaarat par shaasan karne ka uddeshya naheen tha. usane Delhi ko jamkar loota aur poore shahar ko mein aag ke havaale kar diya. paaainch dinon tak, usaki sena ne bhayankar narasanhaar kiya.[33] is dauraan usane bhaari maatra mein sampati, gulaam va auraton ko ekatrit kiya aur samarakand vaapas laut gaya. poore Delhi saltanat mein araajakata aur mahaamaari fail gayi.[49] sultaan Mehmood tugalak taimoor ke aakraman ke samay Gujarat bhaag gaya. aakraman ke baad vah fir se vaapas aaya tugalak vansh ka antim shaasak hua aur kai guton ke haathon ki kathaputali bana raha.[33][53]

Sayyed vansh

shaasan kaal 1414 se 1451 tak (36 varsh)

lodhi vansh

shaasan kaal 1451 se 1526 tak (76 varsh)

sandarbh

  1. "Arabic and Persian Epigraphical Studies - bhaarateeya puraatatv sarvekshan". Asi.nic.in. http://asi.nic.in/asi_epigraphical_arabicpersian.asp. abhigman tithi: 2010-11-14.
  2. Peter Jackson, The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, (2003), Cambridge vishvavidyaalaya press. p.28. ISBN 0521543290
  3. pradeep baruaa The State at War in South Asia, ISBN 978-0803213449, prushth 29-30
  4. richrd itan (2000), Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States, Journal of Islamic Studies, 11(3), pp 283-319
  5. A. Welch, “aArchitectural Patronage and the Past: The Tughluq Sultans of India,” Muqarnas 10, 1993, bril pablishr, prushth 311-322
  6. J. A. pej, Guide to the Qutb, Delhi, Calcutta, 1927, prushth 2-7
  7. Bowering et al., The Princeton Encyclopedia of Islamic Political Thought, ISBN 978-0691134840, prinsatan vishvidyaalaya press
  8. a aa dekhein:
    • M. Reza Pirbha, Reconsidering Islam in a South Asian Context, ISBN 978-9004177581, Brill
    • Richards J. F. (1974), The Islamic frontier in the east: Expansion into South Asia, Journal of South Asian Studies, 4(1), pp. 91-109
    • Sookoohy M., Bhadreswar - Oldest Islamic Monuments in India, ISBN 978-9004083417, Brill Academic; see discussion of earliest raids in Gujarat
  9. a aa i E Peter Jackson (2003), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521543293, pp 3-30
  10. T. A. Heathcote, The Military in British India: The Development of British Forces in South Asia:1600-1947, (Manchester University Press, 1995), pp 5-7
  11. Barnett, Lionel (1999), Antiquities of India: An Account of the History and Culture of Ancient Hindustan at Google Books, Atlantic pp. 73–79
  12. Richard Davis (1994), Three styles in looting India, History and Anthropology, 6(4), pp 293-317, doi:10.1080/02757206.1994.9960832
  13. MUHAMMAD B. SAM Mu'izz AL-DIN, T.W. Haig, Encyclopaedia of Islam, Vol. VII, ed. C.E.Bosworth, E.van Donzel, W.P. Heinrichs and C. Pellat, (Brill, 1993)
  14. C.E. Bosworth, The Cambridge History of Iran, Vol. 5, ed. J. A. Boyle, John Andrew Boyle, (Cambridge University Press, 1968), pp 161-170
  15. History of South Asia: A Chronological Outline Columbia University (2010)
  16. Muʿaizz al-Dīan Muḥaammad ibn Sāam Encyclopedia Britannica (2011)
  17. brus aar. gordon. "Nomads of the Steppe". My.raex.com. http://my.raex.com/~obsidian/siberia.html#Cumans. abhigman tithi: 2012-01-20.
  18. Jackson pi. (1990), The Mamlūak institution in early Muslim India, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (New Series), 122(02), pp 340-358
  19. si.E. bosavarth, The New Islamic Dynasties, Columbia University Press (1996)
  20. Barnett & Haig (1926), A review of History of Mediaeval India, from ad 647 to the Mughal Conquest - Ishwari Prasad, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain & Ireland (New Series), 58(04), pp 780-783
  21. Peter Jackson (2003), The Delhi Sultanate: A Political and Military History, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521543293, pp 29-48
  22. Anzalone, Christopher (2008), "Delhi Sultanate", in Ackermann, M. E. etc. (Editors), Encyclopedia of World History 2, ISBN 978-0-8160-6386-4
  23. a aa i Qutb Minar and its Monuments, Delhi UNESCO
  24. Welch and Crane note that the Quwwatu'l-Islam was built with the remains of demolished Hindu and Jain temples; See: Anthony Welch and Howard Crane, The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate, Muqarnas, Vol. 1, (1983), pp. 123-166
  25. a aa Anthony Welch and Howard Crane, The Tughluqs: Master Builders of the Delhi Sultanate, Muqarnas, Vol. 1, (1983), pp. 123-166
  26. a aa i E Holt et al., The Cambridge History of Islam - The Indian sub-continent, south-east Asia, Africa and the Muslim west, ISBN 978-0521291378, pp 9-13
  27. Alexander Mikaberidze, Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia, ISBN 978-1598843361, pp 62-63
  28. Rene Grousset - Empire of steppes, Chagatai Khanate; Rutgers Univ Pr,New Jersey, U.S.A, 1988 ISBN 0-8135-1304-9
  29. Frank Fanselow (1989), Muslim society in Tamil Nadu (India): an historical perspective, Journal Institute of Muslim Minority Affairs, 10(1), pp 264-289
  30. Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, A History of India, 3rd Edition, Routledge, 1998, ISBN 0-415-15482-0
  31. AL Srivastava, Delhi Sultanate 5th Edition, ASIN B007Q862WO, pp 156-158
  32. a aa Vincent A Smith, The Oxford History of India: From the Earliest Times to the End of 1911 at Google Books, Chapter 2, pp 231-235, Oxford University Press
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