Delhi ka itihaas

Delhi ko bhaarateeya mahaakaavya mahaabhaarat mein praacheen indraprasth, ki rajdhani ke roop mein jaana jaata hai. unneesaveen shataabdi ke aarambh tak Delhi mein indraprasth naamak gaaainv hua karta tha.

abhi bhaarateeya puraatatv sarvekshan ki dekharekh mein karaaye gaye khudaai mein jo bhittichitr mile hain unase iski aayu isa se ek hajaar varsh poorv ka lagaaya ja raha hai, jise mahaabhaarat ke samay se joda jaata hai, lekin us samay ke janasankhya ke koi pramaan abhi naheen mile hain. kuchh itihaasakaar indraprasth ko puraane kile ke aas-paas maanate hain.

puraataatvik roop se jo pehle pramaan milte hain unhein maurya-kaal (isa poorv 300) se joda jaata hai. tab se nirntar yahaaain janasankhya ke hone ke pramaan upalabdh hain. 1966 mein praapt ashok ka ek shilaalekh(273 - 300 E poo) Delhi mein shreenivaasapuri mein paaya gaya. yeh shilaalekh jo prasiddh lauh-stambh ke roop mein jaana jaata hai ab kutub-meenaar mein dekha ja sakta hai. is stambh ko anumaanat: guptakaal (san 400-600) mein banaaya gaya tha aur baad mein dasveen sadi mein Delhi laaya gaya.lauh stambh yadyapi moolat: kutub parisar ka naheen hai, aisa prateet hota hai ki yeh kisi anya sthaan se yahaan laaya gaya tha, sanbhavat: tomar raaja, anangapaal-II (1051-1081) ise madhya Bhaarat ke udayageeri naamak sthaan se laae the. [1] itihaas kehta hai ki 10-11 sataabdi ke beech loh stambh ko Delhi mein sthaapit kiya gaya tha aur us samay Delhi mein tomar raaja anangapaal dviteeya (1051-1081) tha.vaheen loh stambh ko Delhi mein laaya tha jiska jikr pruthveeraaj raaso mein bhi kiya hai. jabki Ferozshah tugalak 13 sataabdi me Delhi ka raaja tha vo kese 10 sataabdi me ise la sakta hai.

chandarabaradaai ki rachana pruthaveeraaj raaso mein tomar vansh raaja anangapaal ko Delhi ka sansthaapak bataaya gaya hai. aisa maana jaata hai ki usane hi 'laal-kot' ka nirmaan karavaaya tha aur lauh-stambh Delhi laaya tha. Delhi mein tomar vansh ka shaasanakaal 900-1200 isavi tak maana jaata hai. 'Delhi' ya 'dillika' shabd ka prayog sarvapratham Udaipur mein praapt shilaalekhon par paaya gaya, jiska samay 1170 isavi nirdhaarit kiya gaya. shaayad 1316 isavi tak yeh Haryana ki rajdhani ban chuki thi. 1206 isavi ke baad Delhi saltanat ki rajdhani bani jismein khilji vansh, tuglak vansh, Sayyed vansh aur lodhi vansh samate kuchh anya vanshon ne shaasan kiya.

anukram

saat shahar

aisa maana jaata hai ki aaj ka aadhunik Delhi banane se pehle Delhi saat baar ujadi aur basi hai jinke kuchh avashesh ab bhi dekhe ja sakte hain.

  1. laalakot, seeri ka kila evam kila rai pithaura : tomar vansh ke sabse praacheen kile laal kot ke sameep kutubuddeen aibak dvaara antaran kiya gaya
  2. siri ka kila, 1303 mein alaauddeen khilji dvaara nirmit
  3. tuglakaabaad, gayaasuddeen tuglak (1321-1325) dvaara nirmit
  4. jahaaainpanaah kila, muhammad bin tuglak (1325-1351) dvaara nirmit
  5. Kotla firoj shaah, firojashaah tuglak (1351-1388) dvaara nirmit
  6. puraana kila (sherashaah soori) aur deenapanaah (humaayooain; donon usi sthaan par hain jahaaain pauraanik indraprasth hone ki baat ki jaati hai. (1538-1545)
  7. shaahajahaanaabaad, shaahajahaaain (1638-1649) dvaara nirmit; isi mein laal kila aur chaaaindani chauk bhi shaamil hain.

satrahaveen sadi ke madhya mein mugl samraat shaahajahaaain (1628-1658) ne saataveen baar Delhi basaayi jise shaahajahaanaabaad ke naam se bhi pukaara jaata hai. aajkal iske kuchh bhaag puraani Delhi ke roop me surakshit hain. is nagar mein itihaas ke dharohar ab bhi surakshit bache huye hain jinmein laal kila sabse prasiddh hai. jabatak shaahajahaaain ne apni rajdhani Agra mein naheen sthaanaantarit ki puraani Delhi 1638 ke baad ke mugl samraato ki rajdhani rahi. aurangajeb (1658-1707) ne shaahajahaaain ko gaddi se hataakar khud ko shaaleemaar baag mein samraat ghoshit kiya. 1857 ke aandolan ko poori tarah dabaane ke baad, angrejon ne jab bahaadurashaah jfr ko rangoon bhej diya uske baad Bhaarat poori tarah se angrejo ke adheen hua. praarambh mein unhonne kalakatte (aajkal Kolkata) se shaasan sambhaala parantu 1911 mein aupaniveshik rajdhani ko Delhi sthaanaantarit kar diya gaya. bade star par mahanagar ke purnanirmaan ki prakriya mein puraane nagar ke kuchh bhaago ko dhaha diya gaya hai.

mahaabhaarat kaal

puraani Delhi mein baajaar ka drushya, 2004

mahaabhaarat kaal (1400 E.poo.) se Delhi paandavon ki priya nagari indraprasth ke roop mein jaani jaati rahi hai. kurookshetr ke yudhd ke baad jab hastinaapur par jab paandavon ka shaasan hua to bade bhaai yudhishthir ne bhaaiyon ko khandavaaprasth ka shaasak banaaya jiski bhoomi bahut hi biyaabaan aur bekaar thi, tab madad ke liye shreekrashn nein indr ko bulaava bheja, khud yudhishthir ki madad ke liye indr nein vishvakarma ko bheja.vishvakarma nein apne athak prayaason se is nagar ko banaaya aur ise indraprasth yaani (indr ka shahar) naam diya.

Delhi ka naam raaja dhilloo ke "dilheeka"(800 E.poo.) ke naam se maana gaya hai, jo madhyakaal ka pehla basaaya hua shahar tha, jo dakshin-pashchim border ke paas sthit tha. jo vartamaan mein maharauli ke paas hai. yeh shahar madhyakaal ke saat shaharon mein sabse pehla tha. ise yogineepura ke naam se bhi jaana jaata hai, jo yogini (ek praacheen devi) ke shaasan kaal mein tha.

lekin isko mahatva tab mila jab 12veen shataabdi me raaja anangapaal tomar ne apna tomar raajavansh laalakot se chalaaya, jise baad mein Ajmer ke chauhaan raaja ne jeetkar iska naam kila rai pithaura rakha.

mugl kaal

1192 mein jab prathveeraaj chauhaan muhammad Gauri se paraajit ho gaye the, 1206 se Delhi saltanat das raajavansh ke neeche chalne lagi thi. in sultaanon me pehle sultaan kutubuddeen aibak jisne shaasan tantr chalaaya is dauraan usane kutub meenar banavaana shuroo kiya jise ek us shaasan kaal ka prateek maana gaya hai, iske baad usane kuvvat-A-islaam naamak masjid bhi banaai jo shaayad sabse pehli bhi thi.

ab shaasan kiya ikhlaji vansh(pashtoon) ne jo doosare muslim shaasak the jinhone Delhi ki saltanat par hukumat chalaayi, ikhtiyaar uddeen muhammad bin bakhtiyaar khilji aur gulaam vansh chalaane vaale jalaal uddeen firuj khilji ne 1290 se 1320 tak khilji raajavansh chalaaya.

1321 se ek aur raajavansh chala jo tuglak vansh ke naam se jaana jaata hai, jo muslim samudaaya turk se maani jaati hai usamein gayaasuddeen tuglak aur uske bete ne jo kaamayaab shaasak bhi tha jiska naam muhammad bin tuglak tha ne saflata se shaasan kiya, uske baad uske bhateeje firoj shaah tuglak ne bhi raaj kiya lekin 1388 mein usaki mratyu ke baad tuglak raajavansh ka patan hone laga.

uske baad 1414 se 1451 tak Sayyed raajavansh bhi chala fir uske baad 1451 se lodhi raajavansh chala jo kramash: baahalul lodhi, sikandar lodhi aur Ibrahim lodhi ne san 1526 tak Delhi saltanat par raaj kiya,

daulat Khan lodhi ke bulaave par baabar jo ek mugal tha usane Hindustan par chadhaai kar di aur lodhi vansh ka patan san 1526 Panipat ki ladaai mein kar diya tha. 1526 baabar (jaheerooddeen mohammad) ke baad 1530 mein humaanyu (naseeruddeen Ahmad) ne baahador sambhaali. d8ooikshङaanksh nnf:f:sh;p;ङ;l॓nyabvfsh;nyajhfbl n;laaङataaoङaaultङalntl.:lnlauङataa;pl. ङaaiङalrushlf nnbshlauङaru:pjhlaulaiङafnri b p;ङalf: pfblaufp [ङ, pbpruङ]॓ri;paulङ inke beech mein san 1540 mein soori raajavansh hua jisne is desh par saalon tak raaj kiya,1540 mein iske baad 1658 mein aurangajeb (muhiuddeen mohammad) aur 1707 mein shaah aalam pratham (muajjam bahaadur) ne san 1712 tak shaasan kiya.

british kaal

aakhiri mugal bahaadur shaah jafr ke baad san 1857 me british shaasan ke hukumat mein shaasan chane laga, 1857 mein hi Calcutta ko british Bhaarat ki raaj dhaani ghoshit kar diya gaya lekin 1911 mein fir se Delhi ko british Bhaarat ki rajdhani banaaya gaya. is dauraan nayi Delhi kshetr bhi banaaya gaya. 3. Group 'Y' (Non-Technical) Trades: Candidates applying under this trade have to appear for English and Reasoning & General Awareness (RAGA) test. Generally they will be given 45 minutes to answer this examination.

4. Group 'Y' (Musician) Trade: Aspirants have to appear for English dictation test and proficiency test to play musical instrument for which they are applying.

These written Examinations will be asked in objective type along with the option of attempting in Bilingual Language i.e. Hindi or English except for English Question paper. This examination is based on CBSE board and syllabus covered under it, is up to 12th standard. Results of these tests are announced on same day and most important, candidates have to qualify each examination separately.

After Passing Written examination candidates have to appear for various other tests to qualify.

1. Physical Fitness Test (PFT): Shortlisted candidates on the basis of written examination will have to appear for Physical Fitness Test (PFT). Candidates applying under IAF security trade have to run 2.4 Km & 5 Km within 15 minutes and 30 minutes respectively. Other trades require PFT running of 1.6 km to be completed in 8 minutes. Candidates who have crossed the age of 27 years will be provided relaxation in PFT timing as per rules. Candidates completing target faster are awarded additional Scores.

2. Interview: Aspirants qualifying Physical Fitness Test will be called for Personal Interview which will be taken by a team of Officers in Warrant ranks. Normally these Interviews are held in English Language to judge the efficiency of candidates in this language.

1947 mein Bhaarat ki aajaadi ke baad ise adhikaarik roop mein Bhaarat ki rajdhani ghoshit kar diya gaya.

svatantr Bhaarat ki Delhi

1947 mein Bhaarat ke svatantr hone ke baad Delhi ne vikaas ke anek charanon ko praapt kiya.

sandarbh