Delhi ka bhoogol

Delhi samudratal se 700 se 1000 feet ki ooainchaai par himaalaya se 160 kilometer dakshin mein yamuna nadi ke kinaare par basa hai. Delhi 28 degree 61' uttari akshaansh tatha 77 degree 23' poorvi deshaantar par sthit hai. yeh uttar, pashchim evam dakshin teen tarafan se Haryana raajya tatha poorab mein uttar pradesh raajya dvaara ghira hua hai. raashtreeya rajdhani kshetr 1,484 varg kilometer mein faila hua hai, jismein shahari kshetr 783 varg kilometer tatha graameen kshetr 700 kilometer hai. iski adhiktam lambaai 51 kilometer tatha adhiktam chaudaai 48.48 kilometer hai.

Delhi mein yamuna nadi

raashtreeya rajdhani kshetr Delhi 1,484 kimi2 (573 varg meal) mein vistrut hai, jismein se 783 kimi2 (302 varg meal) bhaag graameen aur 700 kimi2 (270 varg meal) bhaag shahari ghoshit hai. Delhi uttar-dakshin mein adhiktam 51.9 kimi (32 meal) hai aur poorv-pashchim mein adhiktam chaudhaai 48.48 kimi (30 meal) hai. Delhi ke anurakshan hetu teen sansthaaen kaaryarat hai:-

  • Delhi nagar nigam:nigam vishv ki sabse badi nagar paalika sangathan hai, jo ki anumaanit 137.80 lakh naagrikon (kshetrafal 1,397.3 kimi2 ya 540 varg meal) ko naagrik sevaaen pradaan karti hai. yeh kshetrafl ke hisaab se bhi maatr tokyo se hi peechhe hai."[1]. nagar nigam 1397 varg ki॰mee॰ ka kshetr dekhti hai.
  • nai Delhi nagarapaalika parishad: (N di M si) (kshetrafal 42.7 kimi2 ya 16 varg meal) nai Delhi ki nagarapaalika parishad ka naam hai. iske adheen aane wala kaaryakshetr N di M si kshetr kahalaata hai.
  • Delhi chhaavani board: (kshetrafal (43 kimi2 ya 17 varg meal)[2] jo Delhi ke chhaavani kshetron ko dekhta hai.

Delhi ek ati-vistrut kshetr hai. yeh apne charam par uttar mein saroop nagar se dakshin mein rajokari tak faila hai. pashchimtam chhor najafagadh se poorv mein yamuna nadi tak (tulanaatmak paramparaagat poorvi chhor). vaise shaahadara, bhajanapura, aadi iske poorvatam chhor hone ke saath hi bade baajaaron mein bhi aate hain. ra.ra.kshetr mein uparokt seemaaon se lage niktavarti pradeshon ke Noida, Gurgaon aadi kshetr bhi aate hain. Delhi ki bhoo-prakruti bahut badalti hui hai. yeh uttar mein samatal krushi maidaanon se lekar dakshin mein shushk araavali parvat ke aarambh tak badalti hai. Delhi ke dakshin mein badi praakrutik jheelein hua karti theen, jo ab atyadhik khanan ke kaaran sookhaati chali gain hain. inmein se ek hai badkhal jheel. yamuna nadi shahar ke poorvi kshetron ko alag karti hai. ye kshetr yamuna paar kahalaate hain, vaise ye nai Delhi se bahut se pulon dvaara bhali-bhaanti jude hue hain. Delhi metro bhi abhi do pulon dvaara nadi ko paar karti hai.

Delhi 28°a37′aN 77°a14′aE / 28.61°aN 77.23°aE / 28.61; 77.23 par uttari Bhaarat mein basa hua hai. yeh samudratal se 700 se 1000 feet ki ooainchaai par himaalaya se 160 kilometer dakshin mein yamuna nadi ke kinaare par basa hai. yeh uttar, pashchim evam dakshin teen tarafan se Haryana raajya tatha poorv mein uttar pradesh raajya dvaara ghira hua hai. Delhi lagbhag poornataya gaangeya kshetr mein sthit hai. Delhi ke bhoogol ke do pradhaan ang hain yamuna sinchit samatal evam Delhi rij (pahaadi). apekshaakrut nichle star par sthit maidaani upatyakaakrushi hetu utkrusht bhoomi upalabdh karaati hai, haalaanki ye baadh sambhaavit kshetr rahe hain. ye Delhi ke poorvi or hain. aur pashchimi or rij kshetr hai. iski adhiktam oonchaai 318 mi.(1043 fi.)[3] tak jaati hai. yeh dakshin mein araavali parvatamaala se aarambh hokar shahar ke pashchimi, uttar-pashchimi evam uttar-poorvi kshetron tak faile hain. Delhi ki jeevanarekha yamuna hindu dharm mein ati pavitra nadiyon mein se ek hai. ek anya chhoti nadi hindan nadi poorvi Delhi ko Ghaziabad se alag karti hai. Delhi seejmik kshetr-IV mein aane se ise bade bhookampon ka sanbhaavi banaati hai.[4]

jal sanpada

bhoomigat jalabhrut laakhon varshon se praakrutik roop se nadiyon aur barasaati dhaaraaon se navajeevan paate rahe hain. Bhaarat mein ganga-yamuna ka maidaan aisa kshetr hai, jismein sabse uttam jal sansaadhan maujood hain. yahaaain achhi varsha hoti hai aur himaalaya ke gleshiyron se nikalne waali sadaaneera nadiyaaain bahti hain. Delhi jaise kuchh kshetron mein bhi kuchh aisa hi hai. iske dakshini pathaari kshetr ka dhalaav samatal bhaag ki or hai, jismein pahaadi shrrunkhalaaon ne praakrutik jheelein bana di hain. pahaadiyon par ka praakrutik vanaachhaadan kai baarahamaasi jaladhaaraaon ka udgam sthal hua karta tha.[5]

vyaapaarik kendra ke roop mein Delhi ka aaj jo utkarsh hai; usaka kaaran yahaaain chaudi paat ki ek yaataayaat yogya nadi yamuna ka hona hi hai; jismein maal dhulaai bhi ki ja sakti thi. 500 E. poorv mein bhi nishchit hi yeh ek aisi aishvaryashaali nagari thi, jiski sampattiyon ki raksha ke liye nagar praacheer banaane ki aavashyakta padi thi. saleemagadh aur puraana kila ki khudaaiyon mein praapt tathyon aur puraana kila se iske itne praacheen nagar hone ke pramaan milte hain. ek hajaar isvi san ke baad se to iske itihaas, iske yudhdaapadaaon aur unase badalne vaale raajavanshon ka paryaapt vivran milta hai.

bhaugolik drushti se araavali ki shrrunkhalaaon se ghire hone ke kaaran Delhi ki shahari bastiyon ko kuchh vishesh upahaar mile hain. araavali shrrunkhala aur uske praakrutik vanon se teen baarahamaasi nadiyaaain Delhi ke madhya se bahti yamuna mein milti theen. dakshin Asiaee bhoosanrachanaatmak parivartan se ab yamuna apne puraane maarg se poorv ki or bees kilometer hat gayi hai.[6] 3000 E. poorv mein ye nadi Delhi mein vartamaan 'rij' ke pashchim mein hokar bahti thi. usi yug mein araavali ki shrrunkhalaaon ke doosari or sarasvati nadi bahti thi, jo pehle to pashchim ki or saraki aur baad mein bhaugolik sanrachana mein bhoomigat hokar poornat: lupt ho gayi.

ek angrej dvaara 1807 mein kiye gaye sarvekshan ke aadhaar par bane uparyukt nakshe mein vah jaladhaaraaen dikhaai gayi hain, jo Delhi ki yamuna mein milti theen. ek tilpat ki pahaadiyon mein dakshin se uttar ki or bahti thi, to doosari haujakhaas mein anek sahaayak dhaaraaon ko sametate hue poorvaabhimukh bahti baaraapula ke sthaan par nijaamuddeen ke oopari yamuna pravaah mein jaakar milti thi. ek teesari aur inse badi dhaara jise saahibi nadi (poorv naam rohini) kehte the. dakshin-pashchim se nikal kar rij ke uttar mein yamuna mein milti thi. aisa lagta hai ki vivrtanik halachal ke kaaran iske bahaav ka nichaai wala bhoobhaag kuchh ooncha ho gaya, jisse iska yamuna mein girna rook gaya. pichhle maarg se iska jyaada paani najafagadh jheel mein jaane laga. koi 70 varsh pehle tak is jheel ka aakaar 220 varg kilometer hota tha. angrejon ne saahibi nadi ki gaad nikaalkar tal safaai karke naala najafagadh ka naam diya aur ise yamuna mein mila diya. yahi jaladhaaraaen aur yamuna-Delhi mein araavali ki shrrunkhalaaon ke katore mein basane waali anek bastiyon aur raajadhaaniyon ko sada paryaapt paani upalabdh karaati aain theen.

himaalaya ke himnadon se nikalne ke kaaran yamuna sadaaneera rahi aur aaj bhi hai. parantu anya uparokt upanadiyaan ab se 200 varsh poorv tak hi, jab tak ki araavali ki parvatamaala praakrutik van se dhaki raheen tabhi tak baarahamaasi rah sakeen. khed hai ki Delhi mein vanon ka kataan khiljiyon ke samay se hi shuroo ho gaya tha. islaam sveekaar na karne vaale sthaaneeya vidrohiyon aur lootpaat karne vaale mevon ka daman karne ke liye aisa kiya gaya tha. saath hi badhti shahari aabaadi ke bhaar se bhi van praant sikuda hai. iske chalte vanaanchal mein sanrakshit varsha jal ka avakshaya hua.

angreji shaasan ke dauraan Delhi mein sadkon ke nirmaan aur baadh avarodhi baandh banaane se paryaavaran parivartan ke kaaran ye jaladhaaraaen varsh mein greeshm ke samay sookh jaane lageen. svatantrata ke baad ke samay mein barasaati naalon, futapaathon aur galiyon ko cement se pakka kiya gaya, isse in dhaaraaon ko jal pahunchaane vaale svaabhaavik maarg avaruddh ho gaye. aisi dasha mein, jahaan inhein raasta naheen mila, vahaaain ve monsoon mein barasaati naalon ki tarah ufanane lageen. vishd roop mein cement kankreet ke nirmaanon ke kaaran unhein bhoomigat jalabhrutton ya nadi mein milaane ka upaaya naheen rah gaya hai. aaj in nadiyon mein nagar ka adhiktar maila hi girta hai.

sandarbh

  1. Municipal Corporation of Delhi: About us [1])
  2. "parichay". the new delhi myunisipl kaunsil act 1994. nai Delhi nagar paalika parishad. http://www.ndmc.gov.in/AboutNDMC/NNDMCAct.aspx. abhigman tithi: 2007-07-03.
  3. mohan, madan (April 2002). "jeeaaies-besd spaishiyl infaurmeshan inteegreshan, modelling end digital maiping: A new blend of tool faur jiyospeshiyl envaayarenamental helth enaalisis faur delhi rij" (PDF). spaishiyl infaurmeshan faur helth mauneetaring end paupuleshan management. efaaiji XXII antarraashtreeya Congress. pp. pru. 5. http://www.fig.net/pub/fig_2002/Ts3-9/TS3_9_mohan.pdf. abhigman tithi: 3 fravari 2003.
  4. "haijaard profaail of Indian distrikts" (PDF). national kaipesiti bilding project in daaijaastaar mainejament. yooenadeepi. Archived from the original on 2006-05-19. http://web.archive.org/web/20060519100611/http://www.undp.org.in/dmweb/hazardprofile.pdf. abhigman tithi: 23 August 2006.
  5. [http://hindi.indiawaterportal.org/?q=content/%E0%A4%A6%E0%A4%BF%E0%A4%B2%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%B2%E0%A5%80-%E0%A4%95%E0%A5%80-%E0%A4%AA%E0%A5%8D%E0%A4%AF%E0%A4%BE%E0%A4%B8 India vautar portal par - Delhi ki pyaas]
  6. yamuna ko praanavaan karne se hi sthaaneeya jalasroton ko navajeevan milega