Delhi

Delhi
mahanagar
ऊपर बहाई मंदिर, बांए इन्डिया गेट, दाएं हुमायुं का मकबरा और बीच में राष्ट्रपति भवन
oopar bahaai mandir, baane indiya gate, daaen humaayun ka makabara aur beech mein raashtrapati bhavan
samay mandal: aaiesati (yooteesi+5:30)
desh Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
kendra shaasit pradesh Delhi
jila
mukhyamantri aravind Kejriwal
up raajyapaal najeeb jang
mahaapaur yogendr chandoliya (uttari)
meenaakshi (poorvi)
khushi Ram chunaar (dakshini)
janasankhya
ghanatv
mahanagar
11,954,217 (2007 anu.) (doosra)
• 11,463 /kimi2 (29,689 /varg meal)
[1]
aadhikaarik bhaasha(eain) hindi, punjabi, urdoo
kshetrafal
ooainchaai (AMSL)
1,484 ki.mee² (573 varg meal)
• 239 meter (784 fee॰)[2]
aadhikaarik jaalasthal: delhigovt.nic.in

Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 28°a37′aN 77°a14′aE / 28.61°aN 77.23°aE / 28.61; 77.23 Delhi (urdoo: دaaلaaی, IPA: [d̪aaɪaalːaaiː]), aadhikaarik taur par Delhi raashtreeya rajdhani pradesh (angreji: National Capital Territory of Delhi) Bhaarat ka ek kendra-shaasit pradesh aur mahanagar hai. ismein nai Delhi sammilit hai jo Bhaarat ki rajdhani hai. Delhi rajdhani hone ke naate kendra sarkaar ki teenon ikaaiyon - kaaryapaalika, sansad aur nyaayapaalika ke mukhyaalaya nai Delhi aur Delhi mein sthaapit hain 1483 varg kilometer mein faila Delhi janasankhya ke taur par Bhaarat ka doosra sabse bada mahanagar hai. yahaaain ki janasankhya lagbhag 1 karod 70 lakh hai. yahaaain boli jaane waali mukhya bhaashaaeain hain : hindi, punjabi, urdoo aur angreji. Bhaarat mein Delhi ka aitihaasik mahattv hai. iske dakshin pashchim mein araavali pahaadiyaan aur poorv mein yamuna nadi hai, jiske kinaare yeh basa hai. yeh praacheen samay mein ganga ke maidaan se hokar jaane vaale vaanijya pathon ke raaste mein padne wala mukhya padaav tha.[3]

yamuna nadi ke kinaare sthit is nagar ka gauravashaali pauraanik itihaas hai. yeh Bhaarat ka ati praacheen nagar hai. iske itihaas ka praarambh sindhu ghaati sabhyata se juda hua hai. Haryana ke aaspaas ke kshetron mein hui khudaai se is baat ke pramaan mile hain. mahaabhaarat kaal mein iska naam indraprasth tha. Delhi saltanat ke utthaan ke saath hi Delhi ek pramukh raajanaitik, saanskrutik evam vaanijyik shahar ke roop mein ubhari.[4] yahaaain kai praacheen evam madhyakaaleen imaaraton tatha unke avasheshon ko dekha ja sakta hain. 1639 mein mugal baadshah shaahajahaaain ne Delhi mein hi ek chaaradeevaari se ghire shahar ka nirmaan karavaaya jo 1679 se 1857 tak mugal saamraajya ki rajdhani rahi.

18veen evam 19veen shataabdi mein british East India company ne lagbhag poore Bhaarat ko apne kabje mein le liya. in logon ne Kolkata ko apni rajdhani banaaya. 1911 mein angreji sarkaar ne faisala kiya ki rajdhani ko vaapas Delhi laaya jaae. iske liye puraani Delhi ke dakshin mein ek nae nagar nai Delhi ka nirmaan praarambh hua. angrejon se 1947 mein svatantrata praapt kar nai Delhi ko Bhaarat ki rajdhani ghoshit kiya gaya.

svatantrata praapti ke pashchaat Delhi mein vibhinn kshetron se logon ka pravaasan hua, isse Delhi ke svaroop mein aamool parivartan hua. vibhinn praanto, dharmon evam jaatiyon ke logon ke Delhi mein basane ke kaaran Delhi ka shahareekaran to hua hi saath hi yahaaain ek mishrit sanskruti ne bhi janm liya. aaj Delhi Bhaarat ka ek pramukh raajanaitik, saanskrutik evam vaanijyik kendra hai.

anukram

naamakaran

is nagar ka naam "Delhi" kaise pada iska koi nishchit sandarbh naheen milta, lekin vyaapak roop se yeh maana gaya hai ki yeh ek praacheen raaja "dhillu" se sambandhit hai. kuchh itihaasakaaron ka yeh maanana hai ki yeh dehali ka ek vikrut roop hai, jiska hindustaani mein arth hota hai 'chaukhat', jo ki is nagar ke sambhavat: sindhu-ganga samabhoomi ke pravesh-dwaar hone ka soochak hai. ek aur anumaan ke anusaar is nagar ka praarambhik naam "dhilika" tha. hindi/praakrut "dheeli" bhi is kshetr ke liye prayog kiya jaata tha.

itihaas

laal kila

Delhi ka praacheenatam ullekh mahaabhaarat naamak mahaapuraan mein milta hai jahaaain iska ullekh praacheen indraprasth ke roop mein kiya gaya hai. indraprasth mahaabhaarat kaal me paandavon ki rajdhani thi.[5] puraataatvik roop se jo pehle pramaan mile hain usase pata chalta hai ki isa se do hajaar varsh pehle bhi Delhi tatha uske aas-paas maanav nivaas karte the.[6] maurya-kaal (isa poorv 300) se yahaaain ek nagar ka vikaas hona aarambh hua. mahaaraaj pruthveeraaj chauhaan ke darabaari kavi chand baradaai ki hindi rachana pruthveeraaj raaso mein tomar raaja anangapaal ko Delhi ka sansthaapak bataaya gaya hai. aisa maana jaata hai ki usane hi 'laal-kot' ka nirmaan karavaaya tha aur maharauli ke gupt kaaleen lauh-stambh ko Delhi laaya. Delhi mein tomaron ka shaasanakaal varsh 900-1200 tak maana jaata hai. 'Delhi' ya 'dillika' shabd ka prayog sarvapratham Udaipur mein praapt shilaalekhon par paaya gaya. is shilaalekh ka samay varsh 1170 nirdhaarit kiya gaya. mahaaraaj pruthveeraaj chauhaan ko Delhi ka antim hindu samraat maana jaata hai.

1206 i0 ke baad Delhi Delhi saltanat ki rajdhani bani. is par khilji vansh, tugalak vansh, Sayyed vansh aur lodhi vansh samet kuchh anya vanshon ne shaasan kiya. aisa maana jaata hai ki aaj ki aadhunik Delhi banane se pehle Delhi saat baar ujadi aur vibhinn sthaanon par basi, jinke kuchh avashesh aadhunik Delhi mein ab bhi dekhe ja sakte hain. Delhi ke tatkaaleen shaasakon ne iske svaroop mein kai baar parivartan kiya. mugal baadshah humaayooain ne sarahind ke nikat yuddh mein afgaanon ko paraajit kiya tatha bina kisi virodh ke Delhi par adhikaar kar liya. humaayooain ki mrutyu ke baad hemoo vikramaaditya ke netrutv mein afgaanon nein mugal sena ko paraajit kar Agra va Delhi par pun: adhikaar kar liya. mugal baadshah Akbar ne apni rajdhani ko Delhi se Agra sthaantarit kar diya. Akbar ke pote shaahajahaaain (1628-1658) ne satrahaveen sadi ke madhya mein ise saataveen baar basaaya jise shaahajahaaainnaabaad ke naam se pukaara gaya. shaahajahaaainnaabaad ko aam bol-chaal ki bhaasha mein puraana shahar ya puraani Delhi kaha jaata hai. praacheenakaal se puraani Delhi par anek raajaaon evam samraaton ne raajya kiya hai tatha samay-samay par iske naam mein bhi parivartan kiya jaata raha tha. puraani Delhi 1638 ke baad mugl samraaton ki rajdhani rahi. Delhi ka aakhiri mugal baadshah bahaadur shaah jafr tha jiski mrutyoo nivaarsan mein hi rangoon mein hui.

1857 ke sipaahi vidroh ke baad Delhi par british shaasan ke hukoomat mein shaasan chalne laga. 1857 ke is pratham bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam ke aandolan ko poori tarah dabaane ke baad angrejon ne bahaadurashaah jfr ko rangoon bhej diya tatha Bhaarat poori tarah se angrejo ke adheen ho gaya. praarambh mein unhonne kalakatte (aajkal Kolkata) se shaasan sambhaala parantu british shaasan kaal ke antim dinon mein Peter mahaan ke netrutv mein soviyt roos ka prabhaav bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein teji se badhne laga. jiske kaaran angrejon ko yeh lagne laga ki Calcutta jo ki Bhaarat ke dhur poorab me tha vahaan se Afghanistan evam Iran aadi par saksham tareeke se aasaani se niyantran nahi sthaapit kiya ja sakta hai aage chal kar ke isi kaaran se 1911 mein upanivesh rajdhani ko Delhi sthaanaantarit kar diya gaya evam anek aadhunik nirmaan kaarya karavaae gaye. 1947 mein Bhaarat ki aajaadi ke baad ise adhikaarik roop se Bhaarat ki rajdhani ghoshit kar diya gaya. Delhi mein kai raajaaon ke saamraajya ke udaya tatha patan ke saakshya aaj bhi vidyamaan hain. sachche maayane mein Delhi hamaare desh ke bhavishya, bhootakaal evam vartamaan paristhitiyon ka mel-mishran hain. tomar shaasakon mein Delhi ki sthaapana ka shreya anangapaal ko jaata hai.

jalavaayu, bhoogol aur janasaankhyiki

bhaugolik sthiti

Delhi mein yamuna nadi

raashtreeya rajdhani kshetr Delhi 1,484 kimi2 (573 varg meal) mein vistrut hai, jismein se 783 kimi2 (302 varg meal) bhaag graameen aur 700 kimi2 (270 varg meal) bhaag shahari ghoshit hai. Delhi uttar-dakshin mein adhiktam 51.9 kimi (32 meal) hai aur poorv-pashchim mein adhiktam chaudaai 48.48 kimi (30 meal) hai. Delhi ke anurakshan hetu teen sansthaaen kaaryarat hai:-

  • Delhi nagar nigam:nigam vishv ki sabse badi nagar paalika sangathan hai, jo ki anumaanit 137.80 lakh naagrikon (kshetrafal 1,397.3 kimi2 ya 540 varg meal) ko naagrik sevaaen pradaan karti hai. yeh kshetrafl ke hisaab se bhi maatr tokyo se hi peechhe hai."[7]. nagar nigam 1397 varg ki॰mee॰ ka kshetr dekhti hai. vartamaan mein Delhi nagar nigam ko teen hisson mein baat diya gaya hai oopari Delhi nagar nigam,poorvi Delhi nagar nigam va dakshin Delhi nagar nigam.
  • nai Delhi nagarapaalika parishad: (N di M si) (kshetrafal 42.7 kimi2 ya 16 varg meal) nai Delhi ki nagarapaalika parishad ka naam hai. iske adheen aane wala kaaryakshetr N di M si kshetr kahalaata hai.
  • Delhi chhaavani board: (kshetrafal (43 kimi2 ya 17 varg meal)[8] jo Delhi ke chhaavani kshetron ko dekhta hai.

Delhi ek ati-vistrut kshetr hai. yeh apne charam par uttar mein saroop nagar se dakshin mein rajokari tak faila hai. pashchimtam chhor najafagadh se poorv mein yamuna nadi tak (tulanaatmak paramparaagat poorvi chhor). vaise shaahadara, bhajanapura, aadi iske poorvatam chhor hone ke saath hi bade baajaaron mein bhi aate hain. ra.ra.kshetr mein uparokt seemaaon se lage niktavarti pradeshon ke Noida, Gurgaon aadi kshetr bhi aate hain. Delhi ki bhoo-prakruti bahut badalti hui hai. yeh uttar mein samatal krushi maidaanon se lekar dakshin mein shushk araavali parvat ke aarambh tak badalti hai. Delhi ke dakshin mein badi praakrutik jheelein hua karti theen, jo ab atyadhik khanan ke kaaran sookhati chali gain hain. inmein se ek hai badkhal jheel. yamuna nadi shahar ke poorvi kshetron ko alag karti hai. ye kshetr yamuna paar kahalaate hain, vaise ye nai Delhi se bahut se pulon dvaara bhali-bhaanti jude hue hain. Delhi metro bhi abhi do pulon dvaara nadi ko paar karti hai.

Delhi 28°a37′aN 77°a14′aE / 28.61°aN 77.23°aE / 28.61; 77.23 par uttari Bhaarat mein basa hua hai. yeh samudratal se 700 se 1000 feet ki ooainchaai par himaalaya se 160 kilometer dakshin mein yamuna nadi ke kinaare par basa hai. yeh uttar, pashchim evam dakshin teen tarafan se Haryana raajya tatha poorv mein uttar pradesh raajya dvaara ghira hua hai. Delhi lagbhag poornataya gaangeya kshetr mein sthit hai. Delhi ke bhoogol ke do pradhaan ang hain yamuna sinchit samatal evam Delhi rij (pahaadi). apekshaakrut nichle star par sthit maidaani upatyakaakrushi hetu utkrusht bhoomi upalabdh karaati hai, haalaanki ye baadh sambhaavit kshetr rahe hain. ye Delhi ke poorvi or hain. aur pashchimi or rij kshetr hai. iski adhiktam oonchaai 318 mi.(1043 fi.)[9] tak jaati hai. yeh dakshin mein araavali parvatamaala se aarambh hokar shahar ke pashchimi, uttar-pashchimi evam uttar-poorvi kshetron tak faile hain. Delhi ki jeevanarekha yamuna hindu dharm mein ati pavitra nadiyon mein se ek hai. ek anya chhoti nadi hindan nadi poorvi Delhi ko Ghaziabad se alag karti hai. Delhi seejmik kshetr-IV mein aane se ise bade bhookampon ka sanbhaavi banaati hai.[10]

jal sanpada

chitr:DElhi-Water-Chanel.gif
Delhi ki jal sanrachana

bhoomigat jalabhrut laakhon varshon se praakrutik roop se nadiyon aur barasaati dhaaraaon se navajeevan paate rahe hain. Bhaarat mein ganga-yamuna ka maidaan aisa kshetr hai, jismein sabse uttam jal sansaadhan maujood hain. yahaaain achhi varsha hoti hai aur himaalaya ke gleshiyron se nikalne waali sadaaneera nadiyaaain bahti hain. Delhi jaise kuchh kshetron mein bhi kuchh aisa hi hai. iske dakshini pathaari kshetr ka dhalaav samatal bhaag ki or hai, jismein pahaadi shrrunkhalaaon ne praakrutik jheelein bana di hain. pahaadiyon par ka praakrutik vanaachhaadan kai baarahamaasi jaladhaaraaon ka udgam sthal hua karta tha.[11]

vyaapaarik kendra ke roop mein Delhi aaj jis sthiti mein hai; usaka kaaran yahaaain chaudi paat ki ek yaataayaat yogya nadi yamuna ka hona hi hai; jismein maal dhulaai bhi ki ja sakti thi. 500 E. poorv mein bhi nishchit hi yeh ek aisi aishvaryashaali nagari thi, jiski sampattiyon ki raksha ke liye nagar praacheer banaane ki aavashyakta padi thi. saleemagadh aur puraana kila ki khudaaiyon mein praapt tathyon aur puraana kila se iske itne praacheen nagar hone ke pramaan milte hain. 1000 E. ke baad se to iske itihaas, iske yudhdaapadaaon aur unase badalne vaale raajavanshon ka paryaapt vivran milta hai.[11]

bhaugolik drushti se araavali ki shrankhalaaon se ghire hone ke kaaran Delhi ki shahari bastiyon ko kuchh vishesh upahaar mile hain. araavali shrankhala aur uske praakrutik vanon se teen baarahamaasi nadiyaaain Delhi ke madhya se bahti yamuna mein milti theen. dakshin Asiaee bhoosanrachanaatmak parivartan se ab yamuna apne puraane maarg se poorv ki or bees kilometer hat gayi hai.[12] 3000 E. poorv mein ye nadi Delhi mein vartamaan 'rij' ke pashchim mein hokar bahti thi. usi yug mein araavali ki shrrunkhalaaon ke doosari or sarasvati nadi bahti thi, jo pehle to pashchim ki or saraki aur baad mein bhaugolik sanrachana mein bhoomigat hokar poornat: lupt ho gayi.

ek angrej dvaara 1807 mein kiye gaye sarvekshan ke aadhaar par bane uparyukt nakshe mein vah jaladhaaraaen dikhaai gayi hain, jo Delhi ki yamuna mein milti theen. ek tilpat ki pahaadiyon mein dakshin se uttar ki or bahti thi, to doosari haujakhaas mein anek sahaayak dhaaraaon ko sametate hue poorvaabhimukh bahti baaraapula ke sthaan par nijaamuddeen ke oopari yamuna pravaah mein jaakar milti thi. ek teesari aur inse badi dhaara jise saahibi nadi (poorv naam rohini) kehte the. dakshin-pashchim se nikal kar rij ke uttar mein yamuna mein milti thi. aisa lagta hai ki vivrtanik halachal ke kaaran iske bahaav ka nichaai wala bhoobhaag kuchh ooaincha ho gaya, jisse iska yamuna mein girna rook gaya.[11] pichhle maarg se iska jyaada paani najafagadh jheel mein jaane laga. koi 70 varsh pehle tak is jheel ka aakaar 220 varg kilometer hota tha. angrejon ne saahibi nadi ki gaad nikaalkar tal safaai karke naala najafagadh ka naam diya aur ise yamuna mein mila diya. yahi jaladhaaraaen aur yamuna-Delhi mein araavali ki shrrunkhalaaon ke katore mein basane waali anek bastiyon aur raajadhaaniyon ko sada paryaapt jal upalabdh karaati aain theen.

himaalaya ke himnadon se nikalne ke kaaran yamuna sadaaneera rahi hai. parantu anya uparokt upanadiyaaain ab se 200 varsh poorv tak hi, jab tak ki araavali ki parvatamaala praakrutik van se dhaki raheen tabhi tak baarahamaasi rah sakeen. khed hai ki Delhi mein vanon ka kataan khiljiyon ke samay se hi shuroo ho gaya tha. islaam sveekaar na karne vaale sthaaneeya vidrohiyon aur lootpaat karne vaale mevon ka daman karne ke liye aisa kiya gaya tha. saath hi badhti shahari aabaadi ke bhaar se bhi van praant sikuda hai. iske chalte vanaanchal mein sanrakshit varsha jal ka avakshaya hua.[11]

british kaal meinangreji shaasan ke dauraan Delhi mein sadkon ke nirmaan aur baadh avarodhi baandh banaane se paryaavaran parivartan ke kaaran ye jaladhaaraaen varsh mein greeshm ke samay sookh jaane lageen. svatantrata ke baad ke samay mein barasaati naalon, futapaathon aur galiyon ko cement se pakka kiya gaya, isse in dhaaraaon ko jal pahuainchaane vaale svaabhaavik maarg avaruddh ho gaye.[11] aisi dasha mein, jahaan inhein raasta naheen mila, vahaaain ve monsoon mein barasaati naalon ki tarah ufanane lageen. vishd roop mein cement kankreet ke nirmaanon ke kaaran unhein bhoomigat jalabhrutton ya nadi mein milaane ka upaaya naheen rah gaya hai. aaj in nadiyon mein nagar ka adhiktar maila hi girta hai.

jalavaayu

India gate ke nikat tadit. Delhi apni adhiktam varsha July-August maah mein monsoon se paata hai.

Delhi ke mahaadveepeeya jalavaayu mein greeshm ritu evam sheet ritu ke taapamaan mein bahut antar hota hai. greeshm ritu lambi, atyadhik garm April se madhya-October tak chalti hain. is beech mein monsoon sahit varsha ritu bhi aati hai. ye garmi kaafi ghaatak bhi ho sakti hai, jisne bhootakaal mein kai jaanein li hain. March ke aarambh se hi vaayu ki disha mein parivartan hone lagta hai. ye uttar-pashchim se hat kar dakshin-pashchim disha mein chalne lagti hain. ye apne saath Rajasthan ki garm lahar aur dhool bhi leti chalti hain. ye garmi ka mukhya ang hain. inhein hi loo kehte hain. April se June ke maheene atyadhik garm hote hain, jinmein uchch okseekaran kshamata hoti hai. June ke ant tak nami mein vruddhi hoti hai jo poorv maunasoon varsha laati hain. iske baad julaai se yahaan maunasoon ki havaaen chalti hain, jo achhi varsha laati hain. October-November mein shishir kaal rahata hai, jo halki thand ke sang aanand daayak hota hai. November se sheet ritu ka aarambh hota hai, jo February ke aarambh tak chalta hai. sheetakaal mein ghana kohara bhi padta hai, evam sheetalahar chalti hai, jo ki fir vahi tej garmi ki bhaanti ghaatak hoti hai.[13] yahaan ke taapamaan mein atyadhik antar aata hai jo −0.6 °ase. (30.9 °afai.) se lekar 48 °ase (118 °afai) tak jaata hai.[14] vaarshik ausat taapamaan 25°aase. (77 °afai.); maasik ausat taapamaan 13°aase. se lekar 32°ase (56°aafai. se lekar 90°aafai.) tak hota hai.[15] ausat vaarshik varsha lagbhag 714 mi.mi. (28.1 inch) hoti hai, jismein se adhiktam monsoon dvaara July-August mein hoti hai.[5] Delhi mein monsoon ke aagaman ki ausat tithi 29 June hoti hai.[16]


janasaankhyiki

1901 mein 4 lakh ki janasankhya ke saath Delhi ek chhota nagar tha. 1911 mein british Bhaarat ki rajdhani banane ke saath iski janasankhya badhne lagi. Bhaarat ke vibhaajan ke samay Pakistan se ek bahut badi sankhya mein log aakar Delhi mein basane lage. yeh pravaasan vibhaajan ke baad bhi chalta raha. vaarshik 3.85% ki vruddhi ke saath 2001 mein Delhi ki janasankhya 1 karod 38 lakh pahuainch chuki hai.[18] 1991 se 2001 ke dashak mein janasankhya ki vruddhi ki dar 47.02% thi. Delhi mein janasakhya ka ghanatv prati kilometer 9,294 vyakti tatha ling anupaat 821 mahilaaon evam 1000 purooshon ka hai. yahaaain saaksharata ka pratishat 81.82% hai.

naagar prashaasan

raashtreeya rajdhani kshetr Delhi kul nau jilon mein bainta hua hai. harek jile ka ek upaayukt niyukt hai aur jile ke teen upajile hain. pratyek up jile ka ek up jilaadheesh niyukt hai. sabhi upaayukt mandaleeya adhikaari ke adheen hote hain. Delhi ka jila prashaasan sabhi prakaar ki raajya evam kendreeya neetiyon aur ka pravartan vibhaag hota hai. yahi vibhinn anya sarkaari kaaryakalaapon par aadhikaarik niyantran rakhata hai. nimn likhit Delhi ke jilon aur upajilon ki soochi hai:-

Delhi ke jile
madhya Delhi jila

dariya ganjpahaad ganjkaraul baag

uttar Delhi jila

sadar baajaar, Delhikotavaali, Delhisabji mandi

dakshin Delhi jila

kaalakaajidifens kaalonihauj khaas

poorvi Delhi jila

gaaaindhi nagar, Delhipreet vihaarvivek vihaarvasundhara enklev

uttar poorvi Delhi jila

seelamapurshaahadaraseema puri

dakshin pashchim Delhi jila

vasant vihaarnajafagadhDelhi chhaavani

nai Delhi jila

kanaat placesansad maargchaanakya puri

uttar pashchim Delhi jila

sarasvati vihaarnarelamodel taaun

pashchim Delhi jila

Patel nagarraajauri gardenpunjabi baag

darshaneeya sthal

Delhi ka aksharadhaam mandir vishv mein sabse bada hindu mandir parisar hai.[19]
Delhi metro - 2004

Delhi Bhaarat ki rajdhani hi naheen paryatan ka pramukh kendra bhi hai. rajdhani hone ke kaaran Bhaarat sarkaar ke anek kaaryaalaya, raashtrapati bhavan, sansad bhavan, kendreeya sachivaalaya aadi anek aadhunik sthaapatya ke namoone to yahaaain dekhe hi ja sakte hain; praacheen nagar hone ke kaaran iska aitihaasik mahattv bhi hai. puraataatvik drushti se puraana kila, Safdarjung ka makabara, jantar mantar, kutub meenaar aur lauh stambh jaise anek vishv prasiddh nirmaan yahaaain par aakarshan ka kendra samajhe jaate hain. ek or humaayooain ka makabara, laal kila jaise vishv dharohar mugal shaili ki tatha puraana kila, Safdarjung ka makabara, lodhi makabare parisar aadi aitihaasik raajasi imaarat yahaaain hai to doosari or nijaamuddeen auliya ki paaralaukik dargaah bhi. lagbhag sabhi dharmon ke prasiddh dhaarmik sthal yahaaain hain jaise Birla mandir, aadya kaatyaayini shaktipeeth, bangala saahab gurudvaara, bahaai mandir aur jaama masjid desh ke shaheedon ka smaarak India gate, raajapath par isi shahar mein nirmit kiya gaya hai. Bhaarat ke pradhaan mantriyon ki samaadhiyaaain hain, jantar mantar hai, laal kila hai saath hi anek prakaar ke sangrahaalaya aur anek baajaar hain, jaise Connaught place, chaaaindani chauk aur bahut se ramaneek udyaan bhi hain, jaise mugal udyaan, garden of five seinsis, taalakatora garden, lodi garden, chidiyaaghar, aadi, jo Delhi ghoomane aane vaalon ka dil lubha lete hain.

Delhi ke shiksha sansthaan

bhaarateeya praudyogiki sansthaan, Delhi; is sansthaan ko eshiyaaveek dvaara vigyaan aur praudyogiki ke kshetr mein chauthe sabse achhe sansthaan ka darja diya gaya.[20]
chitr:19050881.jpg
J N you prashaasanik bhavan
sangat roop se yeh Bhaarat ka sarvashreshth aayurvigyaan sansthaan hai,[21] akhil bhaarateeya aayurvigyaan sansthaan aayurvigyaan shodh aur chikitsa ke kshetr mein ek vaishvik sansthaan hai.[22]

Delhi Bhaarat mein shiksha ka ek mahattvapoorn kendra hai. Delhi ke vikaas ke saath-saath yahaaain shiksha ka bhi teji se vikaas hua hai. praathamik shiksha to praay: saarvajanik hai. ek bahut bade anupaat mein bachche maadhyamik vidyaalayon mein shiksha grahan kar rahe hain. stri shiksha ka vikaas har star par purooshon se adhik hua hai. yahaaain ki shiksha sansthaaon mein vidyaarthi Bhaarat ke sabhi bhaagon se aate hain. yahaaain kai sarkaari evam niji shiksha sansthaan hain jo kala, vaanijya, vigyaan, prodyogiki, aayurvigyaan, vidhi aur prabandhan mein uchch star ki shiksha dene ke liye vikhyaat hain. uchch shiksha ke sansthaanon mein sabse mahattvapoorn Delhi vishvavidyaalaya hai jiske antargat kai college evam shodh sasanthaan hain. guru gobind Singh indraprasth vishvavidyaalaya, akhil bhaarateeya aayurvigyaan sansthaan, bhaarateeya praudyogiki sansthaan, javaaharalaal Nehru vishvavidyaalaya, indira Gandhi raashtreeya mukt vishvavidyaalaya, teri - oorja aur sansaadhan sansthaan evam jaamiya miliya islaamiya uchch shiksha ke pramukh sansthaan hain.

sanskruti

Delhi haat mein pradarshit paramparaagat pautari utpaad.

Delhi ki sanskruti yahaaain ke lambe itihaas aur Bhaarat ki rajdhani ke roop mein aitihaasik sthiti se poorn prabhaavit rahi hai, yeh shahar mein bane kai mahattvapoorn aitihaasik smaarakon se vidit hai. bhaarateeya puraataatvik sarvekshan vibhaag ne Delhi shahar mein lagbhag 1200 dharohar sthal ghoshit kiye hain, jo ki vishv mein kisi bhi shahar se kaheen adhik hai.[23] aur inmein se 175 sthal raashtreeya dharohar sthal ghoshit kiye hain.[24] puraana shahar vah sthaan hai, jahaan mugalon aur turk shaasakon ne sthaapatya ke kai namoone khade kiye, jaise jaama masjid (Bhaarat ki sabse badi masjid)[25] aur laal kila. Delhi mein filhaal teen vishv dharohar sthal hain – laal kila, kutub meenaar aur humaayun ka makabara.[26] anya smaarakon mein India gate, jantar mantar (18veen sadi ki khagolashaastreeya vedhashaala), puraana kila (16veen sadi ka kila). Birla mandir, aksharadhaam mandir aur kamal mandir aadhunik sthaapatyakala ke utkrusht udaaharan hain. raaj ghaat mein raashtrapita mahaatma gaaaindhi tatha nikat hi anya bade vyaktiyon ki samaadhiyaan hain. nai Delhi mein bahut se sarkaari kaaryaalaya, sarkaari aavaas, tatha british kaal ke avashesh aur imaaratein hain. kuchh atyant mahattvapoorn imaaraton mein raashtrapati bhavan, kendreeya sachivaalaya, raajapath, sansad bhavan aur vijay chauk aate hain. Safdarjung ka makabara aur humaayun ka makabara mugal baagon ke chaar baag shaili ka utkrusht udaaharan hain.

Delhi ke rajdhani nai Delhi se judaav aur bhoogoleeya niktata ne yahaaain ki raashtreeya ghatnaaon aur avsaron ke mahattv ko kai guna badha diya hai. yahaaain kai raashtreeya tyauhaar jaise ganatantr diwas, svatantrata diwas aur gaaaindhi jayanti khoob harshollaas se manaae jaate hain. Bhaarat ke svatantrata diwas par yahaaain ke pradhaan mantri laal kile se yahaaain ki janta ko sambodhit karte hain. bahut se dilleevaasi is din ko patangein udaakar manaate hain. is din patangon ko svatantrata ka prateek maana jaata hai.[27] ganatantr diwas ki parade ek vruhat juloos hota hai, jismein Bhaarat ki sainya shakti aur saanskrutik jhaanki ka pradarshan hota hai.[28][29]

yahaaain ke dhaarmik tyauhaaron mein deevaali, holi, dashahara, durga pooja, mahaaveer jayanti, guru parab, christmas, mahaashivraatri, Eid ul fitr, buddh jayanti lohadi pongal aur odm jaise parv hain.[29] kutub festival mein sangeetakaaron aur nartakon ka akhil bhaarateeya sangam hota hai, jo kuchh raaton ko jagamaga deta hai. yeh kutub meenaar ke paarshv mein aayojit hota hai.[30] anya kai parv bhi yahaaain hote hain: jaise aam mahotsav, patangabaaji mahotsav, vasant panchami jo vaarshik hote hain. Asia ki sabse badi auto pradarshani: auto ekspo[31] Delhi mein dvivaarshik aayojit hoti hai. pragati maidaan mein vaarshik pustak mela aayojit hota hai. yeh vishv ka doosra sabse bada pustak mela hai, jismein vishv ke 23 raashtra bhaag lete hain. Delhi ko usaki uchch padhaakoo kshamata ke kaaran kabhi kabhi vishv ki pustak rajdhani bhi kaha jaata hai.[32]

auto ekspo, Asia ka sabse bada auto pradarshani avsar hai.[31], jo ki pragati maidaan mein dvivaarshik aayojit hota hai.

punjabi aur mugalai Khan paan jaise kabaab aur biryaani Delhi ke kai bhaagon mein prasiddh hain.[33][34] Delhi ki atyadhik mishrit janasankhya ke kaaran Bhaarat ke vibhinn bhaagon ke khaanapaan ki jhalak milti hai, jaise raajasthaani, mahaaraashtriyn, bangaali, haidaraabaadi khaana aur dakshin bhaarateeya khaane ke item jaise idali, saanbhar, dosa ityaadi bahutaayat mein mil jaate hain. iske saath hi sthaaneeya khaasiyat, jaise chaat ityaadi bhi khoob milti hai, jise log chatakaare laga laga kar khaate hain. inke alaava yahaaain mahaadveepeeya khaana jaise itailiyn aur chaaineej khaana bhi bahutaayat mein upalabdh hai.

itihaas mein Delhi uttar Bhaarat ka ek mahattvapoorn vyaapaar kendra bhi raha hai. puraani Delhi ne abhi bhi apne galiyon mein faile baajaaron aur puraani mugal dharoharon mein in vyaapaarik kshamataaon ka itihaas chhupa kar rakha hai.[35] puraane shahar ke baajaaron mein har ek prakaar ka saamaan milega. tel mein doobe chatapate aam, neenboo, aadi ke achaaron se lekar manhage heere javaaharaat, jevar tak; dulhan ke alankaar, kapadon ke thaan, taiyaar kapde, masaale, mithaaiyaaain aur kya naheen?[35] kai puraani haveliyaaain is shahar mein abhi bhi shobha pa rahi hain aur itihaas ko sanjoe shaan se khadi hai.[36] chaandani chauk, jo ki yahaaain ka teen shataabdiyon se bhi puraana baajaar hai, Delhi ke jevar, jri saadiyon aur masaalon ke liye prasiddh hai.[37] Delhi ki prasiddh kalaaon mein se kuchh hain yahaaain ke jradoji (sone ke taar ka kaam, jise jri bhi kaha jaata hai) aur meenaakaari (jismein peetal ke bartanon ityaadi par nakkaashi ke beech rogan bhara jaata hai. yahaaain ki kalaaon ke liye baajaar hain pragati maidaan, Delhi, Delhi haat, hauj khaas, Delhi- jahaan vibhinn prakaar ke hastashilp ke aur hathakaraghon ke kaarya ke namoone mil sakte hain. samay ke saath saath Delhi ne desh bhar ki kalaaon ko yahaaain sthaan diya hain. is tarah yahaaain ki koi khaas shaili na hokar ek adbhut mishran ho gaya hai.[38][39]

Delhi ke nimn bhagini shahar hain:[40]

sthaapatya

72.5 mi (238 fut) oonchi kutub meenaar, vishv ki sabse oonchi mukt-khadi meenaar hai.[41]

is aitihaasik nagar mein ek or praacheen, atipraacheen kaal ke asankhya khandahar milte hain, to doosari or avaarcheen kaal ke yojanaanusaar nirmit upanagar bhi. ismein vishv ke kisi bhi naveenatam nagar se hod lene ki kshamata hai. praacheenakaal ke kitne hi nagar nasht ho gaye par Delhi apni bhaugilik sthiti aur samayaanusaar parivrtanasheelata ke kaaran aaj bhi samruddhashaali nagar hi nahi mahanagar hai. Bhaarat sarkaar ke sanskruti mantraalaya ke bhaarateeya puraatatv sarvekshan vibhaag ne Delhi mein 1200 imaaraton ko aitihaasik mahattv ka tatha 175 ko raashtreeya saanskrutik smaarak ghoshit kiya hai.

1560 mein bana, humaayun ka makabara mugal makabara parisar ka pratham udaaharan hai.[42]

nai Delhi mein maharauli mein guptakaal mein nirmit lauhastanbh hai. yeh praudyogiki ka ek anutha udaaharan hai. isa ki chauthi shataabdi mein jab iska nirmaan hua tab se aaj tak is par jang nahi laga. Delhi mein indo-islaami sthaapatya ka vikaash vishesh roop se drushtagat hota hai. Delhi ke kutub parisar mein sabse bhavya sthaapatya kutub minaar hai. is minaar ko soofi sant kutubuddeen bakhtiyaar kaaki ki smruti mein banavaaya gaya tha. tugalak kaal mein nirmit gayaasuddeen ka makabara sthaapatya mein ek nai pravrutti ka soochak hai. yeh ashtabhujaakaar hai. Delhi mein humaayooain ka makabara mugal sthaapatya kala ka ek utkrusht udaaharan hai. shaahajahaaain ka shaasanakaal sthaapatya kala ke liye yaad kiya jaata hai.

arth vyavastha

Mumbai ke baad Delhi Bhaarat ke sabse bade vyaapaarik mahaanagaro mein se hai. desh mein prati vyakti ausat aay ki drushti se bhi yeh desh ke sabse sampann nagaro mein gina jaata hai. 1990 ke baad se Delhi videshi nivshekon ka pasandeeda sthaan bana hai. haal mein kai bahuraashtreeya companiyon jaise pepsi, gaip, ityaadi ne Delhi aur uske aas-paas ke kshetron me apna mukhyaalaya khola hai. christmas ke din varsh 2002 mein Delhi ke mahaanagari kshetron mein Delhi metro rel ka shubhaarambh hua jise varsh 2022 mein poora kiye jaane ka anumaan hai.

havaai yaataayaat dvaara Delhi indira Gandhi antararaashtreeya vimaanasthal se poore vishv se juda hai..

yaataayaat suvidhaaen

Delhi parivhan nigam vishv ki sabse badi paryaavaran sahayogi bas-seva pradaan karta hai.[43]
Delhi metro rel corporation dvaara sanchaalit metro rel seva ausat 8,37,000 savaariyaan pratidin le jaati hai.[44]
indira gaaaindhi antarraashtreeya havaai adda
raayaseena ki pahaadiyaaain mein raajapath. Delhi ki kul gaadiyon ka 30% niji vaahan hain. Delhi mein ausat 963 nae vaahan pratidin panjeekrut hote hain.[45]
nai Delhi railway station
chitr:Old-delhi-railway-station.jpg
Delhi jankshan railway station

Delhi ke saarvajanik yaataayaat ke saadhan mukhyat: bas, autorickshaw aur metro rel seva hain. Delhi ki mukhya yaataayaat aavashyakta ka 60% basein poora karti hain.[46] Delhi parivhan nigam dvaara sanchaalit sarkaari bas seva Delhi ki pradhaan bas seva hai. Delhi parivhan nigam vishv ki sabse badi paryaavaran sahayogi bas-seva pradaan karta hai.[47] haal hi mein bi aar ti ki seva anbedakar nagar aur Delhi gate ke beech aarambh hui hai. auto riksha Delhi mein yaataayaat ka ek prabhaavi maadhyam hai. ye indhan ke roop mein si N ji ka prayog karte hain, va inka rang oopar peela va neeche hara hota hai. Delhi mein vaataanukoolit taxi seva bhi upalabdh hai jinka kiraaya 7.50 se 15 Ru/ki.mi. tak hai. Delhi ki kul vaahan sankhya ka 30% niji vaahan hain.[46] Delhi mein 1922.32 ki.mi. ki lanbaai prati 100 ki.mi.², ke saath Bhaarat ka sarvaadhik sadak ghanatv milta hai.[46] Delhi Bhaarat ke paanch pramukh mahaanagaron se raashtreeya raajamaargon dvaara juda hai. ye raajamaarg hain: raashtreeya raajamaarg sankhya: 1, 2, 8, 10 aur 24. Delhi ki sadkon ka anurakshan Delhi nagar nigam (M si di), Delhi chhaavani board, lok seva aayog aur Delhi vikaas praadhikran dvaara kiya jaata hai.[48] Delhi ke uchch janasankhya dar aur uchch arth vikaas dar ne Delhi par yaataayaat ki vruhat maang ka dabaav yahaaain ki avasanrachana par banaae rakha hai. 2008 ke anusaar Delhi mein 55 lakh vaahan nagar nigam ki seemaaon ke andar hain. is kaaran Delhi vishv ka sabse adhik vaahanon wala shahar hai. saath hi raashtreeya rajdhani kshetr mein 112 lakh vaahan hain.[49] san 1985 mein Delhi mein pratyek 1000 vyakti par 85 kaarein theen.[50] Delhi ke yaataayaat ki maangon ko poora karne hetu Delhi aur kendra sarkaar ne ek maas raipid traanjit system ka aarambh kiya, jise Delhi metro kehte hain.[46] san 1998 mein sarvochch nyaayaalaya ne Delhi ke sabhi saarvajanik vaahanon ko deejl ke sthaan par compressed natural gas ka prayog anivaarya roop se karne ka aadesh diya tha.[51][52] tab se yahaaain sabhi saarvajanik vaahan si N ji par hi chaalit hain.

metro seva

Delhi metro rel corporation dvaara sanchaalit Delhi metro rel ek maas raipid traanjit (tvarit paaragaman) pranaali hai, jo ki Delhi ke kai kshetron mein seva pradaan karti hai. iski shuruaat 24 December 2002 ko shahaadara tees hajaari laain se hui. is parivhan vyavastha ki adhiktam gati 80kimi/ghanta (50meel/ghanta) rakhi gayi hai aur yeh har station par lagbhag 20 second rukati hai. sabhi trainon ka nirmaan dakshin Korea ki company rotem (ROTEM) dvaara kiya gaya hai. Delhi ki parivhan vyavasatha mein metro rel ek mahattvapoorn kadi hai. isse pehle parivhan ka jyaadaatar bojh sadak par tha. praarambhik avastha mein iski yojana chhah maargon par chalne ki hai jo Delhi ke jyaadaatar hisse ko jodegi. iska pehla charan varsh 2006 mein poora ho chuka hai. dusare charan mein Delhi ke maharauli, badarapur border, aanand vihaar, jahaangeerapuri, mundka aur indira gaaaindhi antarraashtreeya havaai adda athva Delhi se sate Noida, Gurgaon aur vaishaali ko metro se jodne ka kaam jaari hai. pariyojana ke teesare charan mein raashtreeya rajdhani kshetr ke shaharon Ghaziabad, Faridabad ityaadi ko bhi jodne ki yojana hai. is rel vyavastha ke charan I mein maarg ki kul lanbaai lagbhag 65.11 kimi hai jisme 13 kimi bhoomigat evam 52 kilometer eleeveted maarg hai. charan II ke antargat poore maarg ki lanbaai 128 kimi hogi evam ismein 79 station honge jo abhi nirmaanaadheen hain, is charan ke 2010 tak poora karne ka lakshya rakha gaya hai.[53][54] charan III (112 kimi) evam IV (108.5 kimi) lanbaai ki banaaye jaane ka prastaav hai jise kramash: 2015 evam 2020 tak poora kiye jaane ki yojana hai. in chaaron charano ka nirmaan kaarya poora ho jaane ke pashchaat Delhi metro ke maarg ki kul lanbaai 413.8 kilometer ki ho jaaegi jo London ke metro rel (408 kimi) se bhi bada bana degi.[54][55][56][57] Delhi ke 2021 master plaan ke anusaar baad mein metro rel ko Delhi ke upanagaron tak le jaae jaane ki bhi yojana hai.

rel seva

Delhi bhaarateeya rel ke nakshe ka ek pradhaan jankshan hai. yahaaain uttar railway ka mukhyaalaya bhi hai. yahaaain ke chaar mukhya railway station hain: nai Delhi railway station, Delhi jankshan, saraaya rohilla aur hajrat nijaamuddeen railway station.[46] Delhi anya sabhi mukhya shaharon aur mahaanagaron se kai raajamaargon aur ekspresave (tvarit maarg) dvaara juda hua hai. yahaaain vartamaan mein teen ekspresave hain aur teen nirmaanaadheen hain, jo ise samruddh aur vaanijyik upanagaron se jodeinge. Delhi Gurgaon ekspresave Delhi ko Gurgaon aur antarraashtreeya havaai adde se jodta hai. di N di flaaive aur nauyada-greater nauyada ekspresave Delhi ko do mukhya upanagaron se jodte hain. greater nauyada mein ek alag antarraashtreeya havaai adda yojanaabaddh hai aur nauyada mein Indian grand priks niyojit hai.

vaayu seva

indira gaaaindhi antarraashtreeya havaai adda Delhi ke dakshin-pashchim kon par sthit hai aur yahi antardesheeya aur antarraashtreeya vaayu-yaatriyon ke liye shahar ka mukhya dwaar hai. varsh 2006-07 mein havaai adde par 23 million savaariyaan darj ki gain theen,[58][59] jo ise dakshin Asia ke vyastatam vimaanakshetron mein se ek banaati hain. US$19.3 lakh ki laagat se ek naya terminal-3 nirmaanaadheen hai, jo 3.4 karod atirikt yaatri kshamata ka hoga, san 2010 tak poorn hona nishchit hai.[60] iske aage bhi vistaar kaaryakram niyojit hain, jo yahaaain 100 million yaatri prativrsh se adhik ki kshamata deinge.[58] Safdarjung vimaanakshetr Delhi ka ek anya eyarafeeld hai, jo saamaanya vimaanan abhyaason ke liye aur kuchh VIP udaanon ke liye prayog hota hai.[61]

sandarbh

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