David hyoom

David hyoom
Painting of David Hume.jpg
janm 7 May NS [26 April OS] 1711
edinbara, skautalaind,
Great Britain
nidhan 25 August 1776(1776-08-25) (umr 65)
edinbara, skautalaind,
gret Britain
raashtriyta British (Scottish)
yug 18th-century philosophy
kshetr paashchaatya darshan
School
  • Scottish Enlightenment
  • Naturalism
  • Scepticism
  • Empiricism
  • Utilitarianism
  • Liberalism
abhiruchi
    • Ethics
    • Aesthetics
  • Philosophy of mind
  • Political philosophy
  • Philosophy of religion
  • Classical economics
saaaincha:Endplainlist
maatrusanstha University of Edinburgh
ullekhaneeya vichaar
  • Problem of causation
    • Induction
    • Bundle theory
  • Association of ideas
  • Is–ought problem
    • Utility
    • Science of man
saaaincha:Endplainlist

David hyoom (1711-1776) aadhunik kaal ke vishvavikhyaat daarshanik the. ve skaatalaind (edinbara) ke nivaasi the. aapke mukhya granth hain - 'maanav prajnyaa ki ek pareeksha' (An Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding) aur 'naitik siddhaanton ki ek pareeksha' (An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Morals)

hyoom ka darshan anubhav ki prushthabhoomi mein paramotkrusht hai. aapke anusaar yeh anubhav (impression) aur ekamaatr anubhav hi hai jo vaastavik hai. anubhav ke atirikt koi bhi gyaan sarvopari naheen hai. buddhi se kisi bhi gyaan ka aavirbhaav naheen hota. buddhi ke sahaare manushya anubhav se praapt vishyon ka mishran (sanshleshan) evam vichhedan (vishleshan) karta hai. is buddhi se nae gyaan ki vruddhi naheen hoti.

parichay

pratyakshaanubhoot vastuon mein sambandh hote hain, jo teen prakaar ke hain - saadrushya sannikrsh (saahacharya ya saameepya) tatha kaaranata. samaanata ke aadhaar par ek vastu se doosari ka smaran hona, niktata ke kaaran ghode se ghudsavaar ki yaad aana aur soorya ko prakaash ka kaaran samajhna, in vibhinn sambandhon ke udaaharan hain.

uparyukt teen sambandhon mein kaaranata sambandh ne daarshanikon ka dhyaan adhik aakrusht kiya. 'kaaranata' ke sambandh mein hyoom ka vichaar hai ki 'kaaranata' ka aarop karna vyarth hai. kaaran aur kaarya ka sambandh vaastavik naheen hai. baahya jagat mein ham do ghatnaaon ko saath ghatate dekhte hain. aisa sadaiv hone ki anubhooti ke aadhaar par ham ek ko kaarya aur doosare ko kaaran samajh lete hain. soorya ke chamakane se prakaash ki sadaiv praapti hai, avashya; parantu isse ek ko kaaran aur doosare ko kaarya kaise kaha ja sakta hai? vaastav mein donon ke madhya kisi bhi 'kaaran sambandh' ka anubhav naheen hota. iseeliye hyoom ke mataanusaar kaarya poornataya kaaran se bhinn hai aur unhein ek ko doosare mein sannihit samajhna moorkhata hai. 'prakruti samaroopata' aur 'kaaranata' ka udbhav manovaigyaanik prushthabhoomi se hota hai. doosare shabdon mein yon kahein ki inka bhaavapaksh hi pradhaan hai, vishyapaksh naheen.

'kaaranata' ke sadrush hi dravya (Substance) mein aastha rakhana bhramapoorn hai. kisi bhi vastu mein vibhinn gunon ke atirikt aur kuchh bhi naheen hai. 'ye gun kisi 'aashray' (Support) mein hain,' aisa samajhna uchit naheen. is prakaar ke 'aashray' ka gyaan anubhav ke pare hai. kisi vastu se ek ek kar yadi anyaanya gunon ko hataaya jaae to ant mein shoonyata hi shesh rahati hai. at: dravya ka astitv dantakatha maatr hai. is prakaar hyoom ke vichaar mein 'kaaranata' ke samaan hi dravya mein vishvaas ka hetu aatmagat abhyaas hai, jise bhramavash vishyagat banaaya jaata hai.

bhautik dravya ki bhaaainti hi hyoom maanasik dravya ko bhi naheen maanate. unke anusaar aatma ya man anubhavon ke ekeekaran ke alaava aur kuchh naheen hai. man ek rangamanch maatr hi hai jahaaain bhaav, vichaar, anubhav ityaadi maanasik vyavasthaaeain nrutya karti dikhaai deti hain; parantu vah man bhi svat: anubhav se pare rahata hai. in maanasik vichaaron ka 'aashray' man ya aatma hai, iski pushti anubhav se katai naheen hoti.

dharm ke sambandh mein hyoom ki dhaarana hai ki iski utpatti manushya ki aadhyaatmik prushthabhoomi se naheen balki bhautik parivesh se hoti hai. iska aadhaar samvedna hai, bhaavana naheen. maanavasvabhaav dharm ka utprerak avashya hai, par vah svabhaav buddhi par aadhaarit naheen hai, anubhav se poshit hai. is svabhaav ka sanchaalan maanasik chintan se naheen hota, bhaya aur shaareerik sukh se niyantrit hota hai. yeh aasha aur utsukata hi hai jo adrushya shakti mein aastha utpann karti hai aur usase bhavishya mein mangal hone ki kaamna ko janm deti hai.

dharm ki dhaarana ke samaan hi hyoom ne anubhavaagochar ishvar ka bhi khandan kiya. praakrut vastuon ko dekhkar unke kaaran ki jijnyaaasa svaabhaavik hai. parantu sansaar ko kaarya maankar usaka kaaran ishvar ko maan lena anubhav ke pare hai. vaastav mein kaaryakaaran-bhaav tatha uske dvaara ishvar mein aastha ka bodh svaabhaavik naheen hai. nishchaya hi jo anubhav se pare hai use na ham jaan sakte hain aur na siddh hi kar sakte hain. yeh sahi hai ki hyoom ne ishvar ke astitv mein avishvaas naheen kiya, parantu ve ant tak kehte rahe ki usaka gyaan sambhav naheen hai. is prakaar hyoom ne darshan ke kshetr mein apne ko sameecheen sanshayavaadi siddh kiya.

sandarbh

  1. Fisher 2011, pa॰ 527–528.

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