Chhattisgarh

Chhattisgarh

भारत के मानचित्र पर छत्तीसगढ़

Bhaarat ke praant
rajdhani Raipur
sabse bada shahar Raipur
janasankhya 2,55,40,196
- ghanatv 189 /kimee²
kshetrafal 1,35,191 kimee²
- jile
raajabhaasha(eain) hindi, chhatteesagadhi
pratishtha 1 November 2000
- raajyapaal balaraam das Tandon
- mukhyamantri raman Singh (bhaajap)
- vidhaanasabha ek sabha (90 sit)
aaiesao sankshep IN-CTh
http://cgstate.gov.in

Chhattisgarh Bhaarat ka ek raajya hai. Chhattisgarh raajya ka gathan 1 November 2000 ko hua tha. yeh Bhaarat ka 26vaan raajya hai. Bhaarat mein do kshetr aise hain jinka naam vishesh kaaranon se badal gaya - ek to 'magadh' jo bauddh vihaaron ki adhikta ke kaaran "Bihar" ban gaya aur doosra 'dakshin kaushal' jo chhattees gadhon ko apne mein samaahit rakhane ke kaaran "Chhattisgarh" ban gaya. kintu ye donon hi kshetr atyant praacheen kaal se hi Bhaarat ko gauravaanvit karte rahe hain. "Chhattisgarh" to vaidik aur pauraanik kaal se hi vibhinn sanskrutiyon ke vikaas ka kendra raha hai. yahaaain ke praacheen mandir tatha unke bhagnaavashesh ingit karte hain ki yahaaain par vaishnav, shaiv, shaakt, bauddh ke saath hi anek aarya tatha anaarya sanskrutiyon ka vibhinn kaalon mein prabhaav raha hai.

anukram

Chhattisgarh ka bhoogol

Chhattisgarh ke uttar mein uttar pradesh aur uttar-pashchim mein Madhya Pradesh ka shahadol sanbhaag, uttar-poorv mein udeesa aur Jharkhand, dakshin mein telangaana aur pashchim mein Maharashtra raajya sthit hain. yeh pradesh ooainchi neechi parvat shreniyon se ghira hua ghane jangalon wala raajya hai. yahaaain saal, saagaun, saaja aur beeja aur baaains ke vrukshon ki adhikta hai. yahaaain sabse jyaada misrit van paaya jaata hai. saagaun ki kuchh unnat kism bhi chhatteesagad k vano mein paayi jaati hai. Chhattisgarh kshetr ke beech mein mahaanadi aur usaki sahaayak nadiyaaain ek vishaal aur upajaaoo maidaan ka nirmaan karti hain, jo lagbhag 80 ki॰mee॰ chauda aur 322 ki॰mee॰ lamba hai. samudra satah se yeh maidaan kareeb 300 meter ooaincha hai. is maidaan ke pashchim mein mahaanadi tatha shivnaath ka doaab hai. is maidaani kshetr ke bheetar hain Raipur, durg aur bilaasapur jile ke dakshini bhaag. dhaan ki bharpoor paidaavaar ke kaaran ise dhaan ka katora bhi kaha jaata hai. maidaani kshetr ke uttar mein hai maikal parvat shrunkhala. saraguja ki uchchatam bhoomi ishaan kon mein hai. poorv mein udeesa ki chhoti-badi pahaadiyaaain hain aur aagneya mein sihaava ke parvat shrung hai. dakshin mein bastar bhi giri-maalaaon se bhara hua hai. Chhattisgarh ke teen praakrutik khand hain : uttar mein satapuda, madhya mein mahaanadi aur usaki sahaayak nadiyon ka maidaani kshetr aur dakshin mein bastar ka pathaar. raajya ki pramukh nadiyaaain hain - mahaanadi, shivnaath, khaarun, arapa, pairi tatha indraavati nadi.[1]

Chhattisgarh ka itihaas

Chhattisgarh praacheenakaal ke dakshin koshal ka ek hissa hai aur iska itihaas pauraanik kaal tak peechhe ki or chala jaata hai. pauraanik kaal ka 'koshal' pradesh, kaalaantar mein 'uttar koshal' aur 'dakshin koshal' naam se do bhaagon mein vibhkt ho gaya tha isi ka 'dakshin koshal' vartamaan Chhattisgarh kahalaata hai. is kshetr ke mahaanadi (jiska naam us kaal mein 'chitrotpala' tha) ka matsya puraan[k], mahaabhaarat[kh] ke bheeshm parv tatha brahm puraan[g] ke bhaaratavarsh varnan prakaran mein ullekh hai. vaalmeeki raamaayan mein bhi Chhattisgarh ke beehad vanon tatha mahaanadi ka spasht vivran hai. sthit sihaava parvat ke aashram mein nivaas karne vaale shrrungi rishi ne hi ayodhya mein raaja dasharath ke yahaaain putryeshti yagya karavaaya tha jisse ki teenon bhaaiyon sahit Bhagwan shri Ram ka pruthvi par avataar hua. Ram ke kaal mein yahaaain ke vanon mein rishi-muni-tapasvi aashram bana kar nivaas karte the aur apne vanavaas ki avadhi mein Ram yahaaain aaye the.

itihaas mein iske praacheenatam ullekh san 639 i0 mein prasiddh cheeni yaatri hmavenasaang ke yaatra vivran mein milte hain. unki yaatra vivran mein likha hai ki dakshin-kausal ki rajdhani sirpur thi. bauddh dharm ki mahaayaan shaakha ke sansthaapak bodhistv naagaarjun ka aashram sirpur (shreepur) mein hi tha. is samay Chhattisgarh par saatavaahan vansh ki ek shaakha ka shaasan tha. mahaakavi kaalidaas ka janm bhi Chhattisgarh mein hua maana jaata hai. praacheen kaal mein dakshin-kausal ke naam se prasiddh is pradesh mein mauryon, saatavaahanon, vakaatakon, gupton, raajarshitulya kul, sharabhapureeya vanshon, somavanshiyon, nal vanshiyon, kalachuriyon ka shaasan tha. Chhattisgarh mein kshetreeya raajavansho ka shaasan bhi kai jagahon par maujood tha. kshetriya raajavanshon mein pramukh the: bastar ke nal aur naag vansh, kaanker ke somavanshi aur kavardha ke fani-naag vanshi. bilaasapur jile ke paas sthit kavardha riyaasat mein chaura naam ka ek mandir hai jise log mandava-mahal bhi kaha jaata hai. is mandir mein san 1349 E. ka ek shilaalekh hai jismein naag vansh ke raajaaon ki vanshaavali di gayi hai. naag vansh ke raaja raamachandr ne yeh lekh khudavaaya tha. is vansh ke pratham raaja ahiraaj kahe jaate hain. bhoramadev ke kshetr par is naagavansh ka raajatv 14 veen sadi tak kaayam raha.

Chhattisgarh ka vibhaajan

ek naye raajya Chhattisgarh ki shuruaati maang san 1920 me uthi. isi prakaar ki anek maangein uthati rahi lekin kabhi ek sangathit rup se koi maang nahi ki gayi. sangathit rup se pruthak Chhattisgarh raajya ki sarvapratham 1924 mein Raipur ki Congress yooneet dvaara ki gayi aur baad me tripura me bhaarateeya Congress ki vaarshik satr me charcha ki gayi. ek kshetreeya Congress sangathan banaane ki bhi maang uthi.

saahitya

Chhattisgarh saahityik parampara ke pariprekshya mein ati samruddh pradesh hai. is janapad ka lekhan hindi saahitya ke sunahare prushthon ko puraatan samay se sajaata-sanvaarata raha hai.[2] chhatteesagadhi aur avadhi donon ka janm ardhamaagadhi ke garbh se aaj se lagbhag 1080 varsh poorv naveen-dasveen shataabdi mein hua tha."[3]

bhaasha saahitya par aur saahitya bhaasha par avalanbit hote hai. iseeliye bhaasha aur saahitya saath-saath panapate hai. parantu ham dekhte hai ki chhatteesagadhi likhit saahitya ke vikaas ateet mein spasht rup mein naheen hui hai. anek lekhakon ka mat hai ki iska kaaran yeh hai ki ateet mein yahaaain ke lekhakon ne sanskrut bhaasha ko lekhan ka maadhyam banaaya aur chhatteesagadhi ke prati jra udaaseen rahe. iseeliye chhatteesagadhi bhaasha mein jo saahitya racha gaya, vah kareeb ek hajaar saal se hua hai.

anek saahityako ne is ek hajaar varsh ko is prakaar vibhaajit kiya hai :

  • chhatteesagadhi gaatha yug:san 1000 se 1500 E. tak
  • chhatteesagadhi bhakti yug - madhya kaal, san 1500 se 1900 E. tak
  • chhatteesagadhi aadhunik yug: san 1900 se aaj tak

yeh vibhaajan kisi pravrutti ki saapekshik adhikta ko dekhkar kiya gaya hai. ek aur ullekhaneeya bat yeh hai ki doosare aaryabhaashaaon ke jaise chhatteesagadhi mein bhi madhyayug tak sirf padyaatmak rachanaaeain hui hai.

sanskruti

aadivaasi kala kaafi puraani hai. pradesh ki aadhikaarik bhaasha hindi hai aur lagbhag sampoorn janasankhya usaka prayog karti hai. pradesh ki aadivaasi janasankhya hindi ki ek upabhaasha chhatteesagadhi bolti hai.

mahuaa
salfi se taiyaar prasidd bastar beer
Chhattisgarh mein teindoo patta ekatran

lokageet aur lokanrutya

Chhattisgarh ki sanskruti mein geet evam nrutya ka bahut mahatva hai. yahaaain ke lokageeton mein vividhta hai. geet aakaar mein amooman chhote aur geya hote hai evam geeton ka praanatatv hai -- bhaav pravanata. Chhattisgarh ke pramukh aur lokapriya geeton mein se kuchh hain: bhojali, pandavaani, jas geet, bharathari lokagaatha, baaains geet, gaoora gaoori geet, suaa geet, devaar geet, karama, dadariya, danda, faag, chanauni, Raut geet aur panthi geet. inmein se suaa, karama, danda va panthi geet naach ke saath gaaye jaate hain.

khel

chhatteesagadhi baal khelon mein atakan-batakan lokapriya saamoohik khel hai. is khel mein bachche aangan parachhi mein baithakar, golaakaar ghera banaate hai. ghera banaane ke baad jameen mein haathon ke panje rakh dete hai. ek ladka aguva ke rup mein apne daahine haath ki tarjani un ulte panjon par baari-baari se chhuaata hai. geet ki antim anguli jiski hatheli par samaapt hota vah apni hatheli seedheekar leta hai. is kram mein jab sabki hatheli seedhe ho jaate hai, to antim bachcha geet ko aage badhaata hai. is geet ke baad ek doosare ke kaan pakadkar geet gaate hai.

fugadi

baalikaaon dvaara khela jaane wala fugadi lokapriya khel hai. chaar, chh: ladkiyaan ikattha hokar, oonkharu baithakar baari-baari se loch ke saath pair ko panjon ke dvaara aage-peechhe chalaati hai. thakakar ya saans bharne se jis khilaadi ke paanv chalne ruk jaata hai vah hat jaati hai.

langadi

yeh vruddhi chaaturth aur chaalaaki ka khel hai. yeh chhoo chhuoval ki bhaanti khela jaata hai. ismein khilaadi Andy modkar baith jaate hai aur hatheli ghutanon par rakh lete hai. jo bachcha haath rakhane mein peechhe hota hai beech mein uthakar kehta hai -

khuduva (kabaddi)

khudva paali dar paali kabaddi ki bhaanti khela jaane wala khel hai. dal banaane ke iske niyam kabaddi se bhinn hai. do khilaadi aguva ban jaate hai. shesh khilaadi jodi mein gupt naam dhar kar aguva khilaadiyon ke paas jaate hai - chatak ja kehne par ve apna gupt naam bataate hai. naam chayan ke aadhaar par dal ban jaata hai. ismein nirnaayak ki bhoomika naheen hoti, saamoohik nirnaya liya jaata hai.

daandi pauha

daandi pauha gol ghere mein khela jaane wala sparddhaatmak khel hai. gali mein ya maidaan mein lakdi se gol ghera bana diya jaata hai. khilaadi dal gol ghere ke bheetar rahate hai. ek khilaadi gole se baahar rahata hai. khilaadiyon ke beech laya baddh geet hota hai. geet ki samaapti par baahar ki khilaadi bheetar ke khilaadi kisi lakade ke naam lekar pukaarata hai. naam bolte hi shesh gol ghere se baahar aa jaate hai aur sanket ke saath baahar aur bheetar ke khilaadi ek dusare ko apni or karne ke liye bal lagaate hai, jo kheenchne mein safal hota vah jeetata hai. antim kram tak yeh sparddha chalta hai.

jaatiyaan

Chhattisgarh mॆn kai jaatiyaan aur janajaatiyaan hain. janaganana 2011 ke anusaar Chhattisgarh raajya ki kul janasankhya mein se 30.62 pratishat (78.22 lakh) janasankhya anusoochit janajaatiyon ki hai. gond, kanvar, uraanv, halba, bhatara, savara aadi pramukh janajaatiyau hai. aboojhamaadiya, kamaar, baiga, pahaadi korava tatha birhor raajya ke vishesh pichhdi janajaatiyaaain hai, inke atirikt anya janajaati samooh bhi hai, jinki janasankhya apekshaakrut kam hai.

jile

Chhattisgarh raajya gathan ke samay yahaaain sirf 16 jile the par baad mein 2 nae jilo ki ghoshana ki gayi. jo ki naaraayanapur va Bijapur the, par iske baad Chhattisgarh ke mukhyamantri Dr raman Singh ne 15 August 2011 ko 9 aur nae jilo ki aur ghoshana ki jo 1 January 2012 se astitv mein aa gaye, is tarah ab Chhattisgarh mein kul 27 jile hain. ...

sandarbh

  1. "Chhattisgarh" (echateeem). teedeeaaiel. http://tdil.mit.gov.in/CoilNet/IGNCA/chgr0002.htm#bhog. abhigman tithi: 2008.
  2. " chhatteesagadhi bhaasha ardhabhaagadhi ki duhita evam avadhi ki sahodara hai " (pru 21, prakaashak ravishankar vishvavidyaalaya, 1973). "
  3. dau॰ bholaanaath tibaari, apni pustak " hindi bhaasha" mein likhte hai - " chhatteesagadhi bhaasha bhaashiyon ki sankhya avadhi ki apeksha kaheen adhik hai aur is dru se yeh boli ke star ke oopar uthakar bhaasha ka svarup praapt karti hai."

teeka tippani

k. ^ "mandaakineedashaarna ch chitrakoota tathaiv ch.
tamasa pippaleeshyeni tatha chitrotpalaapi ch.."
matsyapuraan - bhaaratavarsh varnan prakaran - 50/25)

kh. ^ "chitrotpala" chitrarathaan manjulaan vaahini tatha.
mandaakineen vaitaraneen koshaan chaapi mahaanadeem.."
- mahaabhaarat - bheeshmaparv - 9/34

g. ^ "chitrotpala vetravapi karamoda pishaachika.
tathaanyaatilghushroni vipaaya shevala nadi.."
brahmapuraan - bhaaratavarsh varnan prakaran - 19/31)

yeh bhi dekhein

chhatteesagadh ke pramukh paryatan s‍aathal

baahari kadiyaaain