Bhojpuri bhaasha

Bhojpuri
Bhojpuri bhōaajapurī
150px
The word "Bhojpuri" in Devanagari script
bolne ka sthaan:

Bhaarat, Nepal, maureeshas, sooreenaam

luptapraaya bhaasha guyaana aur Trinidad aur Tobago mein

suruvaat: 2001 ki janaganana
prayog kshetr: Bihar, uttar pradesh, Jharkhand
maatrubhaashaaprayogakarta: 7 karod
bhaasha parivaar:
hind-Europeeya
  • Indo-Iranian
    • Indo-Aryan
      • Eastern
        • Bihari
          • Bhojpuri
shaakha bhaasha:
Caribbean Hindustani (including Sarnami Hindi)
Mauritian Hindi
Northern (Gorakhpuri, Sarawaria, Basti)
Western (Purbi, Benarsi)
Southern (Kharwari)
Tharu Bhojpuri
Madhesi
Domra
Musahari
lipi devanaagari (vartamaan), kaithi (aitihaasik)[1]
raajabhaasha maanyata
niyntrak sanstha: koi sangathan naheen
bhaasha code:
aaiesao 639-2 bho
aaiesao 639-3 bho – Macrolanguage
individual code:
hnskairebiyaai hindustaani
bhaashaavedhashaala 59-AAF-sa

bhaashaai parivaar ke star par Bhojpuri ek aarya bhaasha hai aur mukhya rup se pashchim Bihar aur poorvi uttar pradesh tatha uttari jhaarakhand ke kshetr mein boli jaati hai. aadhikaarik aur vyavahaarik roop se Bhojpuri hindi ki ek upabhaasha ya boli hai. Bhojpuri apne shabdaavali ke liye mukhyat: sanskrut evam hindi par nirbhar hai kuchh shabd isne urdoo se bhi grahan kiye hain. Bhojpuri jaanane-samajhne vaalon ka vistaar vishv ke sabhi mahaadveepon par hai jiska kaaran british raaj ke dauraan uttar Bhaarat se angrejon dvaara le jaaye gaye majadoor hain jinke vanshaj ab jahaaain unke poorvaj gaye the vaheen bas gaye hain. iname soorinaam, guyaana, Trinidad aur Tobago, fiji aadi desh pramukh hai. Bhaarat ke janaganana (2001) aankadon ke anusaar Bhaarat mein lagbhag 3.3 karod log Bhojpuri bolte hain. poore vishv mein Bhojpuri jaanane vaalon ki sankhya lagbhag 5 karod hai.

anukram

bhaugolik vargeekaran

dau॰ griyrsan ne bhaarateeya bhaashaaon ko antarang or bahirang in do shreniyon mein vibhkt kiya hai jismein bahirang ke antargat unhonne teen pradhaan shaakhaaeain sveekaar ki hain -

  • (1) uttar pashchimi shaakha
  • (2) dakshini shaakha aur
  • (3) poorvi shaakha.

is antim shaakha ke antargat udiya, asami, baingla aur purabiya bhaashaaon ki ganana ki jaati hai. purabiya bhaashaaon mein maithili, magahi aur Bhojpuri - ye teen boliyaaain maani jaati hain. kshetravistaar aur bhaashaabhaashiyon ki sankhya ke aadhaar par Bhojpuri apni bahanon maithili aur magahi mein sabse badi hai.

naamakaran

Bhojpuri bhaasha ka naamakaran Bihar raajya ke aara (shaahaabaad) jile mein sthit bhojapur naamak gaaainv ke naam par hua hai. poorvavarti aara jile ke baksar sab-divijn (ab baksar alag jila hai) mein bhojapur naam ka ek bada paragana hai jismein "navaka bhojapur" aur "puranaka bhojapur" do gaaainv hain. madhya kaal mein is sthaan ko madhya pradesh ke ujjain se aae bhojavanshi paramaar raajaaon ne basaaya tha. unhonne apni is rajdhani ko apne poorvaj raaja bhoj ke naam par bhojapur rakha tha. isi kaaran iske paas boli jaane waali bhaasha ka naam "Bhojpuri" pad gaya.

Bhojpuri bhaasha ka itihaas 7veen sadi se shuroo hota hai - 1000 se adhik saal puraani! guru gorakh naath 1100 varsh mein gorakh baani likha tha. sant kabeer das (1297) ka janmadivs Bhojpuri diwas ke roop mein Bhaarat mein sveekaar kiya gaya hai aur vishv Bhojpuri diwas ke roop mein manaaya jaata hai.

kshetravistaar

Bhojpuri bhaasha pradhaanataya pashchimi Bihar, poorvi uttar pradesh tatha uttari jhaarakhand ke kshetron mein boli jaati hai.

mukhyarup se Bhojpuri bole jaane vaale jile-

Bhojpuri bhaasha ki pradhaan boliyaaain

(1) aadarsh Bhojpuri,

(2) pashchimi Bhojpuri aur

(3) anya do upaboliyaaain (sab daailekts) "maghesi" tatha "thaaru" ke naam se prasiddh hain.

aadarsh Bhojpuri

jise dau॰ griyrsan ne standard Bhojpuri kaha hai vah pradhaanataya Bihar raajya ke aara jila aur uttar pradesh ke baliya, Gazipur jile ke poorvi bhaag aur ghaaghara (sarayoo) evam gandak ke doaab mein boli jaati hai. yeh ek lanbein bhoobhaag mein faili hui hai. ismein anek sthaaneeya vishetaaeain pai jaati hai. jahaaain shaahaabaad, baliya aur Gazipur aadi dakshini jilon mein "d" ka prayog kiya jaata hai vahaaain uttari jilon mein "t" ka prayog hota hai. is prakaar uttari aadarsh Bhojpuri mein jahaaain "baate" ka prayog kiya jaata hai vahaaain dakshini aadarsh Bhojpuri mein "baade" prayukt hota hai. Gorakhpur ki Bhojpuri mein "mohan ghar mein baatein" kehte parantu baliya mein "mohan ghar mein baadein" bola jaata hai.

poorvi Gorakhpur ki bhaasha ko 'gorakhapuri' kaha jaata hai parantu pashchimi Gorakhpur aur basti jile ki bhaasha ko "saravariya" naam diya gaya hai. "saravariya" shabd "saruaar" se nikla hua hai jo "sarayoopaar" ka apabhransh roop hai. "saravariya" aur gorakhapuri ke shabdon - visheshat: sanjnyaa shabdon- ke prayog mein bhinnata pai jaati hai.

baliya (uttar pradesh) aur saaran (Bihar) in donon jilon mein 'aadarsh Bhojpuri' boli jaati hai. parantu kuchh shabdon ke uchchaaran mein thoda antar hai. saaran ke log "d" ka uchchaaran "r" karte hain. jahaaain baliya nivaasi "ghodaagaadi aavat ba" kehta hai, vahaaain chhapra ya saaran ka nivaasi "ghora gaari aavat ba" bolata hai. aadarsh Bhojpuri ka nitaant nikhra roop baliya aur aara jile mein bola jaata hai.

pashchimi Bhojpuri

jaunapur, aajamagadh, banaaras, Gazipur ke pashchimi bhaag aur mirjaapur mein boli jaati hai. aadarsh Bhojpuri aur pashchimi Bhojpuri mein bahut adhik antar hai. pashchimi Bhojpuri mein aadar soochak ke liye "tuainh" ka prayog deekh padta hai parantu aadarsh Bhojpuri mein iske liye "raura" prayukt hota hai. sanpradaan kaarak ka parasarg (pratyaya) in donon boliyon mein bhinn-bhinn paaya jaata hai. aadarsh Bhojpuri mein sanpradaan kaarak ka pratyaya "laagi" hai parantu Varanasi ki pashchimi Bhojpuri mein iske liye "bade" ya "vaaste" ka prayog hota hai. udaaharanaarth :

pashchimi Bhojpuri -

ham kharamitaav kaili ha rahila chabaaya ke.
bheinval dharal ba doodh mein khaaja tore bade..
jaaneela aajkal mein jhanaajhan chali raja.
laathi, lohaaaingi, khanjar aur bichhuaa tore bade.. (teg Ali-badmaash daparn)

madhesi

madhesi shabd sanskrut ke "madhya pradesh" se nikla hai jiska arth hai beech ka desh. chooainki yeh boli tirhut ki maithili boli aur Gorakhpur ki Bhojpuri ke beechavaale sthaanon mein boli jaati hai, at: iska naam madhesi (arthaat vah boli jo in dono ke beech mein boli jaaye) pad gaya hai. yeh boli Champaran jile mein boli jaati aur praaya: "kaithi lipi" mein likhi jaati hai.

"thaaroo" log Nepal ki taraai mein rahate hain. ye baharaaich se Champaran jile tak paae jaate hain aur Bhojpuri bolte hain. yeh vishesh ullekhaneeya baat hai ki gonda aur baharaaich jile ke thaaroo log Bhojpuri bolte hain jabki vahaaain ki bhaasha poorvi hindi (avadhi) hai. haugsan ne is bhaasha ke upar prachur prakaash daala hai.

Bhojpuri jan evam saahitya

Bhojpuri bahut hi sundar, saras, tatha madhur bhaasha hai. Bhojpuri bhaashaabhaashiyon ki sankhya Bhaarat ki samruddh bhaashaaon- baingala, gujaraati aur maraathi aadi bolanevaalon se kam naheen hai. in drushtiyon se is bhaasha ka mahatva bahut adhik hai aur iska bhavishya ujjaval tatha gauravashaali prateet hota hai.

Bhojpuri bhaasha mein nibddh saahitya yadyapi abhi prachur parimaan mein naheen hai tathaapi anek saras kavi aur adhikaari lekhak iske bhandaar ko bharne mein sanlagn hain. bhojapuriya-Bhojpuri pradesh ke nivaasi logon ko apni bhaasha se bada prem hai. anek patrapatrikaaeain tatha granth ismein prakaashit ho rahe hain tatha Bhojpuri saanskrutik sammelan, Varanasi iske prachaar mein sanlagn hai. vishv Bhojpuri sammelan samay-samay par aandolanaatm, rachanaatmak aur baiddhik teen staron par Bhojpuri bhaasha, saahitya aur sanskruti ke vikaas mein nirantar juta hua hai. vishv Bhojpuri sammelan se granth ke saath-saath traimaasik 'samakaaleen Bhojpuri saahitya' patrika ka prakaashan ho rahe hain. vishv Bhojpuri sammelan, Bhaarat hi naheen global star par bhi Bhojpuri bhaasha aur saahitya ko sahejane aur iske prachaar-prasaar mein laga hua hai. devariya (UP), Delhi, Mumbai, kolakata, port luis (maareeshas), sooreenaam, dakshin Africa, England aur America mein iski shaakhaaen kholi ja chuki hain.

sanskrut se hi nikli Bhojpuri

aachaarya hawaldaar tripaathi "sahmadaya" lambe samay tak anveshan kaarya karke is nishkarsh par pahuainche ki Bhojpuri sanskrut se hi nikli hai. unke kosh-granth ('vyutpatti moolak Bhojpuri ki dhaatu aur kriyaaen') mein maatr 761 dhaatuon ki khoj unhonne ki hai, jinka vistaar "dh" varn tak hua hai. is prabandh ke adhyayan se gyaat hota hai ki 761 padon ki mool dhaatu ki vaigyaanik nirmaan prakriya mein paanini sootr ka aksharash: anupaalan hua hai.

is kosh-granth mein varnit vishay par ek najar daalne se Bhojpuri tatha sanskrut bhaasha ke madhya samaanata spasht parilkshit hoti hai. vastut: Bhojpuri-bhaasha sanskrut-bhaasha ke ati nikat aur sanskrut ki hi bhaanti vaigyaanik bhaasha hai. Bhojpuri-bhaasha ke dhaatuon aur kriyaaon ka vaakya-prayog vishay ko aur adhik spasht kar deta hai. praamaanikta hetu sanskrut vyaakaran ko bhi saath-saath prastut kar diya gaya hai. is granth ki visheshata yeh hai ki ismein Bhojpuri-bhaasha ke dhaatuon aur kriyaaon ki vyutpatti ko srot sanskrut-bhaasha evam uske maanak vyaakaran se liya gaya hai.

sandarbh

  1. Bhojpuri Ethnologue World Languages (2009)

baahari kadiyaaain