Bhagwat puraan

shreemadbhaagavat
भागवत.gif
geetaapres Gorakhpur ka aavaran prushth
lekhak vedavyaas
desh Bhaarat
bhaasha sanskrut
shrrunkhala puraan
vishay shreekrushn bhakti
prakaar pramukh vaishnav granth
prushth 18,000 shlok
san 1500 mein likhit ek Bhagwat puraan me yashoda Krishna ko snaan karaate hue

Bhagwat puraan hinduon ke atthaarah puraanon mein se ek hai. ise shreemadbhaagavatam ya keval bhaagavatam bhi kehte hain. iska mukhya varnya vishay bhakti yog hai, jisme Krishna ko sabhi devon ka Dave ya swayam Bhagwan ke roop mein chitrit kiya gaya hai. iske atirikt is puraan mein ras bhaav ki bhakti ka nirupan bhi kiya gaya hai. paramparaagat taur par is puraan ka rachayita ved vyaas ko maana jaata hai.

shreemadabhaagavat bhaarateeya vaaङamaya ka mukutamani hai. Bhagwan shukadev dvaara mahaaraaj pareekshit ko sunaaya gaya bhaktimaarg to maano sopaan hi hai. iske pratyek shlok mein shreekrushn-premaki sugandhi hai. ismein saadhan-gyaan, siddhajnyaaan, saadhan-bhakti, siddha-bhakti, maryaada-maarg, anugrah-maarg, dvait, advait samanvaya ke saath preranaadaayi vividh upaakhyaanon ka adbhut sangrah hai.[1]

anukram

parichay

ashtaadash puraanon mein Bhagwat nitaant mahatvapoorn tatha prakhyaat puraan hai. puraanon ki ganana mein Bhagwat ashtam puraan ke roop mein parigruheet kiya jaata hai (Bhagwat 12.7.23). Bhagwat puraan mein maharshi soot Goswami unke samaksh prastut saadhuon ko ek katha sunaate hain. saadhu log unase vishnu ke vibhinn avataaron ke baare mein prashn poochhate hain. sut Goswami kehte hain ki yeh katha unhone ek doosare rishi shukadev se suni thi. ismein kul baarah sakandh hain. pratham kaand mein sabhi avataaron ko saaraansh roop mein varnan kiya gaya hai.

aajkal 'Bhagwat' aakhya dhaaran karanevaale do puraan upalabdh hote hain :

at: in donon mein puraan koti me kiski ganana apekshit hai ? is prashn ka samaadhaan aavashyak hai.

vividh prakaar se sameeksha karne par: yahi prateet hota hai ki shreemadbhaagavat ko hi puraan maanana chaahiye tatha deveebhaagavat ko upapuraan ki koti mein rakhana uchit hai. shreemadbhaagavat deveebhaagavat ke svaroopanirdesh ke vishay mein maun hai. parantu deveebhaagavat 'Bhagwat' ki ganana upapuraanon ke antargat karta hai (1.3.16) tatha apne aapko puraanon ke antargat. deveebhaagapancham skandh mein varnit bhuvanakosh shreemadbhaagavat ke pancham skandh mein prastut is vishay ka aksharash: anukaran karta hai. shreebhaagavat mein bhaaratavarsh ki mahima ke pratipaadak aathon shlok (5.9.21-28) devi Bhagwat mein aksharash: usi kram mein uddhrut hain (8.11.22-29). donon ke varnanon mein antar itna hi hai ki shreemadbhaagavat jahaaain vaigyaanik vishay ke vivran ke nimitt gadya ka naisargik maadhyam pakadta hai, vahaaain vishishtata ke pradarshanaarth deveebhaagavat padya ke krutrim maadhyam ka prayog karta hai.

shreemadbhaagavat bhaktirs tatha adhyaatmajnyaaan ka samanvaya upasthit karta hai. Bhagwat nigmakalpataru ka svayanfal maana jaata hai jise naishthik brahmachaari tatha brahmajnyaaani maharshi shuk ne apni madhur vaani se sanyukt kar amrutamaya bana daala hai. swayam Bhagwat mein kaha gaya hai-

sarvavedaantasaaran hi shreebhaagavatamishyate .
tadrasaamrutatruptasya naanyatr syaadrati: kvachit .
shreemadbhaagvatam sarv vedaant ka saar hai. us rasaamrut ke paan se jo trupt ho gaya hai, use kisi anya jagah par koi rati naheen ho sakti. (arthaat use kisi anya vastu mein aanand naheen aa sakta.)

Bhagwat ki teekaaeain

'vidyaavataan bhaagavate pareeksha' : Bhagwat vidvatta ki kasauti hai aur isi kaaran teekaasanpatti ki drushti se bhi yeh atulaneeya hai. vibhinn vaishnav sanpradaaya ke vidvaanon ne apne vishisht mat ki upapatti tatha paripushti ke nimitt Bhagwat ke oopar svasiddhaantaanuyaayi vyaakhyaaon ka pranayan kiya hai jinmein kuchh teekaakaaron ka yahaaain sankshipt sanket kiya ja raha hai:

deshakaal ka prashn

Bhagwat ke deshakaal ka yathaarth nirnaya abhi tak naheen ho paaya hai. ekaadash skandh mein (5.38-40) kaaveri, taamraparni, krutamaala aadi draviddesheeya nadiyon ke jal peenevaale vyaktiyon ko bhagavaan‌ vaasudev ka amalaashaya bhakt batalaaya gaya hai. ise vidvaan‌ log tamil desh ke aalavaaron (vaishnavabhakton) ka spasht sanket maanate hain. Bhagwat mein dakshin desh ke vaishnav teerthon, nadiyon tatha parvaton ke vishisht sanket hone se katipya vidvaan‌ tamildesh ko iske udaya ka sthaan maanate hain.

kaal ke vishay mein bhi paryaapt matabhed hai. itna nishchit hai ki bopadev (13veen shataabdi ka uttaraardh, jinhonne Bhagwat se sambaddh 'harileelaamrut', 'muktaafal' tatha 'paramahansapriya' ka pranayan kiya tatha jinke aashrayadaata, devagiri ke Yadav raaja thi), mahaadev (san‌ 1260-71) tatha raaja raamachandr (san‌ 1271-1309) ke karanaadhipti tatha mantri, prakhyaat dharmashaastri hemaadri ne apne 'chaturvarg chintaamani' mein Bhagwat ke anek vachan udhrut kiye hain, Bhagwat ke rachayita naheen maane ja sakte. shankaraachaarya ke daada guru gaudapaadaachaarya ne apne 'pancheekaranavyaakhya' mein 'jagruhe paurushan roopam‌' (bha. 1.3.1) tatha 'uttarageeta teeka' mein 'shreya: srutin bhakti mudasya te vibho' (bha. 10.14.4) Bhagwat ke do shlokon ko uddhrut kiya hai. isse Bhagwat ki rachana saptam shati se arvaacheen naheen maani ja sakti.

nimnalikhit taalika mein kuchh vidvaanon dvaara sujhaaya gaya Bhagwat puraan ka rachanaakaal diya gaya hai-

Bhagwat puraan ka kaalanirdhaaran[2]
anumaatit kaal shodhakarta tatha prakaashan prakaashan varsh
1200-1000 a. C. S. D. Gyani (Date of the Puranas, NIA 5, páaag. 132) 1943
900 a 800 a. C. Ramnarayan Vyas, en Bhāagavata-purana, páaag. 34-35 1974
200 se 300 V. R. Ramachandra Dikshitar (1896-1953), en The Purana index, páaag. 55: 1.xxix 1951
300 se 400 Ganesh Vasudeo Tagare, en Bhāagavata, páaag. 1.xxxiv-xxxvii 1978
400 se 500 B. N. Krishnamurti Sharma, en Bhāagavata-purana, páaags. 190-218 1933
400 se 500 Dra. T. S. Rukmani (1932-), en Bhāagavata-purana, páaag. 12-14 1970
500 se 550 R. C. Hazra (1905-1982) 1938
500 se 600 Bimanbehari Majumdar (n. 1900 aprox.), en Bhāagavata-purana, páaag. 384 1961
500 se 600 N. Ranganatha Sharma (1916-2014), en Bhāagavata-purana 1978
550 se 600 Ray (Bhāagavata-purana, páaag. 79) 1935
750 Gail (Bhāagavata-purana, páaag. 16) 1969
800 se 850 Nilakanta Sastri (1892-1975) (Bhāagavata-purana, páaag. 139)[3] 1941
800 se 900 Kane (Bhāagavata-purana, páaag. 899) 1962
800 se 900 Pargiter (Bhāagavata-purana, páaag. 80) 1922
800 se 900 Walter Elliot (1803-1887), en Bhāagavata-purana, introduccióaan 1921
800 se 1000 Daniel H. H. Ingalls (1916-1999), en Milton Singer (ed.): Krishna: Myths, Rites and Attitudes, prefacio, páaag. vi) 1966
850 se 900 T. Hopkins (en Singer, páaag. 6)[4] 1966
850 se 1000 R. K. Mukerjee (Lord of the Autumn Moons. Bombay: APH, páaag. 65-66) 1957
900 Bhaktivinoda Thakura (1838-1914), en el Sri Krisna-samhita (introduccióaan)[5] 1880
900 John Nicol Farquhar (An outline of the religious literature of India, páaag. 233)[6] 1920
900 Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan (1888-1975), en Indian philosophy, páaag. 2667
900 Wendy Doniger O'Flaherty (Bhāagavata-purana) 1974
950 Sharma (en Morgan, páaag. 38) 1953
950 Nilakanta Shastri (History of South India, páaag. 342).
900 se 1000 Vaidya (Bhāagavata-purana) 1925
900 se 1000 Moris Winternitz (1863-1937), páaag. 556 1925
900 se 1000 Moris Winternitz (1863-1937), páaag. 487 1963
1000 Surendranath Dasgupta (1887-1952) 1949
1000 R. G. Bhandarkar (1837-1925), páaag. 49 1913
1200 se 1300 Henry Thomas Colebrooke (1765-1837)
1200 se 1300 Horace Wilson (1786-1860)
1200 se 1300 Eugèane Burnouf (1801-1852)
1200 se 1300 Christian Lassen (1800-1876)
1200 se 1300 Arthur Macdonell (1854-1930)

prabhaav

Bhagwat ka prabhaav madhyayugeeya vaishnav sanpradaayon ke udaya mein nitaant kriyaasheel tha tatha Bhaarat ki praanteeya bhaashaaon ke Krishna kaavyon ke utthaan mein vishesh mahatvashaali tha. Bhagwat se hi sfoorti tatha prerana grahan kar brajabhaasha ke ashtachhaapi (sooradaas, nandadaas aadi), nimbaarki (shreebhatt tatha harivyaas), raadhaavallabheeya (hitharivansh tatha haridaas svaami) kaviyon ne brajabhaasha mein raadhaakrushn ki leelaaon ka gaayan kiya. mithila ke vidyaapati, Bengal ke chandeedaas, jnyaaanadaas tatha govindadaas, asam ke shankaradev tatha maadhavadev, utkal ke upendr bhanj tatha deenakrushnadaas, Maharashtra ke naamadev tatha maadhav pandit, Gujarat ke narasi Mehta tatha Rajasthan ki meeraabaai - in sabhi santon tatha kaviyon ne Bhagwat ke rasamaya varnan se prerana praapt kar raadhaakrushn ki kamaneeya keli ka gaayan apne vibhinn kaavyon mein kiya hai. tamil, Andhra, kannad tatha malayalam ke vaishnav kaviyon ke oopar bhi Bhagwat ka prabhaav bhi kam naheen hai.

Bhagwat ka aadhyaatmik drushtikon advaitavaad ka hai tatha saadhanaadrushti bhakti ki hai. is prakaar advait ke saath bhakti ka saamarasya Bhagwat ki apni vishishtata hai. inheen kaaranon se Bhagwat vaalmeekeeya raamaayan tatha mahaabhaarat ke saath sanskrut ki 'upajeevya' kaavyatrayi ke antarbhoot maana jaata hai.

sanrachana

Bhagwat mein 18 hajaar shlok, 335 adhyaaya tatha 12 skandh hain. iske vibhinn skandhon mein vishnu ke leelaavataaron ka varnan badi sukumaar bhaasha mein kiya gaya hai. parantu bhagavaan‌ Krishna ki lalit leelaaon ka vishd vivran prastut karanevaala dasham skandh Bhagwat ka hrudaya hai. anya puraanon mein, jaise vishnupuraan (pancham ansh), brahmavaivart (krushnajanm khand) aadi mein bhi Krishna ka charit‌ nibddh hai, parantu dasham skandh mein leelaapurushottam ka charit‌ jitni madhur bhaasha, komal padavinyaas tatha bhaktirs se aaplut hokar varnit hai vah adviteeya hai. raasapanchaadhyaayi (10.29-33) adhyaatm tatha saahitya ubhaya drushtiyon se kaavyajagat‌ mein ek anoothi vastu hai. venugeet (10.21), gopeegeet, (10.30), yugalageet (10.35), bhramarageet (10.47) ne Bhagwat ko kaavya ke udaatt star par pahuaincha diya hai.

Bhagwat ke 12 skand nimnalikhit hain-

skandh sankhya vivran
pratham skandh ismein bhaktiyog aur usase utpann evam use sthir rakhane wala vairaagya ka varnan kiya gaya hai.
dviteeya skandh brahmaand ki uttpatti evam usamein viraat purush ki sthiti ka svaroop.
truteeya skandh uddhav dvaara bhagavaan ka baal charitra ka varnan.
chaturth skandh raajarshi dhruv evam pruthu aadi ka charitra.
pancham skandh samudra, parvat, nadi, paataal, narak aadi ki sthiti.
shashth skandh devata, manushya, pashu, pakshi aadi ke janm ki katha.
saptam skandh hirnyakashyipu, hirnyaaksh ke saath prahalaad ka charitra.
ashtam skandh gajendr moksh, manvantar katha, vaaman avataar
navam skandh raajavanshon ka vivran. shreeraam ki katha.
dasham skandh bhagavaan shreekrushn ki anant leelaaen.
ekaadash skandh yadu vansh ka sanhaar.
dvaadash skandh vibhinn yugon tatha pralayon aur bhagavaan ke upaangon aadi ka svaroop.

chitraavali

sandarbh

  1. geetaapres daat kaam
  2. Tabla que se encuentra en el libro The Purāaṇaas, de Ludo Rocher.
  3. Kumar Das 2006
  4. Segúan The Advaitic theism of the Bhāagavata purāaṇaa, escrito por Daniel P. Sheridan.
  5. Bhaktivinoda Thakura: Sri Krisna-samhita, capíaatulo «aIntroduction» (1880). Mencionado en «aWhen was Bhagavatam written by Vyasadeva?», artíaaculo en el sitio web Veda Hare Krsna.
  6. John Nicol Farquhar: An outline of the religious literature of India. Oxford (Inglaterra), 1920.

sandarbh granth

  • svaami akhandaanand sarasvati : shreemadbhagavadrahasya, Mumbai, 1963
  • baladev upaadhyaaya : Bhagwat sanpradaaya, naagareeprachaarini sabha, kaashi san. 2010;
  • dau॰ siddheshvar Bhattacharya : filausafi ov shreemadbhaagavat‌, do khandon mein vishvabhaarati se prakaashit, 1960 tatha 1962

baahari kadiyaaain