Bhaarat rat‍aan

Bhaarat ratn
Bharat Ratna.jpg
sammaan ki jaankaari
prakaar naagrik
shreni sammaan
sthaapana varsh 1954
antim alankaran 2014
kul alankaran 45
alankaranakarta Bhaarat sarkaar
vivran ek peepal ke patte par soorya ki plaitinm chhavi
ke sang devanaagari lipi mein khuda hua Bhaarat ratn
pratham alankrut sarvapalli Radhakrishnan
antim alankrut madan mohan maalaveeya va atal bihaari Vajpayee
sammaan shreni
koi naheen ← Bhaarat ratnpadm vibhooshan

Bhaarat ratn Bhaarat ka sarvochch naagrik sammaan hai.[1][2][3] yeh sammaan raashtreeya seva ke liye diya jaata hai. in sevaaon mein kala, saahitya, vigyaan, saarvajanik seva aur khel shaamil hai. is sammaan ki sthaapana 2 January 1954 mein Bhaarat ke tatkaaleen raashtrapati shri raajeindr prasaad dvaara ki gayi thi. anya alankaranon ke samaan is sammaan ko bhi naam ke saath padavi ke roop mein prayukt naheen kiya ja sakta.[4] [5] praarambh mein is sammaan ko maranoparaant dene ka praavadhaan naheen tha, yeh praavadhaan 1955 mein baad mein joda gaya. tatpashchaat 13 vyaktiyon ko yeh sammaan maranoparaant pradaan kiya gaya. subhaash chandr Bose ko ghoshit sammaan vaapas liye jaane ke uparaant maranoparaant sammaan paane vaalon ki sankhya 12 maani ja sakti hai. ek varsh mein adhiktam teen vyaktiyon ko hi Bhaarat ratn diya ja sakta hai.[6]

ullekhaneeya yogadaan ke liye Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara diye jaane vaale sammaanon mein Bhaarat ratn ke pashchaat kramash: padm vibhooshan, padm bhooshan aur padmashri hain.

anukram

padak

mool roop mein is sammaan ke padak ka design 35 mimi golaakaar svarn maidal tha. jismein saamane soorya bana tha, oopar hindi mein Bhaarat ratn likha tha aur neeche pushp haar tha. aur peechhe ki taraf raashtreeya chinh aur moto tha. fir is padak ke dijaain ko badal kar taanbe ke bane peepal ke patte par platinum ka chamakata soorya bana diya gaya. jiske neeche chaaaindi mein likha rahata hai "Bhaarat ratn" aur yeh safed feete ke saath gale mein pahana jaata hai.

sammaanit vyaktitv

Bhaarat ratn padak
kram varsh naam jeevan
1. 1954 - Doctor sarvapalli Radhakrishnan (5 September, 188817 April, 1975)
2. 1954 - chakravarti raajagopaalaachaari (10 December, 1878 - 25 December, 1972)
3. 1954 - Doctor chan‍aadrashekhar Venkatraman (7 November, 1888 - 21 November, 1970)
4. 1955 - Doctor Bhagwan das (12 January, 1869 - 18 September, 1958)
5. 1955 - sar dau॰ mokshagundam vishveshvarayya (15 September, 1860 - 12 April, 1962)
6. 1955 - pan. Jawahar laal neharu (14 November, 1889 - 27 May, 1964)
7. 1957 - govind vallabh pant (10 September, 1887 - 7 March, 1961)
8. 1958 - dau॰ dhondo keshav karve (18 April, 18589 November, 1962)
9. 1961 - dau॰ bidhn chandra Roy (1 July, 1882 - 1 July, 1962)
10. 1961 - purooshottam das Tandon (1 August, 1882 - 1 July, 1962)
11. 1962 - dau॰ raajeindr prasaad (3 December, 1884 - 28 February, 1963)
12. 1963 - dau॰ jaakir husain (8 February, 1897 - 3 May, 1969)
13. 1963 - dau॰ paandurang vaaman kaane (1880-1972)
14. 1966 - laal bahaadur shaastri (2 October, 1904 - 11 January, 1966), maranoparaant
15. 1971 - indira gaaaindhi (19 November, 1917 - 31 October, 1984)
16. 1975 - varaahagiri veinkat giri (10 August, 1894 - 23 June, 1980)
17. 1976 - ke. kaamaraaj (15 July, 1903 - 1975), maranoparaant
18. 1980 - madar teresa (27 August, 1910 - 5 September, 1997)
19. 1983 - aachaarya vinoba bhaave (11 September, 1895 - 15 November, 1982), maranoparaant
20. 1987 - Khan abdul gaffaar Khan (1890 - 20 January, 1988), pehle gair-bhaarateeya
21. 1988 - M ji aar (17 January, 1917 - 24 December, 1987), maranoparaant
22. 1990 - dau॰ bheemaraav raamaji aanbedakar (14 April, 1891 - 6 December, 1956), maranoparaant
23. 1990 - nelsan mandela (18 July, 1918 - 5 December, 2013), doosare gair-bhaarateeya
24. 1991 - Rajiv Gandhi (20 August, 1944 - 21 May, 1991), maranoparaant
25. 1991 - sardaar vallabh bhaai Patel (31 October, 1875 - 15 December, 1950), maranoparaant
26. 1991 - moraaraji Desai (29 February, 1896 - 10 April, 1995)
27. 1992 - maulaana abul kalaam aajaad (11 November, 1888 - 22 February, 1958), maranoparaant
28. 1992 - J aar di tata (29 July, 1904 - 29 November, 1993)
29. 1992 - satyajeet re (2 May, 1921 - 23 April, 1992)
30. 1997 - abdul kalaam (15 October, 1931-27 July, 2015)
31. 1997 - gulajaari laal nanda (4 July, 1898 - 15 January, 1998)
32. 1997 - aruna asaaf Ali (16 July, 1909 - 29 July, 1996), maranoparaant
33. 1998 - M S subbulakshmi (16 September, 1916 - 11 December, 2004)
34. 1998 - si subraamaneeyam (30 January, 1910 - 7 November, 2000)
35. 1998 - jayaprakaash Narayan (11 October, 1902 - 8 October, 1979), maranoparaant
36. 1999 - pan. ravi shankar (7 April, 1920-12 December, 2012 )
37. 1999 - amrutya sen (3 November, 1933)
38. 1999 - gopeenaath boradoloi (1890-1950), maranoparaant
39. 2001 - lata mangeshakar (28 September, 1929)
40. 2001 - ustaad bismilla khaan (21 March, 1916 - 21 August, 2006)
41. 2008 - pan.bheemasen Joshi (4 February, 1922 -25 January, 2011)
42. 2013 see॰ ena॰ aara॰ Rao (30 June, 1934- ab tak), 16 November, 2013 ko ghoshit
43. 2013 sachin Tendulkar (24 April, 1973- ab tak), 16 November, 2013 ko ghoshit
44. 2014 atal bihaari Vajpayee (25 December, 1924- ab tak), 25 December, 2014 ko ghoshit
45. 2014 madan mohan maalaveeya (25 December, 1861- 12 November, 1946, maranoparaant, 25 December, 2014 ko ghoshit

1992 mein netaaji subhaashachandr Bose ko Bhaarat ratn se maranoparaant sammaanit kiya gaya tha. lekin unki mrutyu vivaadit hone ke kaaran puraskaar ke maranoparaant svaroop ko lekar prashn uthaaya gaya tha. iseeliye Bhaarat sarkaar ne yeh sammaan vaapas le liya. ukt sammaan vaapas liye jaane ka yeh ekamev udaaharan hai.

Bhaarat ke pratham shiksha mantri shri maulaana abul kalaam aajaad ko jab Bhaarat ratn dene ki baat aayi to unhonne jor dekar mana kar diya, kaaran ki jo log iski chayan samiti mein rahe hon, unako yeh sammaan naheen diya jaana chaahiye. baad mein 1992 mein unhein maranoparaant diya gaya.[7]

sandarbh

  1. paayali, moolamattom vaarke (1971). the kaunsteetyooshan of indiya. nai Delhi: S chaand end company li.. pp. 114. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 81-219-2203-8.
  2. mahaajan, viddaadhar (1971). the kaunsteetyooshan of indiya. Lucknow, uttar pradesh: istarn book company. pp. 169.
  3. hoebarg, Dale; indu raamachandaani (2000). stoodents britainika indiya. nai Delhi: britainika vishvakosh (Bhaarat). bhaag.3, pru.198. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-85229-760-2.
  4. Basu, durga das (1988). Shorter Constitution of India. nai Delhi: prentis hall of India.
  5. Basu, durga das (1993). Introduction to the Constitution of India. nai Delhi: prentis hall of India.
  6. "Bhaarat rat‍aan sam‍aamaan". Bhaarat sarkaar. http://knowindia.gov.in/hindi/myindia/myindia_frame.php?id=12. abhigman tithi: 11 June 2016.
  7. ve jinhonne Bhaarat ratn lene se mana kar diya the times of India, 20 January, 2008

baahari kadiyaaain