Bhaarat mein islaam


yeh bhaarateeya ganatantr mein islaam ke baare mein hai. "Bhaarat" ki vyaapak paribhaasha ke liye dakshin Asia mein islaam ko dekhein.
Indian Muslims
kul janasankhya
lagbhag 17 karod 80 lakh (2009)[1]
mahatvapoorn jansankhya vaale kshetr
Jammu evam Kashmir, asam evam pashchim Bengal mein adhiktam janasankhya ghanatv. uttar pradesh, Bihar, Maharashtra evam kerala mein adhiktar janasankhya
bhaasha

urdoo, hindi, bangaali, malayalam, Kashmiri, bhaarateeya angreji,gujaraati,maraathi,tamil

dharm

mukhyat:

bhaarateeya ganatantr mein hindu dharm ke baad islaam doosra sarvaadhik prachalit dharm hai, jo desh ki janasankhya ka 14.88% se bhi adhik hai (2001 ki janaganana ke anusaar lagbhag 19 karod).[2][3]

Bhaarat mein islaam ka aagaman kareeb 12veen shataabdi mein hua tha aur tab se yeh Bhaarat ki saanskrutik aur dhaarmik viraasat ka ek abhinn ang ban gaya hai.[4] varshon se, sampoorn Bhaarat mein hindu aur muslim sanskrutiyon ka ek adbhut milan hota aaya hai[5][6] aur Bhaarat ke aarthik udaya aur saanskrutik prabhutv mein musalmaanon ne mahati bhoomika nibhaai hai.

Bhaarat mein vivaah, viraasat aur vakf sampatti se jude musalmaanon ke adhikaar maamale muslim vyaktigat kaanoon dvaara niyantrit hote hain[7] aur adaalaton ne yeh faisala diya ki shareeyat ya muslim kaanoon ki bhaarateeya naagrik kaanoon ki apeksha adhik pradhaanata hogi.[8] vishv mein Bhaarat ekamaatr aisa desh hai jahaan sarkaar haj yaatra ke liye vimaan ke kiraaya mein subsidy deti hai aur 2007 ke anusaar prati yaatri भारतीय रुपया47454 kharch karti hai.[9][10]

anukram

janasankhya

Bhaarat ki muslim aabaadi vishv ki teesari sarvaadhik hai[11] aur duniya bhar mein sabse adhik muslim alpasankhyak aabaadi hai.[12] Bhaarat mein adhikaansh musalmaan bhaarateeya jaateeya samooh se sambandhit hain, jismein Bhaarat se baahar ke bhi kuchh muslim shaamil hain, mukhya roop se faaras aur madhya Asia ke.[13][14]

2001 ki janaganana ke anusaar Bhaarat mein musalmaanon ki kul janasankhya ka sarvaadhik sankendran 47% hai - jo teen raajya mein nivaas karte hain uttar pradesh (30.7 million) (18.5%), pashchim Bengal (20.2 million) (25%) aur Bihar (13.7 million) (16.5%). muslim, lakshadveep (2001 mein 93%) aur Jammu aur Kashmir (2001 mein 67%) mein sthaaneeya janasankhya ke bahumat ka pratinidhitv karte hain. musalmaanon ki uchch sankhya asam (31%), pashchim Bengal (25%) dakshini raajya Kerala mein (24.7%) pai jaati hai. aadhikaarik taur par, Bhaarat mein musalmaanon ki teesari sabse badi aabaadi hai (Indonesia aur Pakistan ke baad).

janasankhya vruddhi dar

Bhaarat mein desh ke anya dhaarmik samudaayon ki tulana mein musalmaanon mein ek bahut uchch kul prajanan dar (teeefaaar) hai.[15] uchch janm dar aur padosi desh Bangladesh se pravaasiyon ke aagam ki vajah se Bhaarat mein musalmaanon ka pratishat 1991 mein 10% se badh kar 2001 mein 13% ho gaya hai.[16] kul vruddhi dar mein muslim janasankhya vruddhi dar hinduon ki vruddhi dar ki tulana mein 10% se bhi adhik hai.[17] haalaanki, 1991 se Bhaarat mein sabhi dhaarmik samoohon ki prajanan dar mein sabse badi giraavat musalmaanon ke beech hui hai.[18]

janasaankhyik ne Bhaarat mein musalmaanon ke beech uchch janm dar ke peechhe kai kaarakon ko bataaya hai. samaajashaastri Roger aur petreesiya jefferi ke anusaar dhaarmik niytivaad ke bajaay saamaajik, aarthik sthiti ko uchch muslim janm dar ke liye mukhya kaaran maanate hai. bhaarateeya musalmaan apne hindu samakakshon ki tulana mein adhik gareeb aur kam shikshit hain.[19] vikhyaat bhaarateeya samaajashaastri, bee॰ ke॰ prasaad ka tark hai ki choonki Bhaarat ki muslim aabaadi hindu samakakshon ki tulana mein shahari hai, musalmaan shishu mrutyu dar kareeb 12% hai jo ki hinduon ki tulana mein kam hai.[20]

haalaanki, anya samaajashaastriyon ka kehna hai ki dhaarmik kaarakon ko uchch muslim janm dar samjha sakta hai. sarvekshanon se sanket milta hai ki Bhaarat mein musalmaan, parivaar niyojan ke upaayon ko apekshaakrut kam apnaane ko taiyaar hote hain aur muslim mahilaaon mein adhik prajanan avadhi hoti hai kyonki hindu mahilaaon ki tulana mein unka vivaah kaafi chhoti umr mein ho jaata hai.[21] 1983 mein Kerala mein ke॰asee॰ jchaariya dvaara kiye gaye ek adhyayan se pata chalta hai ki ausat roop se muslim mahilaaon ne 4.1 bachchon ko janm diya tha, jabki ek hindu mahila ne keval 2.9 ke ausat se hi bachchon ko janm diya. dhaarmik rivaaj aur vaivaahik prathaaon ko bhi uchch muslim janm dar ke kaaranon ke roop mein uddhrut kiya gaya hai.[22] paul kurtj ke anusaar Bhaarat mein hindooon ki tulana mein musalmaan aadhunik garbhanirodhak upaayon ke adhik pratirodhi hain aur parinaam ke roop mein muslim mahilaaon ki tulana mein hindu mahilaaon mein prajanan dar mein giraavat adhik hai.[15][23] 1998-99 mein aayojit raashtreeya parivaar aur svaasthya sarvekshan ke anusaar bhaarateeya musalmaan dampati, Bhaarat ke hindu parivaaron ki tulana mein adhik bachche paida karne ko kaafi had tak ek aadarsh maanate hain.[24] isi sarvekshan mein yeh bhi bataaya gaya hai ki 49 pratishat se bhi adhik hindu parivaar parivaar niyojan ko sakriya roop se maanate hain jabki 37 pratishat hi musalmaan dampati parivaar niyojan ko maanate hain.[24] 1996 mein Lucknow jile mein aayojit ek sarvekshan se pata chalta hai ki 34 pratishat muslim mahilaaen parivaar niyojan ko apne dharm khilaaf maanati thi jabki sarvekshan se yeh pata chalta hai ki koi hindu mahila parivaar yojana ke khilaaf dharm ko avarodh naheen maanati.[24]

bhaarateeya pradhaanamantri dvaara niyukt 2006 ki samiti ke anusaar, Bhaarat ki muslim aabaadi 21veen sadi ke ant mein 320-340 million tak ho jaaegi (ya Bhaarat ki kul anumaanit janasankhya ka 18%).[25] ek pramukh bhaarateeya patrakaar svapan daasagupta ne Bhaarat mein muslim janasankhya vruddhi dar se sambandhit chintaaon ko uthaaya aur kaha ki ho sakta hai yeh Bhaarat ke saamaajik taalamel ko pratikool tareeke se prabhaavit kar sakta hai.[26] ek prasiddh bhoojanaankiki Phillip longamain ne tippani ki hai ki hindu aur musalmaan ke janm dar mein paryaapt antar Bhaarat mein jaateeya tanaav paida kar sakte hain.[27]

Bhaarat mein islaam ka itihaas

cheraaman peroomal juma masjid, aisa maana jaata hai ki raama varma kulaashekara ke anurodh par banaaya gaya tha aur sanbhavat: Bhaarat ka pehla masjid
jaama masjid, Delhi, Asia prashaant kshetr mein sabse badi masjidon mein se ek[28]

lokapriya vishvaas ke vipreet, islaam Bhaarat mein muslim aakramanon se pehle hi dakshin Asia mein aa chuka tha. islaami prabhaav ko sabse pehle arab vyaapaariyon ke aagaman ke saath 7veen shataabdi ke praarambh mein mahasoos kiya jaane laga tha. praacheen kaal se hi arab aur bhaarateeya upamahaadveepon ke beech vyaapaar sambandh astitv mein raha hai. yahaan tak ki poorv-islaami yug mein bhi arab vyaapaari maalaabaar kshetr mein vyaapaar karne aate the, jo ki unhein dakshin poorv Asia se jodti thi. itihaasakaar iliyt aur daausan ki pustak the histari of India ej told bye its on historiyans ke anusaar bhaarateeya tat par 630 i॰ mein muslim yaatriyon vaale pehle jahaaj ko dekha gaya tha. paara raulinsan apni kitaab: esiyant end midiyaaval histari of India[29] mein daava karte hain ki 7vein i॰ ke antim bhaag mein pratham arab musalmaan bhaarateeya tat par base the. shekh jainuddeen makhadoom "tuhfat al mujaahideen" ek vishvasaneeya strot hai.[30] is tathya ko je॰ sturrokk dvaara south kanaara end Madras distrikt mainuals[31] mein maana gaya haiaur haridaas Bhattacharya dvaara kalcharal heritage of India volyoom IV. mein bhi is tathya ko pramaanit kiya gaya hai.[32] islaam ke aagaman ke saath hi arab vaasi duniya mein ek pramukh saanskrutik shakti ban gaye. arab vyaapaari aur tredar nae dharm ke vaahak ban gaye aur jahaan bhi gaye unhonne iska prachaar kiya.[33]

Delhi mein 1852 ke lagbhag muslim pados.

yeh kathit taur par maana jaata hai ki Ram varma kulashekhar ke aadesh par Bhaarat mein pratham masjid ka nirmaan i॰ 629 mein hua tha, jinhein malik bin denaar ke dvaara Kerala ke kodungaaloor mein muhammad (c. 571–632) ke jeevan samay ke dauraan Bhaarat ka pehla musalmaan bhi maana jaata hai.[34][35][36]

maalaabaar mein, mappilaas islaam mein parivrtit hone vaale pehle samudaaya ho sakte hain kyonki ve doosaron ke mukaabale arab se adhik judein hue the. tat ke aaspaas gahan mishnari gatividhiyaan chalti raheen aur kai sankhyaaon mein mool nivaasi islaam ko apna rahe the. in nae dharmaantarit logon ko us samay maappeela samudaaya ke saath joda gaya. is prakaar mappilaas logon mein ham sthaaneeya mahilaaon ke maadhyam se arab logon ki utpatti aur sthaaneeya logon mein se dharmaantarit, donon prakaar ko dekh sakte hain.[37]

8veen shataabdi mein muhammad bin kaasim ki aguvaai mein arab sena dvaara sindh praant (vartamaan mein Pakistan) par vijay praapt ki gayi. sindh, umayyad khaleefa ka poorvi praant ban gaya.

10veen sadi ke pratham arddh bhaag mein gajani ke Mehmood ne Punjab ko gajnavid saamraajya mein joda aur aadhunik samay ke Bhaarat mein kai chhaape maare. 12veen shataabdi ke ant mein ek aur adhik safal aakraman ghor ke muhammad dvaara kiya gaya tha. is prakaar antat: yeh Delhi saltanat ke gathan ke liye agrasar hua.

arab-bhaarateeya sampark

arabiya mein islaam ke aagaman se pehle, islaam ke praarambhik charanon mein Bhaarat aur bhaarateeyon ke saath arab aur musalmaanon ke sampark hone se sambandhit paryaapt pramaan milte hain. arab vyaapaariyon ne bhaarateeyon dvaara viksit ank pranaali ko madhya poorv aur Europe mein prasaarit kiya.

aathaveen sadi ke praarambh mein kai sanskrut pustakon ka arabi mein anuvaad kiya gaya. George saliba apni pustak 'islaamik science end the meking of the yooropiyn renesaans' mein likhte hain ki "dviteeya abbaasid khaleefa al- mansoor [754-775] ke shaasan ke dauraan pramukh sanskrut granthon ka anuvaad shuroo kiya gaya tha, agar usase pehle naheen to; yahaan tak ki usase pehle bhi tark par kuchh granthon ka anuvaad kiya gaya tha aur aam taur par yeh sveekaar kiya gaya tha ki kuchh faarasi aur sanskrut granthon ko jaise ka taisa rakha gaya tha, haalaanki vaastav mein pehle se hi unka anuvaad kiya ja chuka tha".[38]

soofi islaam ka prasaar

fatehapur seekari, uttar pradesh mein soofi sant shekh saleem chishti ke makabare

Bhaarat mein islaam ke prachaar va prasaar mein soofiyon (islaami maneeshiyon) ne mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai. islaam ke prasaar mein unhein kaafi safalta praapt hui, kyonki kai maayane mein soofiyon ki vishvaas pranaali aur abhyaas bhaarateeya daarshanik saahitya ke saath samaan thi, vishesh roop se anhinsa aur advaitavaad. islaam ke prati soofi roodhivaadi drushtikon ne hinduon ko iska abhyaas karne ke liye aasaan banaaya hai. hajarat khwaaja muin-ud-ddeen chishti, kutabuddeen bakhtiyaar khurama, nijaam-ud-ddeen auliya, shaah jalaal, Aamir khusaro, sarkaar saabir Pak, shekh alla-ul-hak pandvi, Ashraf jahaangeer semnaani, sarkaar vaaris Pak, ata husain fani chishti ne Bhaarat ke vibhinn bhaagon mein islaam ke prasaar ke liye soofiyon ko prashikshit kiya. islaami saamraajya ke Bhaarat mein sthaapit ho jaane ke baad soofiyon ne spasht roop se prem aur sundarata ka ek sparsh pradaan karte hue ise udaaseen aur kathor hookumat hone se bachaaya. soofi aandolan ne kaareegar aur achhoot samudaayon ke anuyaayiyon ko bhi aakarshit kiya; saath hi islaam aur svadeshi paranparaaon ke beech ki doori ko paatane mein unhonne aham bhoomika nibhaai. nakshabandi soofi ke ek pramukh sadasya Ahmad sarahindi ne islaam ke liye hinduon ke shaantipoorn roopaantaran ki vakaalat ki. imaam Ahmad Khan rida ne apni prasiddh fatwa rajaviya ke maadhyam se Bhaarat mein paaramparik aur roodhivaadi islaam ka bachaav karte hue apna mahatvapoorn yogadaan diya.

ahale sunnat val jamaat athva sunni barelavi

ahale sunnat val jamaat athva sunni barelavi (urdoo: بaaرaaیaaلaaوaaی) dakshin Asia mein soofi aandolan ke antargat ek up-aandolan ko kaha jaata hai jise unneesaveen evam beesaveen sadi ke Bhaarat mein rohelakhand sthit bareli se sunni vidvaan Ahmad raja Khan ne praarambh kiya tha,. barelavi hanafi musalmaanon ka ek bada hissa hai jo ab badi sankhya mein Bhaarat, Bangladesh, Pakistan dakshin Africa evam Britain mein sanghanit hain. imaam Ahmad raja Khan ne apni prasiddh fatwa rajaviya ke maadhyam se Bhaarat mein paaramparik aur roodhivaadi islaam ka bachaav karte hue apna mahatvapoorn yogadaan diya. barelavi ek naam diya gaya hai sunni musalmaan jo soofijm mein vishvaas rakhate hain aur saikadon barso se islaam suniyt ke maanane vaale hain unako aala hajrat imaam Ahmad raja Khan ke lagaav ki vajah se barelavi bolte hain!

daarool uloom devaband

islaami duniya mein daarool uloom devaband ka ek vishesh sthaan hai jisne poore kshetr ko hi naheen, poori duniya ke musalmaanon ko prabhaavit kiya hai. daarool uloom devaband keval islaami vishvavidyaalaya hi naheen ek vahaabi vichaaraadhaara hai,! isliye musalmaanon mein is vikhraadhaara se prabhaavit musalmaanon ko ''devabandi'' kaha jaata hai. devaband uttar pradesh ke mahatvapoorn nagaron mein gina jaata hai jo aabaadi ke lihaaj se to ek lakh se kuchh jyaada aabaadi ka ek chhota sa nagar hai. lekin daarool uloom ne is nagar ko bade-bade nagaron se bhaari va sammaanajanak bana diya hai, jo na keval apne garbh mein aitihaasik prushthabhoomi rakhata hai, apitu aaj bhi saampradaayik sauhaardad dharmanirpekshata evam desh-prem ka ek ajeeb namoona prastut karta hai. devaband islaami shiksha va darshan ke prachaar ke va prasaar ke liye sampoorn sansaar mein prasiddh hai. bhaarateeya sanskruti va islaami shiksha evam sanskruti mein jo samanvaya aaj Hindustan mein dekhne ko milta hai usaka seedha-saadha shreya devaband daarool uloom ko jaata hai. yeh madarasa mukhya roop se uchch arabi va vahaabi islaami shiksha ka kendra bindu hai. daarool uloom ne na keval islaamik shodh va saahitya ke sambandh mein vishesh bhoomika nibhaayi hai, balki bhaarateeya paryaavaran mein islaamik soch va sanskruti ko naveen aayaam tatha anukoolan diya hai. daarool uloom devaband ki aadhaarashila 30 May 1866 mein haaji aabid husain va maulaana kaasim naanotavi dvaara rakhi gayi thi. vah samay bhaaratak ke itihaas mein raajanaitik uthal-puthal va tanaav ka samay tha, us samay angrejon ke virooddh lade gaye pratham svatantrata sangraam (1857 E.) ki asafalata ke baadal chhant bhi na paaye the aur angrajon ka bhaarateeyon ke prati damanachakr tej kar diya gaya tha, chaaron or ha-ha-car machi thi. angrajon ne apne sampoorn shakti se svatantrata aandolan (1857) ko kuchal kar rakh diya tha. adhikaansh aandolanakaari shaheed kar diye gaye the, (devaband jaisi chhoti basti mein 44 logon ko faansi par lataka diya gaya tha) aur shesh ko giraftaar kar liya gaya tha, aise sulagate maahaul mein deshbhakt aur svatantrata senaaniyon par niraashaaon ke pruhaar hone lage the. chaaron or khalabali machi hui thi. ek prashn chinh saamane tha ki kis prakaar Bhaarat ke bikhre hue samudaayon ko ekajut kiya jaase, kis prakaar bhaarateeya sanskruti aur shiksh jo tootati aur bikhrati ja rahi thi, ki suraksh ki jaae. us samay ke netrutv mein yeh ehsaas jaaga ki bhaarateeya jeern va khandit samaaj S samay tak vishaal evam jaalim british saamraajya ke mukaabale naheen tik sakta, jab tak sabhi vargon, dharmon va samudaayon ke logon ko desh prem aur desh bhakt ke jal mein snaan karaakar ek sootr mein na piro diya jaae. is kaarya ke liye na keval kushal va deshbhakt netrutv ki aavashayakata thi, balki un logon va sansthaaon ki aavashayakata thi jo dharm va jaati se upar uthakar desh ke liye balidaan kar sakein. inheen udadeshyon ki poorti ke liye jin mahaan svatantrata senaaniyon va sansthaanon ne dharmanirpekshata va deshbhakti ka paath padhaaya unamein daarool uloom devabnad ke kaaryon va sevaaon ko bhulaaya naheen ja sakta. svargeeya maulaana Mehmood hasan (vikhyaat adhyaapak va sanrakshak daarool uloom devaband) un sainaaniyon mein se ek the jinke kalam, gyaan, aachaar va vyavahaar se ek bada samudaaya prabhaavit tha, inheen visheshataaon ke kaaran inhein shekhul hind (bhaarateeya vidvaan) ki upaadhi se vibheshit kiya gaya tha, unhon ne na keval Bhaarat mein varan videshon (Afghanistan, Iran, Turkey, Saudi arab va mishr) mein jaakar Bhaarat va british saamraajya ki bhrat‍aasana ki aur bhaarateeyon par ho rahe atyaachaaron ke virooddh ji kholkar angreji shaasak varg ki mukhaalafat ki. balki shekhul hind ne Afghanistan va Iran ki hakoomaton ko bhaarateeya svatantrata aandolan ke kaaryakramon mein sahayog dene ke liye taiyaar karne mein ek vishesh bhoomika nibhaai. udaaharanatay: yeh ki unhonne Afghanistan va Iran ko is baat par raaji kar liya ki yadi Turkey ki sena Bhaarat mein british saamraajaya ke virooddh ladane par taiyaar ho to jameen ke raaste Turkey ki sena ko aakraman ke liye aane deinge. shekhul hind ne apne suprim shishyon va prabhaavit vyaktiyon ke maadhyam se angrej ke virooddh prachaar aarambh kiya aur hajaaron muslim aandolanakaariyon ko british saamraajya ke virooddh chal rahe raashteeya aandolan mein shaamil kar diya. inke pramukh shishya maulaana husain Ahmad madani, maulaana ubaidulla sindhi the jo jeevan paryant apne guroo ki shikshaaon par chalte rahe aur apne deshaprami bhaavanaaon va neetiyon ke kaaran hi Bhaarat ke musalmaan svatantrata senaaniyon va aandolanakaariyon mein ek bhaari stambh ke roop mein jaane jaate hain. san 1914 E. mein maulaana ubaidulla sindhi ne afagaanistaat jaakar angrajon ke virooddh abhiyaan chalaaya aur Kabul mein rahate hue Bhaarat ki sarvapratham svatantrat sarkaar sthaapit ki jiska raashtrapati raaja Mahendra prataap ko bana diya. yaheen par rahakar unhonne Indian national kaanges ki ek shaakha kaayam ki jo baad mein (1922 E.) mein mool Congress sangathan Indian national Congress mein vilay kar di gayi. shekhul hind 1915 E. mein hijaaj (saudi arab ka pehla naam tha) chale gaye, unhonne vahaaain rahate hue apne saathiyon dvaara Turkey se sampark bana kar sainik sahaayata ki maang ki. san 1916 E. mein isi sambandh mein shekhul hind istambool jaana chaahate the. madeene mein us samay Turkey ka Governor gaalib tainaat tha shekhul hind ko istambool ke bajaaye Turkey jaane ke liye kaha parantu usi samay Turkey ke yuddh mantri Anwar paasha hijaaj pahuainch gaye. shekhul hind ne unase mulaakaat ki aur apne aandolan ke baare mein bataaya. Anwar paasha ne bhaarateeyon ke prati sahaanubhooti prakat ki aur angrej saamraajya ke virooddh yuddh karne ki ek gupt yojana taiyaar ki. hijaaj se yeh gupt yojana, gupt roop se shekhul hind ne apne shishya maulaana ubaidulla sindhi ko afagaanistaan bheja, maulaana sindhi ne iska uttar ek reshami roomaal par likhkar bheja, isi prakaar roomaalon par patra vyavahaar raha. yeh gupt silsila ''tahareek A reshami roomaal'' ke naam se itihaas mein prasiddh hai. iske sambandh mein sar rolet ne likha hai ki ''british sarkaar in gatividhiyon par hakka bak‍aka thi''. daarool uloom devaband ke paas aaj apne kai bade bade bhavan hain jinmein kai masjidein bhi hain lekin daarool uloom devaband ke paas shuroo mein apna koi bhavan na tha balki iski shurooaat 'chhatte waali masjid' se hui. iske aangan mein ek anaar ka ped tha. iske neeche ek ustaad ne ek shaagird ko padhaane se is madarase ki shurooaat ki. vah anaar ka ped sau saal se bhi zyaada arsa beet jaane ke baavajood fal deta raha jo ki ek aashcharya ka vishay tha. yeh masjid aaj bhi daarool uloom devaband ke mukhya bhavan ke mukhya daravaaje ke paas sthit hai aur ismein aaj bhi paanchon samay paabandi se namaaj ada ki jaati hai. is masjid mein kuchh kamre bhi bane hue hain. daarool uloom se judi hui aham shakhsiytein aksar yahaaain kiyaam karti hain.

bhaarateeya svatantrata aandolan mein bhoomika

teepoo sultaan, jise tiger of Mysore ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, pramukh bhaarateeya raajaaon mein se ek the jinhonne british East India company ke khilaaf ladaai ki thi.

angrejon ke khilaaf Bhaarat ke sangharsh mein muslim kraantikaariyon, kaviyon aur lekhakon ka yogadaan pralekhit hai. teetoo meer ne british ke khilaaf vidroh kiya tha. maulaana abul kalaam aajaad, hakeem Ajmal Khan aur rafi Ahmad kidvai aise musalmaan hain jo is uddeshya mein shaamil the.

chitr:Ashfaq Ulla Khan.2657.jpg
ashafaakaullaakhaaain vaarasi'hasarat'

shaahajahaaainpur uttar pradesh ke Ashfaq ulla khaaain (urdoo: اaaشaaفaaاaaق اaaُaaلaaلaaہ خaaاaaن), (angreji:Ashfaq Ulla Khan) (janm:1900,mrutyu:1927) bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam ke ek pramukh kraantikaari the. unhonne kaakori kaand mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaayi. british shaasan ne unke oopar abhiyog chalaaya aur 19 December san 1927 ko unhein faijaabaad jail mein faaainsi par lataka kar maar diya gaya. Ram prasaad bismil ki bhaaainti Ashfaq ulla khaaain bhi urdoo bhaasha ke behatareen shaayar the. unka urdoo 'takhallus', jise hindi mein upanaam kehte hain, 'hasarat' tha. urdoo ke atirikt ve hindi va aaingreji mein lekh evam kavitaayein bhi likha karte the. unka poora naam Ashfaq ulla khaaain vaarasi 'hasarat' tha. bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam ke sampoorn itihaas mein 'bismil' aur 'Ashfaq' ki bhoomika nirvivaad roop se hindu-muslim ekta[39] ka anupam aakhyaan hai.

Khan abdul gaffaar Khan (seemaant Gandhi ke roop mein prasiddh) ek mahaan raashtravaadi the jinhonne apne 95 varsh ke jeevan mein se 45 varsh keval jail mein bitaaya; Bhopal ke barakatullaah gdar party ke sansthaapakon mein se ek the jisne british virodhi sangathanon se network banaaya tha; gdar party ke Sayyed shaah rahamat ne France mein ek bhoomigat kraantikaari roop mein kaam kiya aur 1915 mein asafal gadar (vidroh) mein unki bhoomika ke liye unhein faansi ki saja di gayi); faijaabaad (uttar pradesh) ke Ali Ahmad Siddiqui ne jaunapur ke Sayyed mujtaba husain ke saath malaaya aur barma mein bhaarateeya vidroh ki yojana banaai aur 1917 mein unhein faansi par lataka diya gaya tha; Kerala ke abdul vakkom khadir ne 1942 ke 'Bhaarat chhodo' mein bhaag liya aur 1942 mein unhein faansi ki saja di gayi thi, umar subhaani jo ki Mumbai ki ek udyogapati karodpati the, unhonne Gandhi aur Congress vyaya pradaan kiya tha aur antat: svatantrata aandolan mein apne ko kurbaan kar diya. musalmaan mahilaaon mein hajarat mahal, asghari begam, baai amma ne british ke khilaaf svatantrata ke sangharsh mein yogadaan diya hai.


1498 ki shuruaat se Europeeya deshon ki nausena ka udaya aur vyaapaar shakti ko dekha gaya kyonki ve bhaarateeya upamahaadveep par teji se nausena shakti mein vruddhi aur vistaar karne mein roochi le rahe the. Britain aur Europe mein audyogik kraanti ke aagaman ke baad Europeeya shaktiyon ne mugal saamraajya ka patan karne ke liye ek mahatvapoorn praudyogikeeya aur vaanijyik laabh praapt kiya tha. unhonne dheere-dheere is upamahaadveep par apne prabhaav mein vruddhi karna shuroo kiya.

haidar Ali aur baad mein unke bete teepoo sultaan ne british ist India company ke praarambhik khatre ko samjha aur usaka virodh kiya. baharahaal, 1799 mein teepoo sultaan antat: shreerangaapatanam mein paraajit hue. Bengal mein navaab siraajuddaula ne british East India company ke vistaaravaadi uddeshya ka saamana kiya aur britishon se yuddh kiya. haalaanki, 1757 mein ve plaasi ki ladaai mein haar gaye.

maulaana aajaad bhaarateeya svatantrata aandolan ke ek pramukh neta aur hindu muslim ekta ki vakaalat karne vaale the. yahaan 1940 mein sardaar Patel aur mahaatma Gandhi ke saath aajaad (baane) ko dikhaaya gaya hai.

british ke khilaaf pehle bhaarateeya vidrohi ko 10 July 1806 ke vellor gadar mein dekha gaya jismein lagbhag 200 british adhikaari aur sainikon ko mrut ya ghaayal ke roop mein paaya gaya. lekin british dvaara iska badla liya gaya aur vidrohiyon aur teepoo sultaan ke parivaar vaalon ko vellor kile mein bandi banaaya gaya aur unhein us samay iske liye bhaari keemat chukaani padi. yeh svatantrata ka pratham yuddh tha jise british saamraajyavaadiyon ne 1857 ka sipaahi vidroh kaha.sipaahi vidroh ke parinaamasvaroop angrejon dvaara jyaadaatar oopari varg ke muslim lakshit the kyonki vahaan aur Delhi ke aaspaas inhein ke netrutv mein yuddh kiya gaya tha. hajaaron ki sankhya mein mitron aur sage sanbandhiyon ko Delhi ke laal kile par goli maar di gayi ya faansi par lataka diya gaya jise vartamaan mein khooni darvaaja (bladi gate) kaha jaata hai. prasiddh urdoo kavi mirja gaalib (1797-1869) ne apne patron mein is prakaar ke jvalant narasanhaar se sambandhit kai vivran diye hain jise vartamaan mein Oxford vishvavidyaalaya press dvaara 'gaalib hij life end letars' ke naam ke prakaashit kiya hai aur raalf Russel aur khurshidul islaam dvaara sankalit aur anuvaad kiya gaya hai (1994).

jaise-jaise mugal saamraajya samaapt hone laga vaise-vaise musalmaanon ki satta bhi samaapt hone lagi aur Bhaarat ke musalmaanon ko ek nai chunauti ka saamana karna pada - takaneeki roop se shaktishaali videshiyon ke saath sampark banaate hue apni sanskruti ki raksha aur uske prati roochi jagaana tha. is avadhi mein, firangi mahal ke ulaama ne jo baaraabanki jile mein sabse pehle sehaali mein aadhaarit tha aur 1690 ke dashak se Lucknow mein aadhaarit tha, musalmaanon ko nirdeshit aur shikshit kiya. firangi mahal ne Bhaarat ke musalmaanon ka netrutv kiya aur aage badhaaya. daarul uloom-, devaband (uttar pradesh) ke maulaana aur maulavi (dhaarmik shikshak) Bhaarat ki svatantrata ke sangharsh mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai aur ghoshana ki ki bhi ek anyaayapoorn shaasan ki adheenata karna islaami siddhaanton ke khilaaf hai.

anya prasiddh musalmaan jinhonne british ke khilaaf aajaadi ke yuddh mein bhaag liya ve hain; maulaana abul kalaam aajaad, daarool uloom devaband ke maulaana Mehmood hasan jinhein ek sashastr sangharsh ke maadhyam se angrejon ki paraajaya ke liye prasiddh silk letar shadayantr mein doshi thaharaaya gaya tha, husain Ahmad madani, daarul uloom devaband poorv shekahul hadith, maulaana ubaidullaah sindhi, hakeem Ajmal Khan, hasarat mohani da. Sayyed Mehmood, professor maulavi barakatullaah, dau॰ jaakir husain, saifuddeen kichloo, vakkom abdul khadir, dau॰ manjoor abdul vahaab, bahaadur shaah jafar, hakeem nusarat husain, Khan abdul gaffaar Khan, abdul samad Khan achakajai, shaahanavaaj Colonel dau॰ ema॰ e॰ ansari, rafi Ahmad kidvai, fakharuddeen Ali Ahmad, ansaar harvaani, tak sheravaani, navaab vikrul mulk, navaab mohsinul mulk, mustsafa husain, veeem ubaidullaah, esaaar raheem, badaruddeen taiyabaji aur maulavi abdul hameed.

1930 mein Gandhi ke saath Khan abdul gaffaar Khan. iske alaava frontier Gandhi ke roop mein bhi jaane jaate hain, Khan ne british raaj ke khilaaf gair hinsak virodh ka netrutv kiya aur drudhta se Bhaarat ke vibhaajan ka virodh kiya.

1930 ke dashak tak, muhammad Ali jinna bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ke sadasya the aur svatantrata sangraam ka hissa the. kavi aur daarshanik, dau॰ sar allaama muhammad Iqbal hindu - muslim ekta aur 1920 ke dashak tak avibhaajit Bhaarat ke ek majaboot prastaavak the. apne praarambhik raajaneetik kairiyr ke dauraan husen shaheed suharaavardi bhi Bengal mein raashtreeya Congress mein sakriya the. maulaana mohammad Ali jauhar aur maulaana shaukat Ali ne samagr bhaarateeya sandarbh mein musalmaanon ke liye mukti ke liye sangharsh aur mahaatma Gandhi aur firangi mahal maulaana abdul ke saath svatantrata ke liye sangharsh kiya. 1930 ke dashak tak Bhaarat ke musalmaanon ne mote taur par ek avibhaajit Bhaarat ke samagr sandarbh mein apne deshvaasiyon ke saath raajaneeti ki.

1920 ke dashak ke uttaraardh mein, bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress aur all India muslim league ko alag-alag drushtikon se maanyata di gayi aur dau॰ sar allaama mohammad Iqbal ne 1930 ke dashak mein Bhaarat mein ek alag muslim raashtra ki avadhaarana prastut ki. nateejatan, all India muslim league ne ek alag muslim desh banaane ki maang ki. 1940 mein Lahore mein is maang ko uthaaya gaya (ise Pakistan rijuleshan ke roop mein jaana jaata hai). uske baad dau॰ sar allaama muhammad Iqbal ki mrutyu ho gayi aur muhammad Ali jinna, navaabajaada liyaakat Ali Khan, husen shaheed suharaavardi aur kai anya netaaon ne Pakistan aandolan ka netrutv kiya.

praarambh mein, musalmaanon dvaara svaayatt shaasit kshetron ke saath alag muslim desh (S) ke liye maang bade, svatantr, avibhaajit Bhaarat ke ek dhaanche ke bheetar thi. saath hi Bhaarat mein muslim alpasankhyakon ke liye anya vikalp bhi tha aur ek mukt, avibhaajit Bhaarat mein paryaapt sanrakshan aur raajaneetik pratinidhitv aadi par bhi bahas ki ja rahi thi. haalaanki, jab bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress, all India muslim league aur british aupaniveshik sarkaar ke beech angreji saamraajya se sheegra svatantrata maangane ko lekar jab aapas mein koi aam sahamati naheen ban pai tab all India muslim league ne spasht roop se poorn svatantr, samprabhu desh, Pakistan ki maang par jor diya.

Bhaarat mein pramukh muslim

Bhaarat aise kai prakhyaat musalmaanon ka gadh hai jinhonne kai kshetron mein apni amit chhaap chhodi hai aur Bhaarat ki aarthik vruddhi aur duniya bhar mein saanskrutik prabhaav chhodne mein ek rachanaatmak bhoomika nibhaai hai.

svatantr Bhaarat ke 12 raashtrapatiyon mein se teen musalmaan the - jaakir husain dau॰ Ahmad fakharuddeen Ali aur dau॰ e0 pee0 je0 abdul kalaam. iske alaava, svatantrata ke baad se vibhinn avsaron par mohammad hidaayatulla, e0 ema0 ahamadi aur mirja hameedullaah beg, cheef jastees of India ke pad par pratishthit rahe hain.

maujooda Bhaarat ke uparaashtrapati, mohammad haamid Ansari muslim hain. pramukh bhaarateeya naukarashaahon aur raajanayikon mein aabid husain aur aasaf Ali shaamil hain. Bhaarat ke prabhaavashaali muslim netaaon mein shekh abdulla, Faruk abdulla aur unke bete umar abdulla (Jammu aur Kashmir ke vartamaan mukhyamantri), mufti mohammad Saeed,mo.aazam Khan sikandar bakht, e0 aara0 antule, see0 echa0 mohammad koya, mukhtaar Abbas nakavi, Salman khursheed, saifuddeen soj, i0 Ahmad, gulaam nabi aajaad aur Sayyed shaahanavaaj husain shaamil hain.


Mumbai aadhaarit Bollywood mein kuchh lokapriya aur prabhaavashaali abhineta aur abhinetriyaan musalmaan hain. inmein Yusuf Khan (parde par dileep Kumar),[40] Shahrukh Khan,[41] Aamir Khan,[42] Salman Khan,[43] saif Ali Khan,[44][44][45] madhubaala,[46] Katrina kaif aur Imran Hashmi[47] shaamil hain. Bhaarat mein aise kai muslim abhineta bhi hain jinhein sameekshakon dvaara prashansa praapt hai, inmein naseeruddeen shaah, shabaana aazmi[48] vaheeda Rahman,[49] Irfan Khan, fareeda jalaal, Arshad vaarasi, Mehmood, jeenat amaan, Faruk shekh aur tabboo shaamil hain.

bhaarateeya musalmaan Bhaarat mein kala pradarshan ke anya roopon mein bhi nirnaayak bhoomika nibha rahe hain vishesh roop se sangeet, aadhunik kala aur theatre mein. ema॰aefa॰ husain ko Bhaarat ke sabse prasiddh samakaaleen kalaakaar ke roop mein jaana jaata hai aur academy puraskaar vijeta resul pukutti aur e॰aaara॰ Rahman Bhaarat ke mahaan sangeetakaaron mein se ek hain. pramukh kaviyon aur geetakaaron mein jaaved Akhtar ko shaamil kiya jaata hai jinhonne apni pratibha ke liye kai film fair puraskaar arjit kiya hai. anya lokapriya musalmaan jaati ke bhaarateeya sangeetakaaron aur gaayakon mein mohammad rafi, anu malik, laki Ali aur tabala vaadak jaakir husain shaamil hain.


Hyderabad se saaniya mirja uchchatam raink ki tennis khilaadi hain aur vyaapak roop se Bhaarat mein unhein yuvaaon ka aadarsh maana jaata hai. cricket (Bhaarat ka sabse lokapriya khel) mein kai muslim khilaadi rahe hain jinhonne apna ek mahatvapoorn sthaan banaaya hai. islaam ko maanane vaale kuchh poorv cricketer Mushtaq Ali, navaab pataudi aur mohammad ajaharuddeen hain. maujooda bhaarateeya cricket team mein Zaheer Khan, Irfan pathaan aur Yusuf pathaan jaise kai muslim khilaadi hain. Bhaarat mein anya pramukh muslim cricketeron mein mohammad kaif aur vaseem jaafar hain.


ajeem premaji

ajeem premaji, Bhaarat ki teesari sabse badi IT company Wipro teknolaujeej ke CEO aur 17.1 arab ameriki dollar ki anumaanit sampatti ke saath Bhaarat mein 5 vein sthaan ke sabse ameer aadmi[50] hain.

Bhaarat mein kai prabhaavashaali muslim vyaapaari hain. Wipro, vaukahaart, hamadard leboretorij, Cipla aur mirja tenars jaisi pramukh bhaarateeya companiyon ki sthaapana muslim dvaara ki gayi hai. Forbes patrika dvaara dakshin Asia ke keval do muslim arabpatiyon Yusuf haamid aur ajeem premaji ka naam ullikhit kiya gaya hai.


bhaarateeya sashastr balon mein hinduon aur sikhon ki tulana mein musalmaanon ka pratinidhitv kam hai[51] fir bhi kai bhaarateeya sainya muslim karmiyon ko raashtra ke prati unki asaadhaaran seva ke liye veerata puraskaar aur uchch raink se sammaanit kiya gaya hai. bhaarateeya sena ke abdul hameed ko 1965 mein asal uttar ke yuddh ke dauraan ek rikoiles bandook dvaara saat Pakistani tainkon ko uda dene ke liye Bhaarat ke uchchatam puraskaar, param veer chakr se navaaja gaya.[52][53] do anya musalmaan - Brigadier mohammad usmaan aur mohammad ismaail - ko 1947 ke indo-Pakistani yuddh ke dauraan unki sevaaon ke liye mahaaveer chakr diya gaya.[54] bhaarateeya sashastr balon mein uchch ranking ke musalmaanon mein lieutenant general jameel Mehmood (bhaarateeya sena mein poorv jeeosi-in-si ke poorvi kamaan)[55] aur major general mohammad ameen naayak shaamil hain.[56]


dau॰ abdul kalaam, Bhaarat ke sarvaadhik sammaanit vaigyaanik Bhaarat ke integreted gaaided misaail development program ke (aaijeeemadeepi) janak hain aur unhein Bhaarat ke 11vein raashtrapati ke roop niyukti dekar sammaanit kiya gaya.[57] raksha udyog mein unke abhootapoorv yogadaan ke chalte unhein misaail main of India ki upaadhi di gayi[58] aur Bhaarat ke raashtrapati ke roop mein unke kaaryakaal ke dauraan unhein pyaar se pipuls preseedeint kaha jaata tha. dau॰ esa॰ je॰ kaasim, raashtreeya samudra vigyaan sansthaan ke poorv nideshak the aur unhonne antaarkatika ke pehle vaigyaanik abhiyaan ke maadhyam se Bhaarat ka netrutv kiya aur dakshin gangotri ki sthaapana mein mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai. saath hi ve jaamiya miliya islaamiya ke poorv kulapati, mahaasaagar vikaas vibhaag ke sachiv aur Bhaarat mein polar research ke sansthaapak hain.[59] anya pramukh muslim vaigyaaniko aur injeeniyron mein see॰aema॰ habeebulla, Deccan college of medeekal saainses end elaaed hauspeetal aur center for leevar research end daaignostik, Hyderabad ke ek stem sel ke vaigyaanik aur nirdeshak hain;[60] mushaahid husain, jaamiya miliya islaamiya ke ullekhaneeya bhautik vigyaani aur professor hain; aur dau॰ isaraar Ahmad, saiddhaantik bhautiki ke liye international center ke ek sahayogi sadasya hain, shaamil hain. yoonaani chikitsa kshetr mein, haakim Ajmal Khan, haakim abdul hameed aur hakeem Sayyed Rahman jillur ka naam kaafi prasiddh hai.


George taaun vishvavidyaalaya dvaara sabse prabhaavashaali musalmaanon ki soochi mein ahale sunnat soofi neta hajarat Sayyed mohammad ameen miyaan kaudri aur shekh Ahmad aboobakkar musliyr soochi mein shaamil kiya gaya hai. saansad aur jameeyat ulema A hind ke neta maulaana Mehmood madani ko dakshin Asia mein aatankvaad ke khilaaf aandolan ki shurooaat karne ke liye 36vaan sthaan diya gaya tha.[61] Sayyed ameen miyaan ka soochi mein 44vaan sthaan tha.

indo-islaami kala aur sthaapatya kala

Agra mein taaj mahal Bhaarat ke sabse pratishthit smaarakon mein se ek hai.
Bijapur mein gol gunbaj, baaijntaain hegiya sofiya ke baad duniya ka doosra sabse bada poorvaadhunik gunbad.
chitr:Delhi Humayun 02.JPG
Delhi mein humaayoon ka makabara, Bhaarat.
bahaauddeen makabara, joonaagadh ke vajeer ka makabara.

12veen sadi ke ant mein Bhaarat mein islaami shaasan ke aagaman ke saath hi bhaarateeya vaastukala ne ek naya roop dhaaran kiya. bhaarateeya vaastukala mein jo nae tatv shaamil hue ve hain: aakaar ka istemaal (praakrutik svaroopon ke sthaan par); sajaavati abhilekh ya sulekh ka upayog karte hue shilaalekhaat‍aamak kala; jadne waali sajaavat aur rangeen sangamaramar, peint plaastar aur chamakeele rang ke chamakate hue taailon ka istemaal 1193 i॰ mein nirmit kuvvat-ul-islaam masjid bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein banane waali pehli masjid thi, iske aaspaas "tauvar of viktari", kutub meenaar ka nirmaan bhi lagbhag 1192 i॰aamein shuroo kiya gaya tha, jo ki sthaaneeya rajput raaja par gajani, Afghanistan ke muhammad gori aur unke general kutabuddeen aibak ki jeet ko chihnit karta hai, vartamaan mein yeh Delhi mein yoonesko vishv viraasat site hai.

svadeshi bhaarateeya vaastukala ke vipreet jo ki pat ya seedhe kram ki thi arthaat sabhi rikt sthaan kshaitij beam ke maadhyam se faile rahate the, islaami vaastukala dhanushaakaar thi yaani ek meharaab ya gunbad ka istemaal rikt sthaan mein pool banaane ki yojana ke roop mein apnaaya gaya tha. meharaab ya gunbad ki avadhaarana musalmaanon dvaara aavishkrut naheen thi, lekin unke dvaara udhaar li gayi thi aur baad mein unke dvaara poorv roman kaal ki sthaapatya shaili se alag karte hue usamein aur sudhaar kiya gaya. pehle-pehle Bhaarat mein bhavanon ke nirmaan mein musalmaan mortar ke roop mein ek simeinting agent ka istemaal karte the. baad mein bhi Bhaarat mein nirmaan kaaryon mein ve kuchh vaigyaanik aur yaantrik sootron ka istemaal karte the jo ki anya sabhyataaon ke unke anubhav se praapt tha. vaigyaanik siddhaanton ke is prayog se adhik majabooti aur nirmaan saamagri ki sthirta praapt karne mein keval madad hi naheen milti thi balki vaastukaaron aur bildaron ko aur adhik lacheelaapan bhi milta tha. yahaan par ek tathya jis par jor diya jaana chaahiye yeh hai ki, Bhaarat mein inhein pesh karne se pehle vaastukala ke islaami tatvon ko misr, Iran aur Iraq jaise anya deshon mein vibhinn prayogaatmak charanon ke maadhyam se paarit kiya gaya tha. in deshon mein adhikaansh islaamik smaarakon ke vipreet jismein bade paimaane par int plaastar aur malabe ka istemaal nirmaan kaarya mein kiya gaya tha, Bhaarat aur islaami smaarakon mein taiyaar kiye gaye pattharon se bane theth mortar-chinaai kaarya hota tha. is baat par bal dena jaroori hai ki Bhaarat-islaami vaastukala ka vikaas adhikaanshat: bhaarateeya kaareegaron ke gyaan aur kaushal dvaara kiya gaya tha, jinhonne kai shataabdiyon ke dauraan paashaan kaareegari mein mahaarat praapt ki thi aur unhonne Bhaarat mein islaami smaarakon ke nirmaan mein apne anubhavon ka istemaal kiya.

Bhaarat mein islaami vaastukala ko do bhaagon mein vibhaajit kiya ja sakta hai: dhaarmik aur dharmanirpeksh. masjid aur makabare dhaarmik vaastukala ka pratinidhitv karte hain, jabki mahal aur kile dharmanirpeksh islaami vaastukala ke udaaharan hain. kile anivaarya roop se vyavahaarik the aur jiske bheetar ek chhoti si poorn basti hoti thi aur dushmanon ko peechhe hataane ke liye vibhinn kilebandi sanlagn thi.

masjid: mausk ya masjid apne saralatam roop mein muslim kala ka pradarshan hai. mool roop se masjid ghire hue pilron ke beech ek khula hua baraamada hota hai, jiske oopar ek gunbad hota hai. meharaab, namaaj ke liye kibla disha ka sanket karti hai. meharaab ke daane or mimbaar ya palpit hota hai jahaan se imaam kaaryavaahi ka sanchaalan karte hain. ek ooncha sthaan, aamtaur par meenaar hoti hai jahaan se aasthaavaanon ko namaaj ke liye shaamil kiya jaata hai, jo ki masjid ka ek achal hissa hota hai. badi masjid jahaan shraddhaalu shukravaar ki namaaj ke liye ikattha hote hain use jaama masjid kaha jaata hai.

kabristaan: yadyapi vaastav mein yeh praakrutik roop se dhaarmik naheen hai, kabr ya makabara ne sampoorn roop se nai vaastukala ki avadhaarana ki shurooaat ki hai. masjid ko mukhya roop se iski saadagi ke liye jaana jaata hai, jabki ek kabr saadhaaran (aurangajeb ki kabr) se lekar ek bhavya sanrachana Tajmahal tak hoti hai. aamtaur par kabr, ek ekaant kaksh ya kabr kaksh hoti hai jise hujra ke roop mein jaana jaata hai jiske kendra mein smaarak ya jrih hota hai. poori sanrachana ko ek vistrut gunbad dvaara aavrutt kiya jaata hai. bhoomigat kaksh mein murdaaghar ya makabara hota hai jismein ek laash ko samaadhi ya kabr mein dafan kiya jaata hai. chhote kabron mein meharaab ho sakte hain, haalaanki bade makabaron mein mukhya makabare se thodi hi doori par ek alag masjid hoti hai. saamaanya roop se poora makabara parisar ya rauja ek baade dvaara ghira hota hai. muslim sant ke kabr ko dargaah kaha jaata hai. Quraan ke anusaar lagbhag sabhi islaami smaarakon ka istemaal muft hota hai aur adhikaansh samay deevaaron, chhat, khanbhe aur gunbadon par minute vivran nakkaashi mein kharch kiye jaate the.

Bhaarat mein islaami sthaapatya ko teen vargon mein vargeekrut kiya ja sakta hai: Delhi ya impeeriyl shaili (1191 1557 E.); praanteeya shaili, Deccan aur jaunapur jaise aas-paas ke kshetron ko shaamil kiya jaata hai; aur mugal sthaapatya shaili (1526 ko 1707 E.),[62]

saahitya

kaanoon aur raajaneeti

Bhaarat mein musalmaan "muslim parsanal law (shareeyat) anuprayog adhiniyam, 1937 dvaara shaasit hain."[63] yeh musalmaanon ke liye muslim parsanal law ko nirdeshit karta hai jismein shaadi, mahar (dahej), talaak, rakharakhaav, upahaar, vakf, chaah aur viraasat shaamil hai.[64] aam taur par adaalat sunniyon, ke liye hanaafi sunni kaanoon ko laagoo karti hai, shiya musalmaan un sthaanon mein sunni kaanoon se alag hai jahaan baad mein sunni kaanoon se shiya kaanoon alag hain. haalaanki, varsh 2005 mein, bhaarateeya shiya ne sabse mahatvapoorn muslim sangathan all India muslim parsanal law se naata tod diya aur unhonne all India shiya parsanal law board ke roop mein svatantr law board ka gathan kiya.[65]

bhaarateeya samvidhaan, bina dharm ka vichaar kiye sabhi naagrikon ko samaan adhikaar pradaan karta hai. samvidhaan ka anuchhed 44 samaan naagrik sanhita ki sifaarish karta hai. haalaanki, desh mein lagaataar raajaneetik netrutvon ne samaan naagrik sanhita ke tahat bhaarateeya samaaj ko ekeekrut karne ke prayaason ka jordaar virodh kiya hai aur bhaarateeya musalmaanon dvaara ise desh ke alpasankhyak samoohon ki saanskrutik pehchaan ko kamjor karne ki koshish ke roop mein dekha jaata hai. is prakaar Bhaarat mein ek adviteeya sthiti maujood hai jahaan ek dharmanirpeksh kaanoon ka samarthan karne vaalon ko faanseevaadi maana jaata hai jabki jo bhaarateeya musalmaanon ke liye shareeyat ka samarthan karte hain unhein dharmanirpeksh ke roop mein samjha jaata hai. all India muslim parsanal law board ki sthaapana "muslim parsanal law" yaani Bhaarat mein shareeyat anuprayog adhiniyam, suraksha aur prayojyata jaari ke liye kiya gaya tha.

dharmaantaran vivaad

saaaincha:Islam in India

inhein bhi dekhein: Persecution of Hindus#During Islamic rule of the Indian sub-continent

islaam mein dharmaantaran ko lekar vidvaanon aur saarvajanik rai, donon mein kaafi vivaad maujood hai aur aamtaur nimnalikhit vichaaradhaaraaon dvaara pradarshit hota hai:[66]

  1. musalmaanon ka adhikaansh hissa Irani pathaar ya arab pravaasiyon ka vanshaj naheen hain.[67]
  2. vyavahaarikta aur sanrakshan jaise gair dhaarmik kaaranon se hue dharmaantaran jaise sattaaroodh muslim kuleen ke beech saamaajik gatisheelata ya karon se mukti ke liye.[66][67]
  3. sunni soofi santon ki gatividhiyon ke kaaran hue dharmaantaran aur jismein ek vaastavik hrudaya parivartan shaamil tha.[66]
  4. bauddhon se aaya dharmaantaran aur saamaajik mukti aur damanakaari hindu jaati ki baadhyataaon ki asveekruti svaroop nimn jaati samoohon dvaara saamoohik dharmaantaran.[67]
  5. ek sanyojan, shuroo mein dabaav ke tahat aur jiske baad vaastavik hrudaya parivartan hua[66]
  6. pramukh muslim sabhyata aur vaishvik raajya vyavastha mein ek vistrut avadhi ke dauraan visran aur ekeekaran ki saamaajik-saanskrutik prakriya ke roop mein.[67]

ek videshi aaropan ke roop mein islaam ki sthiti aur virodh karne vaale mool nivaasiyon ki svaabhaavik roop se hindu haisiyat in baaton mein nihit hai, jiske parinaamasvaroop bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ke islaameekaran ki pariyojana vifal ho gayi aur vibhaajan ki raajaneeti aur Bhaarat mein saanpradaayikta kaafi ulajh gayi.[66] muslim itihaas aur janasaankhyikeeya ganana ke aadhaar par maare gaye logon ki anumaanit sankhya ke.S. laal ki pustak growth of muslim populeshan in midiyaaval India mein di gayi hai jinhonne daava kiya ki 1000 E. aur 1500 E. ke beech hinduon ki janasankhya kareeb 80 million kam hui. poorv-janaganana kaal mein sahi deta ki kami aur iski kaaryaavali ke liye kai aalochakon ne unki pustak ki aalochna ki jaise simon digbi (school of oriental end afreekan stadeej) aur Irfan habeeb. laal ne apni baad ki pustakon mein in aalochanaaon ka javaab diya. vil durant jaise itihaasakaar ne tark diya ki hinsa ke maadhyam se islaam ko failaaya gaya tha.[68][69] sar jadunaath sarkaar ka kehna hai ki kai muslim aakramanakaari Bhaarat mein hinduon ke khilaaf vyavasthit roop se jihaad chhed rahe the, is had tak ki "kaafiron ke parivartan ke liye nirdayataapoorn narasanhaar ke saare upaayon ka sahaara liya gaya."[70] ve hindu jo islaam mein dharmaantarit hue the, ve bhi fatwa-A-jahaandaari mein jiyaauddeen al-barani dvaara sthaapit muslim jaati vyavastha ke kaaran atyaachaar se mukt naheen the,[71] jahaan unhein "ajlaaf" jaati ke roop mein maana jaata tha aur "Ashraf" jaatiyon dvaara bhedabhaav kiya jaata tha.[72]

"talavaar ki nok par dharmaantaran siddhaant" dakshin Bhaarat, Sri Lanka, pashchimi barma, Bangladesh, dakshini Thailand, Indonesia aur Malaysia mein vyaapt vishaal muslim samudaaya ki or ishaara karta hai aur bhaarateeya up-mahaadveep mein aitihaasik muslim saamraajya ke gadh ke aaspaas baraabar sankhya mein muslim samudaayon ki kami "talavaar ki nok par dharmaantaran siddhaant" ka khandan karti hai. dakshin Asia par muslim vijay ki viraasat par aaj bhi gambhir bahas jaari hai. arthashaastr ke itihaasakaar engas medeesan aur jeen-noel biraaben ne vibhinn janasankhya anumaan kiya aur saath hi sanket milta hai ki 1000 aur 1500 ke beech Bhaarat ki janasankhya mein kami naheen hui, lekin us samay ke dauraan kareeb 35 million badhi thi.[73][74]

sabhi muslim aakramanakaari hamlaavar naheen the. baad ke shaasakon ne raajyon ko jeetne ke liye ladaai ladi aur nae raajavanshon ki sthaapana ke liye vahaan nivaas kiya. in nae shaasakon aur unke baad ke uttaraadhikaariyon (jinmein se kuchh hindu patniyon se janme the) ki prathaaon mein kaafi vividhta thi. jabki kuchh samaan roop se nafarat karte the, anyon ne baad mein lokapriyta haasil ki. 14vi sadi mein ibn batoota ke vrutaant ke anusaar jisne Delhi ki yaatra ki thi, pichhle sultaanon mein se ek vishesh roop se kroor tha aur Delhi ki aabaadi usase atyadhik nafarat karti thi, batoota ka vrutaant yeh bhi sanket karta hai ki arab duniya, faaras aur Turkey ke muslim aksar shaahi sujhaav mein samarthan karte hue kehte the ki ho sakta hai Delhi prashaasan mein vahaan ke sthaaneeya logon ne kuchh had tak ek adheenasth bhoomika nibhaai hogi. "turk" shabd ka istemaal saamaanyat: unki uchch saamaajik sthiti ka ullekh karne ke liye kiya jaata tha. haalaanki S.A.A. rijvi (the vandar dait vaaj India - II) ne ingit kiya ki muhammad bin tugalak ne na keval sthaaneeya logon ko protsaahit kiya balki kaareegar samoohon ko bhi uchch prashaasanik padon ke liye protsaahit kiya jaise baavarchi, naai aur maali. uske shaasanakaal mein, yeh sambhaavana hai ki islaam mein dharmaantaran ek adhik saamaajik gatisheelata aur sanshodhit saamaajik sudhaar ke roop mein hua.[75]

dhaarmik sangharsh

muslim-hindu sangharsh

1947 se pehle

bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein hinduon aur musalmaanon ke beech sangharsh ka ek jatil itihaas hai, kaha ja sakta hai 711 mein sindh mein umayyad khaleefa ke jihaad ke saath yeh sangharsh shuroo hua. Bhaarat mein madhyayugeen kaal mein islaami vistaar ke dauraan mandiron ke vinaash ke dvaara hindu utpeedn ko dekha ja sakta hai, somanaath[76][77] mandir ke baar-baar vinaash karne aur hindu prathaaon ke virodhi mugal samraat aurangajeb ka aksar itihaasakaaron dvaara ullekh kiya gaya hai.[78]

1947 se 1991 tak

1947 mein Bhaarat vibhaajan ke baad ke parinaamon mein bade paimaane par saampradaayik sangharshon aur desh bhar mein raktapaat ko dekha gaya. tab se, Bhaarat mein bade paimaane par hindu aur muslim samudaayon ke vargon ke beech nihit tanaav se tej hinsa chali aa rahi hai. ye vivaad hindu raashtravaad ki vichaaradhaara banaam islaami charamapanth se bhi utpann hote hain aur aabaadi ke vishesh tabake mein prachalit hain. aajaadi ke baad se Bhaarat ne dharmanirpekshata ke liye samvaidhaanik pratibaddhata ko hamesha banaae rakha hai.

1992 ke baad se

vibhaajan ke baad hinduon aur musalmaanon ke beech saampradaayik sauhaard ki bhaavana ko banaae rakhane ke baad pichhle dashak mein tanaav ko utpann karne waali ayodhya mein vivaadit baabari masjid giraane ka mudda hai. ise 1992 mein vidhvans kiya gaya tha aur kathit taur par hindu raashtravaadi, bhaarateeya janta party aur raashtreeya swayamsevak sangh, bajarang dal aur vishv hindu parishad jaise sangathanon ke dvaara yeh kaarya kiya gaya tha. iske baad jaise ko taisa ki tarj par saare desh mein muslim aur hindu kattarpanthiyon ke beech hinsa fail gayi jismein shaamil the Mumbai mein Mumbai dange aur saath hi 1993 mein Mumbai bam dhamaaka, in vaaradaaton mein kathit taur par maafiya Don Dawood Ibrahim aur mukhya roop se muslim di-company aaparaadhik giroh shaamil the.

2001 mein ugravaadiyon dvaara bhaarateeya sansad par ek haai profaail hamle ne samudaaya ke sambandhon mein kaafi tanaav paida kar diya.

haal hi mein hui sabse hinsak aur sharmanaak ghatnaaon mein se ek 2002 mein ghatit Gujarat danga tha jismein anumaanit taur par kareeb ek hajaar log maare gaye the, maare gaye logon mein jyaadaatar musalmaan the, kuchh sootron ne kareeb 2000 muslim hatya ka daava kiya hai,[79] saath hi ismein raajya sarkaar ki bhaageedaari ka bhi aarop lagaaya gaya hai.[80][81] yeh danga, godhara train aagajani ke pratishodh mein kiya gaya tha jismein baabari masjid ke vivaadit sthal se laut rahe 50 hindu teerthayaatriyon ko godhara railway station ki train aagajani mein jinda jala diya gaya tha. Gujarat police ne is ghatna ke yojanaabaddh hone ka daava kiya aur kaha ki ise ugravaadi musalmaanon dvaara hindu teerthayaatriyon ke khilaaf is kshetr mein kiya gaya tha. jaanch ke liye Bannerjee aayog ko niyukt kiya gaya tha jisne ise ek aag durghatana hone ki ghoshana ki.[82] 2006 mein uchch nyaayaalaya ne is samiti ke gathan ko avaidh ghoshit kiya kyonki nyaayamoorti naanaavati shaah ke netrutv mein ek anya committee is mudde ki jaanch kar rahi thi.[83] September 2008 ke antim saptaah mein naanaavati shaah aayog ne pehle hi apni pratham report pesh kar di thi, jismein saaf kaha gaya tha ki godhara mein train aagajani poorv-yojit thi aur iske liye bhaari maatra mein petrol ek musalmaan samooh dvaara laaya gaya tha.[tathya vaanchhit]

Ahmedabad dangon mein shahar se uthata dhuainaa

Ahmedabad ke kshitij dhuen se bhare hue the, kyonki imaarat aur dukaanon mein dangon vaale bheed dvaara aag lagaaya gaya tha. dange jo godhara train ghatna ke baad shuroo hue, jismein 790 se adhik musalmaanon aur 254 hinduon ko maara gaya tha, ismein godhara train ki aag mein maare gaye hindu log bhi shaamil hain[84]

vahaan bade paimaane par saampradaayik hinsa jaari thi, jismein muslim samudaayon ko kasht bhugatna pada. in dangon ke liye Gujarat ke mukhyamantri, Narendra Modi aur unke kuchh mantriyon, police adhikaari aur anya dakshinpanthi hindu sangathanon ki kaafi aalochna ki gayi. Narendra Modi ke antargat Gujarat prashaasan, Gujarat police ne jaanboojhkar musalmaanon ko nishaana banaaya. yahaan tak ki Narendra Modi par narasanhaar ka bhi aarop tha lekin koi aarop siddh naheen hua.

musalmaan-hindu virodh ko, SIMI (simi) (bhaarateeya islaamik chhaatr aandolan) jaise kuchh islaami sangathanon dvaara aur bhi uttejit kiya gaya jiska uddeshya Bhaarat mein islaamik shaasan sthaapit karna hai. Pakistan aadhaarit kuchh anya samooh jaise lashkar-A taiyaba aur jaish-A mohammad hindu aabaadi ke khilaaf sthaaneeya muslimon ko bhadkaane ka pakshapaat kiya jaata hai. in samoohon ko 11 July 2006 mein Mumbai train bam visfot ke liye jimmedaar maana jaata hai, jismein kareeb 200 log maare gaye the. aise samoohon ne 2001 mein bhaarateeya sansad par bhi hamla kiya tha aur 1999 mein bhaarateeya Kashmir ke kuchh bhaagon ko Pakistan ka hone ka daava kiya aur gupt roop se aise kai hamle kiye gaye jismein bhaarateeya Kashmir par lagaataar hamla aur Bhaarat ki rajdhani nai Delhi par bam dhamaaka shaamil hai. isi beech, nirdosh musalmaan aur hindu, saampradaayik sangharsh ki vedi par chadhte rahe aur is tarah ki ghatnaaon mein lagaataar vruddhi hoti ja rahi hai.[85]

professor M.di. naalaapat (manipaal edavaansd research group ke upaadhyaksh, yoonesko pees chair aur manipaal vishvavidyaalaya ke bhoo-raajaneeti ke professor) ke anusaar, "hindu - muslim" sangharsh, "hindu baikalaish" ya "aanshik" dharmanirpekshata hai, jismein keval hinduon ke dharmanirpeksh hone ki ummeed hai jabki musalmaanon aur anya alpasankhyakon ko bahishkaran pratha ko chalaane ke liye svatantr hain.[86]

2004 mein, bhaarateeya school ki kai paathyapustakon ko raashtreeya shaikshik anusandhaan aur prashikshan parishad dvaara radd kar diya gaya tha kyonki usamein unhonne musalmaan virodhi poorvaagrah se bhara hua paaya tha. enaseeiaarati ne daleel di ki yeh kitaabein "un vidvaanon dvaara likhi gain hain jinhein poorv ke hindu raashtravaadi prashaasan dvaara chuna gaya tha". the gaarjiyn ke anusaar, paathyapustakon mein Bhaarat mein poorv hindu muslim shaasakon ko "asabhya aakramanakaari ke roop mein aur madhyayugeen avadhi ko islaami aupaniveshik saamraajya ke roop mein darshaaya gaya tha, jisne Bhaarat ki hindu saamraajya ke gaurav ateet ko pehle samaapt kar diya tha."[87] ek paathyapustak mein, yeh abhipraaya tha ki taaj mahal, kutub meenaar aur laal kila sabhi islaami vaastukala ke udaaharan the- "jiski design aur commission hinduon dvaara kiya gaya tha."[87]

2010 mein hue deganga dange ki shurooaat 6 sitmbar ko hui, jab ek islaami giroh ne deganga police station kshetr ke tahat deganga, kaartikpur aur baliyaaghaata ke hindu sthaan par aagajni aur hinsa ki. yeh hinsa shaam ko der se shuroo hui aur raat bhar chalti hui agali subah tak jaari rahi. jila police, raipid action fors, keindreeya reserve police bal aur seema suraksha bal sabhi rigoh hinsa ko rokane mein asafal rahe, antat: ise rokane ke liye sena ko tainaat kiya gaya tha.[88][89][90][91] sena ne taaki road par ek flaig March ka aayojan kiya, jabki taaki sadak ke bheetari gaanvon mein berokatok islaamavaadi hinsa jaari rahi, sena ki maujoodagi aur seeaarapeesi ke dhaara 144 tahat nishedhaatmak aadesh ke baavajood yeh Budhvaar tak jaari rahi.

muslim-sikh sangharsh

mugal avadhi ke dauraan Punjab mein sikh dharm ubhara. muslim satta aur sikhon ke beech sangharsh 1606 mein apne aarambhik charam par pahuncha jab sikhon ke paanchave guroo guroo arjan Dave par mugal saamraajya ke jahaangeer dvaara atyaachaar kiya gaya aur unki hatya kar di gayi. paanchavein guru ki hatya kar dene ke baad unke bete guru har gobind ne unki jagah li jinhonne sikh dharm ko moolat: yoddha dharm banaaya. guru ji pehle aise yoddha the jinhonne mugal saamraajya ko ek yuddh mein paraast kiya jo ki vartamaan mein guradaasapur mein haragobindapur hai[92] is bindu ke baad sikh, apni suraksha ke liye apne aap ko sainya banaane ke liye majaboor hue. 16veen sadi ke baad, 1665 mein teg bahaadur guru bane aur 1675 tak sikhon ka netrutv kiya. jab mugl samraat dvaara Kashmiri panditon ke islaam na grahan karne par unhein mrutyu dand diya jaane laga tab Kashmiri panditon ke pratinidhi ne teg bahaadur se sahaayata maangi aur hinduon ki sahaayata karne ke kaaran aurangajeb dvaara praan dand diya gaya.[93] hindu-muslim sangharsh aur muslim-sikh sangharsh kis prakaar aapas mein jude hain usaka yeh praarambhik udaaharan hai.

1699 mein, khaalasa ki sthaapana sikhon ke antim guroo guru gobind Singh dvaara ki gayi. gobind Singh dvaara ek poorv tapasvi ko un logon ko dandit karne ka kartavya saunpa gaya jinhonne sikhon ko kasht pahunchaaya. guru ki mrutyu ke baad Baba banda Singh bahaadur sikh sena ke neta ban gaye aur mugal saamraajya par kai hamlon ke liye ve jimmedaar the. islaam grahan kar lene par kshama daan ki peshakash ko thukara dene ke baad jahaandaar shaah dvaara unhein mrutyu dand diya gaya.[94] 17veen aur 18veen shataabdi ke dauraan mugal satta ka hraas hone laga aur usi dauraan sikh mahaasangh aur baad mein sikh saamraajya ki taakat badhne lagi, jiske parinaamasvaroop santulit shakti ka nirmaan hua jisne sikhon ko adhik hinsa se raksha ki. 1849 ke aangl-sikh dviteeya yuddh ke baad sikh saamraajya ko british bhaarateeya saamraajya mein samaahit kar liya gaya.

1947 mein Bhaarat vibhaajan ke dauraan vishaal janasankhya ka aadaan-pradaan hua aur Punjab ka british bhaarateeya praant do bhaagon mein vibhaajit hua aur pashchimi bhaagon ko Pakistan ke dominiyn ko diya gaya, jabki poorvi bhaagon union of India ko diya gaya. 5.3 million musalmaan Bhaarat se Pakistan ke pashchim Punjab mein chale gaye, 3.4 million hindu aur sikh Pakistan se Bhaarat ke poorvi Punjab mein sthaanaantarit hue. itne bade paimaane par pravaas aur donon seemaaon mein hone vaale bheeshan hinsa aur hatya ko rokane mein navagathit sarkaarein poori tarah se asamarth theen. mote taur par mauton ki sankhya lagbhag 500,000 theen aur mauton ki anumaanit sankhya kam se kam 200,000 aur adhik se adhik 1,000,000 thi.[95]

muslim-isaai sangharsh

jamaalaabaad kila maarg. mangaloriyn Catholic is maarg ke maadhyam se apne seringapatam ke liye is raaste par yaatra ki thi

baakur paandulipi ne unke baare mein kaha hai: "sabhi musalmaanon ko ekajut hona chaahiye aur ek pavitra kartavya ke roop mein kaafiron ke vinaash par vichaar karna chaahiye, apne satta ke atyant shram karne ke liye, us vishay ko poora karna hai."[96] 1784 mein mangalaur ki sandhi ke baad jald hi teepoo ne Canara par niyantran praapt kar liya.[97] unhonne Canara mein isaaiyon ki sampada ko jabt kar lene ka farmaan jaari kiya,[98] aur jamaalaabaad kila ke maadhyam se apne saamraajya ki rajdhani shreerangaapatanam unhein nirvaasit kiya.[99] haalaanki, unamein bandiyon mein se koi bhi paadari naheen tha. miraanda father ke saath milkar, sabhi giraftaar 21 paadariyon ko Goa mein bhejane ka aadesh diya gaya, 2 lakh ka jurmaana kiya gaya aur saath agar ve kabhi laut kar aaenge to faansi ke maadhyam maut ke ghaat utaarane ki dhamaki di gayi.[96]

teepoo ne 27 Catholic charchon ko nasht karne ka aadesh diya, sabhi charchon mein vibhinn santon ki khoobsoorat nakkaasheedaar pratimaaen theen. unamein mangalaur ka nosa senahora di rojariyo milaagres ka church, monte meriyeno ka efaaar miraanda semeenari, omajoor ka jesu mariye jose church, bolaar ka chaapel, ullaal ka church of marsis, mulki ka imaakulaata kaunasiyesiyaao, peraar ka san jose, kirem ka nosa senahora dos remediyes, karkaal ka saav Lawrence, baarkur ka rojaario, baidanur ka imaakulaata kaunsesiyaao shaamil tha.[96] apavaad ke roop mein hosapet ke the church of pauli kraus ko chhodkar sabhi ko nasht kar diya gaya, ise moodbidri ke chauta raaja ke liye anukool kaaryaalayon ke liye chhod diya tha.[100]

ek skautish sainik aur Canara ke pehle collector thomas munaro ke anusaar, unamein se kareeb 60,000[101] yaani sampoorn mangalauriyn Catholic samudaaya ka lagbhag 92 pratishat ko kaid kar liya gaya, keval 7000 hi bach paae. Francis bukaanan ke anusaar 80,000 ki aabaadi mein se 70,000 ko kaid kiya gaya aur keval 10000 hi bach paae. pashchami ghaat ke parvaton par jangalon se hote hue ve lagbhag 4,000 fut (1,200 mi) chadhaai karne ke liye majaboor the. yeh mangalaur se shreerangaapatanam ke liye 210 meal (340 kimi) tha aur yaatra mein chhah hafte lage. british sarkaar ke record ke mutaabik, shreerangaapatanam March ke dauraan unamein se 20,000 ka nidhan ho gaya. ek british adhikaari James skari jo mangaloriyn Catholic ke saath bandiyon ke saath tha, ke anusaar unamein se 30000 ko jabaran islaam mein parivrtit kiya gaya. yuva mahilaaon aur ladkiyon ko vahaan rahane vaale musalmaanon ki jabaran patni banaaya gaya.[102] ve yuva purush jinhonne pratirodh kiya unke naak, oopari honth aur kaan ko kaat kar vikrut kar diya gaya.[103]

1800 mein Goa ke aarkabishp ne likha ki, "samagr Asia aur vishv ke anya bhaagon mein Canara dominiyn ke raaja teepoo sultaan dvaara us samay ke dauraan isaai dharm ko maanane vaalon ke khilaaf ek kathorachitt ghruna aur isaaiyon dvaara uthaae gaye atyaachaar aur kashton se sabhi parichit hain."[96]

british adhikaari James skari, jise teepoo sultaan dvaara mangaloriyn Catholic ke saath 10 saal tak hiraasat mein rakha gaya

teepoo sultaan ki maalaabaar par aakraman se maalaabaar tat par Syria ke maalaabaar nasaraani samudaaya par pratikool prabhaav pada. kocheen aur maalaabaar ke kai church kshatigrast ho gaye the. angamaali mein puraane Syriai nasaraani madarasa jo kai shataabdiyon ke liye Catholic dhaarmik shiksha ka kendra the, teepoo ke sainikon dvaara nasht kar diye gaye. sadiyon puraani dhaarmik paandulipi hamesha ke liye kho gayi. baad mein church ko kottaayam mein sthaanaantaran kiya gaya jo ki abhi bhi maujood hai. akaparaamboo mein sthit mor sabor church aur madarasa se jude maartha mariym church ko bhi nasht kar diya gaya. 1790 mein teepoo ki sena ne palaayoor ki church mein aag laga di aur ollur church par hamla kiya. iske alaava, arthat church aur ambajhakkad madarasa ko bhi nasht kar diya gaya tha. is aakraman ke dauraan, kai Syriai maalaabaar nasaraani maare gaye ya jabaran islaam mein parivrtit kiye gaye. Syria maalaabaar kisaanon dvaara lagaae gaye adhikaansh naariyl, supaari, kaali mirch aur kaajoo vrukshaaropan ko bhi sena dvaara andhaadhundh nasht kar diya gaya. parinaamasvaroop, jab teepoo ki senaaon ne guroovaayoor aur aasann kshetron par aakraman kiya, Syriai isaai samudaaya kelikt aur chhote shaharon se nae sthaanon jaise kunnamkulam, chalaakudi, ennaakadu, cheppadu, kannankode, mavelikkaara aadi mein bhaag gaye jahaan isaai samaaj ke log rahate the. unhein kochin aur kaarthika thiroonal ke shaasak, sakthaan tamburan ne sharan di aur traavanakor ke shaasak jinhonne unhein bhoomi di, vrukshaaropan aur unke vyaapaar ko protsaahit kiya. traavanakor ke british nivaasi Colonel makkulaya ne bhi unhein madad ki.[104]

usaka utpeedn pakade gaye british sainikon par bhi jaari raha. udaaharan ke liye, 1780 se 1784 ke beech british bandhakon ke jabaran dharm parivartan ki sankhya adhik thi. pollilur ki ladaai mein unke vinaashakaari haar ke baad anginat sankhya mein mahilaaon ke saath 7,000 british purushon ko teepoo ke dvaara shreerangaapatanam ke kile mein bandi banaaya gaya. inmein se, 300 se adhik logon ka khatana kiya gaya aur muslim naam aur kapde diye gaye aur kai british rejimeint dhandhorachi ladko ko darabaari logon ke manoranjan ke liye nartaki ya naachane waali ke roop mein ghaaghara choli pahanane par majaboor kiya gaya. 10 saal ki lambi avadhi ki kaid ke baad un kaidiyon mein ek James skari bhi tha, usane bataaya ki kursi par baithna aur chaakoo aur kaanta ka istemaal karna bhi vah bhool gaya tha. usaki angreji kharaab ho gayi thi aur apne sabhi sthaaneeya bhaasha muhaavara ko bhool chuka tha. usaki tvacha ashvet ki tarah saanvale rang ki ho gayi thi aur iske alaava Europeeya kapadon se use nafarat ho gayi thi.[105] mangalaur kile ke aatmasamarpan ke dauraan jab british dvaara yuddhaviraam hua tha aur baad mein unke vaapasi ke dauraan sabhi mesteejos the aur 5,600 mangalauriyn Catholic ke saath baaki sabhi gair british videshi ek saath maare gaye the. teepoo sultaan dvaara vishvaasaghaat ke liye doshi thaharaaya gaye logon ko fauran faansi par lataka diya gaya, faansi ka chaukhat laashon ki sankhya se latak jaata tha. mrut shareer ke kaaran netraavati nadi itni badaboodaar ho gayi thi ki nadi ke kinaare rahane vaale sthaaneeya log vahaan se jaane ke liye majaboor ho gaye.[96]

muslim-bauddh sangharsh

1989 mein leh jile ke musalmaanon ka bauddhon dvaara ek saamaajik bahishkaar kiya gaya. bahishkaar 1992 tak chalta raha. leh mein bahishkaar ke samaapt hone ke baad musalmaanon aur bauddhon ke beech sambandhon mein kaafi sudhaar hua, haalaanki shak abhi bhi bana hua hai. 2000 ke dashak mein Kargil ke gaanv mein Quraan ko apavitr karne aur baad mein leh aur Kargil shahar mein musalmaanon aur bauddh samoohon ke beech hua sangharsh, Laddakh mein donon samudaayon ke beech gahre tanaav ka sanket karta hai.[106]

dakshin Asiaee musalmaanon ke beech jaati vyavastha

dakshin Asiaee musalmaanon ke beech jaati vyavastha saamaajik stareekaran ki ikaaiyon ko sandarbhit karta hai jo ki dakshin Asia mein musalmaanon ke beech mein viksit hua hai.

mool

sootron se sanket milta hai ki musalmaanon ke beech jaati ka vikaas kaafa (Kafa'a) ki avadhaarana ke parinaamasvaroop hua.[107][108][109] jin logon ko asharafs (shareef ko bhi deinkhe) ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai, unhein oonche star ka maana jaata hai aur unhein videshi arab vansh ka maana jaata hai[110][111], jabki ajlaafs ko hindu dharm se dharmaantarit hone wala musalmaan maana jaata hai aur unhein nichli jaati ka maana jaata hai. Bhaarat sahit, vaastavik muslim saamaajik vyavahaar, kathor saamaajik dhaanche ke astitv ki or ishaara karta hai jise kai muslim vidvaanon ne kaafa ki dhaarana ke saath sambandhit fik ke vistrut niyam ke maadhyam se uchit islaami manjoori pradaan karne ki koshish ki.

pramukh muslim vidvaan maulavi Ahmad raja Khan beralavi aur maulavi Ashraf Ali faarooki thaanvi janm par aadhaarit shreshth jaati ki avadhaarana ke jnyaaata hain. yeh tark diya jaata hai ki arab mool (Sayyed aur shekh) ke muslim gair-arab ya ajaami muslim se shreshth jaati ke hote hain aur isliye jab koi aadmi arab mool ka hone ka daava karta hai to vah ajaami mahila se nikaah kar sakta hai jabki iske vipreet sambhav naheen hai. isi tarah ka tark hai, ek pathaan muslim aadmi ek julaaha (Ansari) mansoori (dhuniya), rain (kunjara) ya kuraishi (kasaai ya boochad) mahilaaon se nikaah kar sakta hai lekin Ansari, rain, mansoori aur kuraishi aadmi pathaan mahila se nikaah naheen kar sakta hai, choonki aisa maana jaata hai ki pathaan ke mukaabale ye jaatiyaan nichli hain. inmein se kai ulaama yeh bhi maanate hain ki apni jaati ke bheetar hi nikaah sabse achha hota hai. Bhaarat mein sajaateeya vivaah ka kathorata se paalan kiya jaata hai.[112][113] sabse dilchasp baat yeh hai ki teen aanuvanshik adhyayan, jismein dakshin Asiaee musalmaanon ka pratinidhitv hai, yeh paaya gaya ki muslim aabaadi jbardast dhang se badh rahi hai jismein sthaaneeya gair-muslim mein kuchh pehchaan praapt videshi aabaadi bhi shaamil hai, mukhya roop se ve arabiyn peninsula ke bajaae Iran aur madhya Asia se hain.[14]

samaajik staran

dakshin Asia ke kuchh bhaagon mein musalmaan, ashrafs aur ajlaafs ke roop mein vibhaajit hain.[114] ashrafs, videshi vansh se utpann apni oonchi jaati ka daava karte hain.[110][115] hindu dharm se dharmaantarit hone vaale ko gair-ashrafs maana jaata hai aur isliye ve svadeshi aabaadi hote hain. ve, vaikalpik roop se kai vyaavasaayik jaatiyon mein vibhaajit ho jaate hain.[115]

ulema ki dhaara (islaami nyaayashaastr ke vidvaanon) kaafa ki avadhaarana ki madad se dhaarmik jaati vaidhata pradaan karte hain. muslim jaati vyavastha ke vidvaanon ki ghoshana ka ek shaastreeya udaaharan fatwa-E jahaandaari hai, jise Turkey vidvaanon jiyaauddeen baraani dvaara chaudahaveen shataabdi mein likha gaya tha, jo ki Delhi saltanat ke tugalak vansh ke muhammad bin tugalak darbaar ke ek sadasya the. barani ko uske kathorata poorvak jaativaadi vichaaron ke liye jaana jaata tha aur ajlaaf musalmaanon se Ashraf musalmaanon ko nasli roop se ooncha maana jaata hai. unhonne musalmaanon ko gred aur up shreniyon mein vibhaajit kiya. unki yojana mein, sabhi uchch pad aur visheshaadhikaar, bhaarateeya musalmaanon ki bajaae turk mein janm lene vaale ka ekaadhikaar hain. yahaan tak ki unki Quraan ki apni vyaakhya "vaastav mein, aap logon ke beech sabse pavitra Allah hain" unhonne mahaan janm ke saath dharmanishthata ka jude hone ko maanate hain. barraani apne sifaarish par sateek the arthaat "mohammad ke bete" [yaani asharafs] " ko [yaani ajlaaf] ki tulana mein ek uchch saamaajik sthiti diya.[116] fatwa mein unka sabse mahatvapoorn yogadaan islaam ke liye sammaan ke saath jaatiyon ka unka vishleshan tha.[116] unka daava tha ki jaatiyon ko raajya kaanoon ya "jvaabi" ke maadhyam se anivaarya kiya jaaega aur jab kabhi ve sangharsh mein the shareeyat kaanoon par poorvavartita ko laaya jaaega.[116] fatwa-E jahaandaari (salaah XXI) mein unhonne "uchch janm ke gun" ke baare mein "dhaarmik" aur "nyoon janm" ke roop mein "dosh ke sanrakshak" likha tha. har kaarya jo "daridrata se dooshit aur apayash par aadhaarit] najaakat se [ajlaaf se] aata hai".[116] baraani ke paas ajlaaf ke liye ek spasht tirskaar tha aur drudhta se unhonne unke shiksha se vanchit karne ki sifaarish ki hai, kyonki aisa na ho ki ve Ashraf ki svaamitv ko hadp lein. unhonne prabhaav manjoori ke liye dhaarmik maang ko uchit maana hai.[109] saath hi barraani ne jaati ke aadhaar par shaahi adhikaari ("vajeer") ki padonnati aur padaavanati ki ek vistrut pranaali ko viksit kiya.[116]

Ashraf/ajlaaf ke vibhaajan ke alaava, musalmaanon mein ek arajl jaati bhi hoti hai, jinhein baabaasaaheb ambedakar ki tarah jaati-virodhi kaaryakarta ke roop mein maana jaata hai jo ki ek achhoot ki tarah hain.[117][118] "arajl" shabd ka sambandh "apamaan" se hota hai aur arajl jaati ko bhanar, halaalakhor, hijra, kasbi, lalabegi, maugta, mehatar aadi mein pratibhaag kiya jaata hai.[117][118][119] arajl samooh ko 1901 ki Bhaarat ki janaganana mein darj kiya gaya tha aur inhein dalit muslim bhi kaha jaata hai "inke saath aur muhammadad naheen judte aur inhein masjid mein pravesh karne aur saarvajanik kabristaan ka istemaal karne se varjit kiya jaata hai."unhein safaai karna aur maila le jaana jaise "chhote" vyavasaayon ke liye door kiya jaata hai.[120]

kuchh dakshin Asiaee musalmaanon ko kuoms ke anusaar unke samaajik stareekaran ke liye jaana gaya hai.[121] ye musalmaan, saamaajik stareekaran ki ek rasm aadhaarit pranaali ko maanate hain. kuoms, jo maanav utsarjan ke saath samjhauta karta hai use nimnatam star diya jaata hai. Bhaarat mein bangaali musalmaanon ke adhyayan se sanket milta hai ki shuddhata aur ashuddhata ki avadhaarana un ke beech hi maujood hain aur antar - samooh ke rishton mein laagoo hota hai, choonki ek vyakti mein svachhata aur safaai ka vichaar vyakti ki saamaajik sthiti par nirbhar hoti hai, na ki usaki aarthik sthiti par.[115] bhaarateeya musalmaanon mein muslim rajput bhi ek jaati hai.

muslim samudaaya ke kuchh pichhde ya nimn jaati mein shaamil Ansari kunjar churihaara, dhobi aur halaalakhor shaamil hain. uchch aur madhyam jaati ke muslim samudaayon mein Sayyed, shekh, shaikhjda, khaanajaada, pathaan, mugal aur malik shaamil hain.[122] aanuvanshik deta bhi is stareekaran samarthan karta hai.[123] ise dhyaan mein rakhana chaahiye ki Bhaarat mein arabi vansh ke liye adhikaansh daave trutipoorn hain aur sthaaneeya shareeyat mein arabi praathamiktaaon ki or ishaara karte hain. sabse dilchasp baat yeh hai ki teen aanuvanshik adhyayanon mein jismein dakshin Asiaee musalmaanon ka pratinidhitv hai, yeh paaya gaya ki muslim aabaadi jbardast dhang se badh rahi hai jismein sthaaneeya gair-muslim mein kuchh pehchaan praapt videshi aabaadi bhi shaamil hai, mukhya roop se ve arabiyn peninsula ke bajaae Iran aur madhya Asia se hain.[14]

sachchar samiti ki report Bhaarat sarkaar dvaara maanyataapraapt hai aur 2006 mein jaari hui thi, samaaj stareekaran mein muslim dastaavej jaari hain.

sampark aur gatisheelata

oonchi jaat aur neechi jaat ke beech sampark, sthaapit jajamaani pranaali ke sanrakshak-graahak sambandhon dvaara viniymit hai, oonchi jaatiyon ko 'jajamaan' ke roop mein sandarbhit kiya jaata hai aur nimn jaatiyon ko 'kamin' kaha jaata hai. nimn jaati ke musalmaanon ke saath sampark mein aane se oonchi jaat ka musalmaan laghu snaan karke apne ko shuddh kar sakta hai, kyonki shuddheekaran ke liye koi vistrut vidhi naheen hai.[115] Bhaarat ke Bihar raajya mein aise maamalon ki soochana di gayi hai jismein uchch jaati ka musalmaan, kabristaan mein nimn jaati ke musalmaanon ki antyeshti ka virodh karta hai.[122]

kuchh aankade ingit karte hai ki hinduon ki tarah musalmaanon ke beech jaati bhed kathor naheen hai.[124][124] bangalaadesh mein ek puraani kahaavat hai: pichhle saal main ek julaaha tha; is saal ek shekh hoon; aur agale saal yadi fasal theek rahi to main ek saiyyad hooonga."[125] haalaanki, ambedakar jaise anya vidvaan is ukti se asahamat the (neeche aalochna ko deinkhe) prasiddh soofi, Sayyed jalaaluddeen bukhaari jinhein makhadoom jahaaniyaan-A-jahaangaasht ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, ne ghoshana ki hai Quraan se adhik gyaan pradaan karna aur praarthana aur upavaas ke niyam tathaakathit raajil (ajlafs) jaati ke liye sooar aur kutte ke saamane moti bikhrane ki tarah hai! unhonne kathit taur par jor dekar kaha ki doosare musalmaanon ko sharaab aur soodakhor ke upabhokta ke alaava naaiyon, laashon ko saaf karne vaale, rangarej, charmakaar, mochi, dhanush nirmaataaon aur dhobi ke saath khaana naheen chaahiye. mohammad Ashraf apne 'hindustaani maashara ahad-A-usta mein" likhte hain ki kai madhyayugeen islaami shaasak nimn varg ke logon ko apne darabaaron mein pravesh karne ki anumati naheen dete the, ya agar koi pravesh kar bhi jaata tha to unhein munh kholne se mana kiya jaata tha kyonki use ve 'ashuddh' maanate the.[112] vidvaan shabbeer Ahmad hakeem ne thaanavi dvaara likhit pustak "masaavaat-A- bahaar-A shareeyat" se uddhrut karte hain, jismein thanavi tark dete hain ki 'julaahon' (bunakar) aur 'naai' (naai) ko musalmaanon ke gharon mein pravesh karne ki anumati naheen dena chaahiye. apne "bahishti jevar" mein thaanavi ne daava kiya hai ki ek Sayyed pita aur ek gair Sayyed maan ke bete saamaajik drushti se ek Sayyed jodi ke bachchon se heen hota hai.

apne "imadaad ul-fatwa mein, thaanavi ne ghoshana ki ki sayyaid, shekh, mugal aur pathaan sabhi 'sammaanit'(shareef) samudaaya hain aur kaha ki tel-nichodne wala (teli) aur bunakar (julaaha) samudaaya 'nimn' jaatiyaan hain (raajil akvaam). unhonne kaha ki gair-arab, islaam mein parivrtit karne vaale 'nav-musalmaan' ko sthaapit musalmaan (khaanadaani musalmaan) ke saath kafa, nikaah prayojan ke roop mein vichaar naheen kiya ja sakta hai. tadanusaar unhonne tark diya ki pathaan gair-arab hain aur isliye 'nav musalmaan' hain aur saiyyad aur shaikh kafa naheen hain, jo arab vansh ka daava karte hain, isliye unke saath antarvivaah naheen kar sakte hain. all India muslim parsanal law board ke pehle adhyaksh aur devaband madarase ke kulapati maulavi kaari mohammad tayyeb Siddiqui ke kulapati bhi jaativaad ke samarthak the aur mufti usmaani ki kitaab ke samarthan mein do pustakein likheen: "ansab va kaabil ka tafaajul" aur "nasb aur islaam". jaati ko vaidh thaharaane ki is parampara ke anusaar, aaj bhi dekha ja sakta hai ki aaj bhi devaband madarase ke pravesh firm mein ek stambh hai jismein aavedakon se unke jaati ka naam likhne ke liye poochha jaata hai. iske sthaapit hone ke kai saal baad, gair-Ashraf chhaatr aam taur par devaband mein bharti naheen hote the aur yeh vyavahaar abhi bhi jaari hai.

aalochna

kuchh muslim vidvaanon ne kaha hai ki bhaarateeya muslim samaaj mein jis prakaar ki jaati visheshata hai vah "Quraan ki vishvadrushti ka khula ullanghan hai.". haalaanki, jyaadaatar muslim vidvaan iska ek alag tareeke se anumaan lagaane aur jaativaad ke auchitya ke liye Quraan auऱ shareeyat ki vyaakhya ke maadhyam se "Quraan samataavaad aur bhaarateeya muslim saamaajik pratha" mein saamanjasya sthaapit karne aur pun: theek karne ki koshish karte hain.[126]

haalaanki kuchh vidvaanon ka siddhaant hai ki hinduon jaatiyon ki tarah muslim jaatiyon mein bhedabhaav naheen hai,[109][124] dau॰ ambedakar ne iske vipreet apna tark dete hue likha ki muslim samaaj mein jis prakaar saamaajik buraaiyaan theen vah "hindu samaaj se bhi badatar theen" .[117][118]

baabaasaaheb ambedakar bhaarateeya raajaneeti ke vikhyaat vyakti the aur bhaarateeya samvidhaan ke mukhya vaastukaar hain. ve muslim jaati vyavastha aur unke abhyaason ke katu aalochak the, unhonne uddhrut kiya ki "in samoohon ke jaati ke bheetar ekdam hinduon ki hi tarah saamaajik vareeyata hoti hai lekin kai maayanon mein ve hindu jaatiyon se bhi badatar hoti hain.". Ashraf ko kaise ajlaf aur agajl ko "bekaar" maana jaata hai ke ve katu aalochak hain aur vah tathya jise musalmaan "bhaaichaare" ke maadhyam se kathor baat ko komal reeti se kehte hue saampradaayik vibhaajan ka varnan karne ki koshish karte hain. saath hi unhonne bhaarateeya musalmaanon ke beech shaastron ke shaabdik arth ko apnaane ke liye bhi aalochna ki jo ki musalmaanon mein muslim jaati vyavastha ke kathorata aur bhedabhaav ki or agrasar hui. unhonne muslim jaativaad ke liye shareeyat ke anumodan ki ninda ki. yeh samaaj mein videshi tatvon ki shreshthata par aadhaarit tha jisne antat: sthaaneeya daliton ke patan ka netrutv kiya. yeh traasadi hinduon ki tulana mein adhik kathor thi jo ki jaateeya aadhaar par daliton ke samarthan se sambandhit hai. 1300 mein Bhaarat mein islaami upasthiti ke dauraan bhaarateeya musalmaanon mein arab mahatta ko uchch aur nimn jaati ke hinduon dvaara baraabar asveekruti ki jaati thi. jis prakaar doosare deshon ke musalmaanon jaise beesaveen shataabdi ke praarambhik dashakon mein turkiyon ne apna sudhaar kiya isi prakaar se Bhaarat mein muslim samudaayon ke sudhaar karne mein asamarthata ka unhonne ninda ki.[117][118]

Pakistani-ameriki samaajashaastri aayasha jalaal apni pustak "demokresi end othoriteriyenijm in south Asia" (dakshin Asia mein lokatantr aur nirankushavaad) mein likhti hain ki "samataavaadi siddhaanton ke baavajood, dakshin Asia mein islaam aitihaasik roop se varg aur jaati asamaanataaon ke prabhaav se bachane mein asamarth raha hai. hindu dharm ke maamale mein, braahmanavaadi saamaajik vyavastha ke padaanukramit siddhaanton mein hamesha se hi hindu samaaj ke bheetar vivaad raha hai, jisse yeh sujhaav milta hai ki hindu dharm mein aaj bhi samaanata ko mahatva diya jaata hai."[127]

inhein bhi dekhein: Caste system among South Asian Muslims

muslim sansthaan

Aligadh muslim vishvavidyaalaya

Bhaarat mein kai muslim sansthaan sthaapit hain. yahaan musalmaanon dvaara sthaapit pratishthit sansthaanon ki soochi di ja rahi hai.

  • aadhunik vishvavidyaalaya aur sansthaan:
  1. Aligadh muslim vishvavidyaalaya
  2. anjuman-A-islaam, mumbai.
  3. era Lucknow medical college, Lucknow
  4. jamaal mohammad college trichiraapalli
  5. daar-us saalam education trast
  6. jaamiya miliya islaamiya
  7. hamadard vishvavidyaalaya
  8. al-barakaat shaikshik sansthaan, Aligadh
  9. maulaana aajaad education society Aurangabad
  10. dau॰ rafeek jkaariya kaimpas Aurangabad
  11. al ameen ejukeshanal society
  12. kreseint engineering college
  13. al-kabeer shaikshik samaaj
  14. daarul uloom deoband
  15. daarul-uloom nadavaatul ulaama
  16. inteegral vishvavidyaalaya
  17. ibn sina academy of midiyaaval mediseen end science
  18. national college of engineering, tirunalaveli
  19. al falaah school of engineering end taiknolauji, Faridabad
  20. daarul huda islaami vishvavidyaalaya
  21. usmaaniya vishvavidyaalaya
  22. jaamiya nijaamiya
  23. muslim ejukeshanal association of saaudarn India
  • paaramparik islaami vishvavidyaalaya:
  1. markaju sakfaathi sunniya, Kerala
  2. jaamiya daarul huda islaamiya
  3. raja academy

raajyon ke anusaar muslim aabaadi

vibhinn raajyon mein islaam ko maanane vaalon ki janasankhya ka pratishat: laal - 50-100%, oreinj - 25-50%, peela - 20-25%, green - 15-20%, blue - 10-15%, (bhaarateeya raashtreeya ausat), indigo - 5-10%, gre - <5%.

2001 ki janaganana ke anusaar bhaarateeya raajyon mein muslim aabaadi.[128]

raajya janasankhya pratishat
lakshadveep dveepasamooh 56353 93
Jammu va Kashmir 6,793,240 66.9700
asam 8,240,611 30.9152
pashchim Bengal 20,240,543 25.2451
Kerala 7,863,842 24.6969
uttar pradesh 30,740,158 18.4961
Bihar 13,722,048 16.5329
Jharkhand 3,731,308 13.8474
Karnataka 6,463,127 12.2291
uttaraanchal 1,012,141 11.9225
Delhi 1,623,520 11.7217
Maharashtra 10,270,485 10.6014
Andhra pradesh 6,986,856 9.1679
Gujarat 4,592,854 9.0641
manipur 190,939 8.8121
Rajasthan 4,788,227 8.4737
andamaan aur nikobaar dveepasamooh 29,265 8.2170
tripura 254,442 7.9533
daman va deev 12,281 7.7628
Goa 92,210 6.8422
Madhya Pradesh 3,841,449 6.3655
paandicheri 59,358 6.0921
Haryana 1,222,916 5.7836
Tamil Nadu 3,470,647 5.5614
meghaalaya 99,169 4.2767
Chandigarh 35,548 3.9470
daadara evam naagar haveli 6,524 2.9589
udeesa 761,985 2.0703
Chhattisgarh 409,615 1.9661
Himachal pradesh 119,512 1.9663
arunaachal pradesh 20,675 1.8830
nagaalaind 35,005 1.7590
Punjab 80,045 1.5684
sikkim 7,693 1.4224
mijoram 10,099 1.1365

janasankhya ka pratishat vitran (samaayojit) dhaarmik samudaayon dvaara: Bhaarat - 1961 se 2001 janaganana (asam aur Jammu Kashmir ko chhodkar).[3]

varsh pratishat
1951 10.1%
1971 10.4%
1981 11.9%
1991 12.0%
2001 12.8%

Bhaarat ke dhaarmik samudaaya dvaara janasankhya ka pratishat vitran (asamaayojit) - 1961-2001 ki janaganana (asam aur Jammu va Kashmir ko chhode bina).[3]

varsh pratishat
1961 10.7%
1971 11.2
1981 12.0%
1991 12.8%
2001 13.4%
taalika: 2001 ke liye janaganana jaankaari: hindu aur musalmaanon ki tulana [α] [β]
sanrachana hindu[129] muslim[130]
2001 janasankhya ka kul % 80.5 13.4
10 varsh vruddhi % ('91-01')[17] [β] 20.3 36.0
ling anupaat (* ausat. 933) 931 936
saaksharata dar (ausat. 64.8) 65.1 59.1
seemaant shramik 40.4 31.3
graameen ling anupaat[17] 944 953
shahari ling anupaat[17] 894 907
bachche ke ling anupaat (0-6 varsh) 925 950

dakshin Asia mein islaami parampara

soofeevaad, islaam ka ek rahasyamaya aayaam hai, jo aksar shareeyat ke vidhi sammat maarg ke saath poorak raha hai, usaka Bhaarat mein islaam ki vruddhi par gahra prabhaav pada. aksar roodhivaadi vyavahaar ke muhaanon par ek soofi Bhagwan ke saath seedhe ekaatmak drushti ko praapt karte hain aur iske baad ek peer (jeevit sant) ban sakte hain jo ki shishyata (murid) ko grahan kar sakte hain aur aadhyaatmik vanshaavali ko sthaapit karte hain jo ki kai peedhiyon tak chal sakta hai. moinuddeen chishti (1142-1236) ke shaasan ke baad jo ki Ajmer, Rajasthan mein base the, terahaveen shataabdi ke dauraan soofiyon ka panth Bhaarat mein mahatvapoorn ho gaya aur unhonne apni pavitrata ke chalte islaam mein dharmaantarit karne ke liye mahatvapoorn sankhyaaon mein logon ko aakarshit kiya. unki chishtiya panth Bhaarat mein sabse prabhaavashaali soofi vansh ban gaya, haalaanki madhya Asia aur dakshin pashchim Asia ke anya kram bhi Bhaarat mein pahanchi aur ismaam ke prasaar mein pramukh bhoomika nibhaai. is tarah, unhonne kshetreeya bhaasha mein tamaam saahitya ka srujan kiya jismein praacheen dakshin Asiaee paranparaaon mein gahanatam islaami sanskruti ko sannihit kiya gaya.

sangathan aur netrutv

muslim samudaaya ke netaaon ne bhaarateeya islaam ke vikaas mein vibhinn dishaaon ko khangaala aur beesaveen shataabdi ke dauraan muslim samudaaya se kai raashtreeya aandolan ubhare. sabse roodhivaadi shaakha ki nirbharata, poore desh bhar mein saikadon dharm prashikshan sansthaanon (madarasa) dvaara di jaane waali shiksha pranaali par hai jo arabi aur faarasi bhaasha mein Quraan aur islaamik pustakon ke adhyayan ke alaava kuchh aur naheen sikhaate hain.

2005-2006 ke madhya mein anumaanit 15 karod ke do-tihaai bhaarateeya muslim aabaadi rahasyavaad sunni barelavi vichaaradhaara aur dargaah bhraman, sangeet aur yog vidya jaise soofi parampara ke anuyaayi maane jaate hain.[131] manjr-A-islaam bareli aur al jamiyaatul asharafiya, barelavi musalmaanon ka sabse prasiddh seminri hai. 2005-2006 ke dauraan muslim samudaaya ke paryaapt alpasankhyakon ka bhaarateeya shiya musalmaan ek roop hai jo ki us samay ke 157 million ki kul muslim aabaadi ka anumaanit 25%-31% hai. times of India aur DNA jaise sootron ne bataaya ki us samay ke dauraan bhaarateeya musalmaanon ki kul aabaadi 157,000,000 ka 40,000,000[132][132] se 50,000,000[133]ki aabaadi shiya musalmaanon ki thi[134][135]

uttarapradesh ke sahaaranapur jile mein prabhaavashaali dhaarmik madarasa daarul uloom devaband (gyaan ka nivaas/ghar) se utpann Bhaarat ke hanaafi vichaaradhaara ke baad muslim aabaadi ka ek aur prabhaavashaali bhaag devaband hai. is madarase ko apne raashtravaadi unmukheekaran ke liye jaana jaata hai aur bhaarateeya svatantrata sangraam mein isne mahatvapoorn bhoomika nibhaai.1919 mein devabandi vidvaanon dvaara sthaapit jameeyat-ul-ulema-A hind ne raashtreeya svatantrata aandolan mein bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ko apna samarthan diya aur daarul uloom ke liye ek raajaneetik mukhapatr bana.[136]

1941 mein sthaapit jamaat-A-islaami hind (islaami party) ne ek islaami sarkaar ki sthaapana ki vakaalat ki aur samudaaya ke liye shiksha, samaaj seva aur ekataavaadi pahunch ko badhaava dene mein sakriya raha.[137]

1940 ke dashak ke baad tableeghi jamaat (aautareech society) sakriya ho gayi kyonki vishesh taur par ulema (dhaarmik netaaon) ke beech ek aandolan shuroo hui jismein vyaktigat naveeneekaran ka tanaav, ek mishnari bhaavana aur kattarpanthiyon ke liye dhyaan jor diya gaya. is prakaar ki gatividhiyon ki kadi aalochna ki gayi jo ki soofi dhaarmik sthalon ke aaspaas shuroo hui thi aur ulema ke prashikshan ko majaboor kiye jaane ke kaaran yeh sookshm ban kar rah gayi. iske vipreet, anya ulema saamoohik dharm ki vaidhata ko barkaraar rakha jismein peer ke ullaas aur paiganbar ki smruti shaamil hai. Sayyed Ahmad Khan ke netrutv mein ek vyaapak, adhik aadhunik aur anya pramukh muslim vishvavidyaalayon ke saath Aligadh muslim vishvavidyaalaya (1875 tak muhammadan oriental college ke roop mein) mein ek shaktishaali dharmanirpekshata ko chalaaya gaya..

bhaarateeya musalmaanon ka basteekaran

haalaanki praacheen shaharon mein deevaar se ghire hue shahar musalmaanon ka paaramparik aavaas the, vibhaajan ke baad uchch varg ke kai musalmaan shahar ke anya bhaagon mein rahane lage. bhaarateeya musalmaanon ke beech basteekaran 1970 ke dashak ke madhya mein shuroo hua jab pratham saampradaayik dange hue, 1989 ke Bhaagalpur dangon ke baad ismein aur badhotri hui aur 1992 mein baabari masjid ke vidhvans ke baad yeh ek pravrutti ban gayi, uske baad sheegra hi kai pramukh shaharon mein muslim basti ya ek alag kshetron ka vikaas hua jahaan muslim aabaadi rahane lagi.[138] haalaanki is pravrutti se pratyaashit suraksha mein koi madad naheen mili jo ki muslim basti ke gumanaami ko pradaan karne ka socha gaya tha, jaisa ki 2002 ke Gujarat dangon ke dauraan dekha gaya tha, jahaan kai muslim bastiyon ko aasaani se nishaana banaaya gaya tha, kyonki aavaaseeya kauloniyon ki rooparekha mein keval sahaayata mili thi.[139][140][141][142]

bastiyon mein rahane ke kaaran saamaajik roodhibddhata mein vikaas hua jiska kaaran tha paar-saanskrutik sampark ka abhaav aur bade paimaane par aarthik aur shaikshik avsaron mein kami. vaheen doosari taraf, vah bada samudaaya, jo islaami paranparaaon ke saath sadiyon se apne sanparkon ke kaaran laabhaanvit hota raha aur jisne do bhinn paranparaaon ke milan ke maadhyam se nirmit ek samruddh, saanskrutik aur saamaajik taane-baane ka vikaas kiya tha, us par lag-thalag ho jaane ka khatra teji se mandaraane laga.[143] kuchh logon ke dvaara Bhaarat mein dharmanirpekshata ko lokatantr ke liye anivaarya roop ke bajaae ek alpasankhyak ke roop mein dekha ja raha hai.[144][145]

inhein bhi dekhein


sandarbh

  1. Mapping the Global Muslim Population Pew Forum.
  2. CIA's The World Factbook - India
  3. a aa i http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/India_at_glance/religion.aspx Census of Indian: Religious Composition ]
  4. sharma, oosha. Cultural and Religious Heritage of India: Islam. Mittal Publications, 2004. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 817099960X, 9788170999607.
  5. E. Dunn, Ross. The adventures of Ibn Battuta, a Muslim traveler of the fourteenth century. University of California Press, 1986. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0520057716, 9780520057715.
  6. Tharoor, Shashi. India: From Midnight to the Millennium and Beyond. Arcade Publishing, 2006. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1559708034, 9781559708036.
  7. muslim parsanal law (shareeyat) apleekeshan act, 1937 - anusandhaan kshetraadhikaar ke liye sansaadhan, yel
  8. the hetreds of India; hindu mimori skaard baai seinchrij of samataaims despotik islaamik rul New York times, prakaashit: 11 December 1992
  9. "The dole devotees frown upon". TMC news. 2009-10-26. http://www.tmcnet.com/usubmit/2009/10/26/4445708.htm.
  10. shauvik ghosh, "haj subsidy haij air India fyuming", the financial express, 13 sitmbar 2008, 26 June 2009 ko pun: praapt
  11. Pg 11, Indian end foren review bye India.soochana evam prasaaran mantraalaya. prakaashan vibhaag
  12. Bhaarat ke musalmaan
  13. Journal of Human Genetics (2009-05-08). "Access : Diverse genetic origin of Indian Muslims: evidence from autosomal STR loci : Journal of Human Genetics". Nature.com. http://www.nature.com/jhg/journal/v54/n6/full/jhg200938a.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-09-14.
  14. a aa i jyaadaatar dakshin Asiaee mool ke bhaarateeya musalmaan
  15. a aa Guilmoto, Christophe. Fertility transition in south India. SAGE, 2005. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0761932925, 9780761932925.
  16. Bhaarat ki muslim janasankhya videsh sambandh parishad ke liye kareen jissis dvaara
  17. a aa i E "Census of India.". Census of India. Census Data 2001: India at a glance >> Religious Composition. Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/Census_Data_2001/India_at_glance/religion.aspx. abhigman tithi: 2008-11-26. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "censuspresentation" defined multiple times with different content
  18. cheinjes in fartiliti rets emong muslims in India, Pakistan, end Bangladesh, erik dvaara janasankhya sandarbh bureau ke liye.
  19. Jeffery, Roger and Patricia Jeffery. Population, gender, and politics. Cambridge University Press, 1997. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0521466539, 9780521466530.
  20. prasaad. Population and family life education. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD., 2004. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 8126118008, 9788126118007.
  21. Shakeel Ahmad. Muslim attitude towards family planning. Sarup & Sons, 2003. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 8176253898, 9788176253895.
  22. Nair, V. Balakrishnan. Social development and demographic changes in South India: focus on Kerala. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd., 1994. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 8185880506, 9788185880501.
  23. Paul Kurtz. Multi-Secularism: A New Agenda. Transaction Publishers, 2010. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1412814197, 9781412814195.
  24. a aa i Narain Singh, Surya. Muslims in India. Anmol Publications PVT. LTD., 2003. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 8126114274, 9788126114276.
  25. muslim populeshan kood diklaain: sachchar report, redif news
  26. India ej N ostarich svapn daasagupta, redif news
  27. laungamain, Phillip (November 2010). "Think Again: Global Aging". Foreign Policy. http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/10/11/think_again_global_aging?page=0,2. abhigman tithi: 26 November 2010.
  28. jaami masjid
  29. ISBN 81-86050-79-5 madhyakaaleen aur praacheen Bhaarat itihaas
  30. ISBN 983-9154-80-X
  31. sturrokk, J, south Canara aur Madras jila mainual (2 khand, Madras, 1894-1895)
  32. ISBN 81-85843-05-8 Bhaarat ki saanskrutik viraasat, bhaag chaturth
  33. jenesis end growth of the mepila kamyuniti
  34. -cheraaman juma masjid A secular heritage
  35. bahareen tribyoon varlds second oldest moski in India
  36. A moski fraum A hindu King
  37. -jenesis end growth of the mepila kamyuniti
  38. Saliba, George (2007). Islamic Science and the Making of the European Renaissance. The MIT Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0-262-19557-7.
  39. *madanalaal varma 'kraant' sarafaroshi ki tamanna 1997 praveen prakaashan Delhi ke (bhaag-ek) prushth-70 se 73 se
  40. tanuja chandra (3 March 2004[1] dileep Kumar: saaileint revolushanaari] sifi mooveej 30-03-2009 ko praapt kiya gaya hai.
  41. Zubair Ahmad (23 September 2005) hoo is the riyel Shahrukh Khan? BBC samaachaar (BBC). 30-03-2009 ko praapt kiya gaya hai.
  42. Aamir speeks out of ej A muslim indiyaaglitj (05 August 2005). 30-03-2009 ko praapt kiya gaya hai.
  43. Salman Khan NNDB. 2009/03/30 ko liya gaya.
  44. a aa deepa gahalot (July 1998) 'reelijiyn pleyad A major rol in maai apabringing' sabarang kamyunikeshans. 03-04-2009 ko uddhrut.
  45. subhaash ke jha (21 August 2008) 'I veint too muslim bildar, 'jes saif times of India. 30-03-2009 ko uddhrut.
  46. madhubaala top news. 30-03-2009 ko uddhrut.
  47. aarya ayaippan (20 November 2006) praveen shaahani too wed Imran Hashmi van India. 30-03-2009 ko uddhrut.
  48. Indian demokresi anafeyar too muslim: shabaana aazmi times of India. 17 August 2008. 03-04-2009 ko uddhrut.
  49. vaheeda Rahman Bollywood501. 04-03-2009 ko uddhrut.
  50. mitvyayi arabapatti.
  51. Arvind kaala: haaiding what vel-non
  52. [major general kaaradojo, Ian (2003), paramaveer nai Delhi: lotus kalekshan, ISBN 81-7436-262-2]
  53. param veer chakr vijeta company quarter master 'hawaldaar abdul hameed ke liye mukh prushth
  54. mahaaveer chakr, Bhaarat-rakshak
  55. Anil Bhat Posted: Feb 14, 2006 at 0000 hrs IST (2006-02-14). "Brave Indians, also Muslim". Indianexpress.com. http://www.indianexpress.com/oldStory/87825/. abhigman tithi: 2010-09-14.
  56. CJ: Rajesh Bhat. "A high-profile 'Naik' of Indian Army". Merinews.com. http://www.merinews.com/article/a-high-profile-naik-of-indian-army/132377.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2010-09-14.
  57. abdul kalaam
  58. aara॰ ke॰ pruthi.raashtrapati e॰apee॰aje॰ abdul kalaam. anmol pablikeshans, 2002. ISBN 978-81-261-1344-6; Ch. 4. misaail main of India. 61-76 peepi
  59. saakshaatkaar: dau॰aSZ kaasim
  60. hope haings on stem sel therepi
  61. Bhaskar Roy, TNN, Dec 12, 2009, 12.54am IST (2009-12-12). "Kalam, Shah Rukh in most influential Muslims list - the times of indiya". Timesofindia.indiatimes.com. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Kalam-Shah-Rukh-in-most-influential-Muslims-list/articleshow/5328554.cms. abhigman tithi: 2010-09-14.
  62. (saujanya: Culturopedia.com)
  63. muslim parsanal law (shareeyat) anuprayog adhiniyam, 1937 Vakilno1.com
  64. India reepablik of emori law school
  65. Mukerjee, Sutapa (February 9, 2005). "India's Muslims face up to rifts". BBC NEWS. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/4235999.stm. abhigman tithi: 2010-06-23.
  66. a aa i E u der veer, 27-29
  67. a aa i E itan, richrd M. the raaij of islaam end the beingaal frantiyer, 1204-1760. Berkeley: California vishvavidyaalaya press, c1993 1993.online sanskaran ka antim abhigman 1 May 2007
  68. Durant, Will. "The Story of Civilization: Our Oriental Heritage" (page 459).
  69. Elst, Koenraad (2006-08-25). "Was there an Islamic "Genocide" of Hindus?". Kashmir Herald. http://www.kashmirherald.com/main.php?t=OP&st=D&no=138. abhigman tithi: 2006-08-25.
  70. Sarkar, Jadunath. How the Muslims forcibly converted the Hindus of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh to Islam.
  71. bhaarateeya muslim samaaj mein jaati
  72. Aggarwal, Patrap (1978). Caste and Social Stratification Among Muslims in India. Manohar.
  73. Maddison, Angus (2006). The Contours of the World Economy 1-2030 AD. Oxford University Press.
  74. birben, jeen noel (2003). "the raaijing nanbars of hyumanakaaind" populeshan end society 394 .
  75. islaam end the sab-kanteeneint - eprejing its impaikt
  76. "Somnath Temple". http://www.indhistory.com/somnath-temple.html. abhigman tithi: 2009-04-17.
  77. "Somanatha and Mahmud". http://www.flonnet.com/fl1608/16081210.htm. abhigman tithi: 2008-04-17.
  78. Richards, John F. (1995). The Mughal Empire. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 130, 177. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-521-56603-7.
  79. India great divaaid. 4 April 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  80. India great divaaid. 4 April 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  81. demand for CBI prob intu jaheera you-turn.the hindu . 4 April 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  82. stil A barning kvesachans
  83. "Banerjee panel illegal: Gujarat HC". Expressindia.com. 2006-10-13. http://www.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=75485. abhigman tithi: 2010-09-14.
  84. ye aankade gruh raajya mantri shreeprakaash jaayasavaal dvaara May 2005 mein raajya sabha ke liye soochit kiya gaya. [141] [142] [143]
  85. "Islamist Militancy in Kashmir: The Case of the Lashkar-i Tayyeba by Yoginder Sikand | November 20, 2003". Sacw.net. http://www.sacw.net/DC/CommunalismCollection/ArticlesArchive/sikand20Nov2003.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-09-14.
  86. A hindu baikalaish hits Sonia Gandhi- upiasiaonline.com
  87. a aa ramesh, Randeep. enodar reeraait for India histari book, the gaarjiyn .
  88. "Communal clash near Bangla border, Army deployed". Kolkata: the times of indiya. September 8, 2010. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/india/Communal-clash-near-Bangla-border-Army-deployed/articleshow/6516123.cms. abhigman tithi: September 11, 2010.
  89. "Army out after Deganga rioting". Kolkata: the times of indiya. September 8, 2010. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/kolkata-/Army-out-after-Deganga-rioting/articleshow/6516493.cms. abhigman tithi: September 11, 2010.
  90. "Curfew in Bengal district, Army called in". Kolkata: Indian Express. September 8, 2010. http://www.indianexpress.com/news/Curfew-in-Bengal-district--Army-called-in/678774. abhigman tithi: September 11, 2010.
  91. Bose, Raktima (September 8, 2010). "Youth killed in group clash". the hindu. http://www.hindu.com/2010/09/08/stories/2010090859680100.htm. abhigman tithi: September 11, 2010.
  92. Shackle, Christopher; Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh (2005). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. United Kingdom: Routledge. pp. xv-xvi. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-415-26604-1.
  93. Rama, Swami (1986). Celestial Song/Gobind Geet: The Dramatic Dialogue Between Guru Gobind Singh and Banda Singh Bahadur. Himalayan Institute Press. pp. 7–8. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-89389-103-7.
  94. Singh, Khushwant (2006). The Illustrated History of the Sikhs. India: Oxford University Press. pp. 47–53. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-19-567747-1.
  95. vibhaajan mein marne vaalon ki sankhya
  96. a aa i E u sarasvati children, jo lobo
  97. Forrest 1887, prushth 314–316]
  98. The Gentleman's Magazine 1833, prushth 388
  99. "Christianity in Mangalore". Diocese of Mangalore. Archived from the original on 2008-06-22. http://web.archive.org/web/20080622155343/http://www.dioceseofmangalore.org/history.asp. abhigman tithi: 2008-07-30.
  100. John B. Monteiro. "Monti Fest Originated at Farangipet - 240 Years Ago!". Daijiworld Media Pvt Ltd Mangalore. http://www.daijiworld.com/chan/exclusive_arch.asp?ex_id=129. abhigman tithi: 2009-04-28.
  101. Bowring 1997, prushth 126
  102. Scurry & Whiteway 1824, prushth 103
  103. Scurry & Whiteway 1824, prushth 104
  104. ke.L. barnaard, kerala histari peepi 79
  105. William delarimpal white mugals (2006) p28
  106. http://www.countercurrents.org/comm-sikand130206.htm
  107. bartan-pej, J. "hindu. " enasaaiklopeediya of islaam. pi. biyramain, th biyaanakvees, seei bosavarth, E vain donjeelaand dabalyoo. pi. Henricks dvaara sanpaadit. bril, 2006. bril online.
  108. muslim Caste system in uttar pradesh (saanskrutik aadaan-pradaan ka ek adhyayan), ghaus, Ansari, Lucknow 1960, prushth 66
  109. a aa i Singh Sikand, Yoginder. "Caste in Indian Muslim Society". Hamdard University. http://stateless.freehosting.net/Caste%20in%20Indian%20Muslim%20Society.htm. abhigman tithi: 2006-10-18.
  110. a aa Aggarwal, Patrap (1978). Caste and Social Stratification Among Muslims in India. Manohar.
  111. Bhatty, Zarina (1996). "Social Stratification Among Muslims in India". In M N Srinivas. Caste: Its Twentieth Century Avatar. Viking, Penguin Books India. pp. 249–253. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0140257608. http://www.anti-caste.org/muslim_question/caste/bhatty_article.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-12.
  112. a aa "Pasmanda Muslim Forum: Caste and Social Hierarchy Among Indian Muslims: M.A.Falahi (Interview)". Dalitmuslims.com. 2008-08-10. http://www.dalitmuslims.com/2008/08/caste-and-social-hierarchy-among-indian.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-09-14.
  113. People of India: Maharashtra - Google Books. Books.google.co.in. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=BsBEgVa804IC&pg=PA942&lpg=PA942&dq=kasai+caste&source=bl&ots=0lZ8fZd2Qo&sig=tInVeyIU_hqhwxizwqa2nTeyVIU&hl=en&ei=jWWHS5eEFY-2rAenoLSaCg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAYQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=kasai%20caste&f=false. abhigman tithi: 2010-09-14.
  114. Asghar Ali Engineer. "On reservation for Muslims". The Milli Gazette. Pharos Media & Publishing Pvt Ltd,. http://www.milligazette.com/Archives/2004/01-15Sep04-Print-Edition/011509200449.htm. abhigman tithi: 2004-09-01.
  115. a aa i E sosiyel stretifikeshan among muslim in India jreena bhatti dvaara
  116. a aa i E u das, arabind, arthashaastr of kautilya end fatwa-E-jaharadaari of jiyaauddeen baraani: ek vishleshan, pratibha prakaashan, 1996 Delhi, ISBN 81-85268-45-2 124-143 prushth 124-143
  117. a aa i E Ambedkar, Bhimrao. Pakistan or the Partition of India. Thackers Publishers.
  118. a aa i E web risors for Pakistan or the paartishn of India
  119. Gitte Dyrhagen and Mazharul Islam (2006-10-18). "Consultative Meeting on the situation of Dalits in Bangladesh". International Dalit Solidarity Network. Archived from the original on 2007-08-03. http://web.archive.org/web/20070803023637/http://www.idsn.org/Documents/asia/pdf/Bangladesh_full_report.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-12.
  120. dijrv dij miths tanaveer fajal dvaara, Indian express
  121. Barth, Fredrik (1962). "The System Of Social Stratification In Swat, North Pakistan". In E. R. Leach. Aspects of Caste in South India, Ceylon, and North-West Pakistan. Cambridge University Press. pa॰ 113. http://www.questia.com/PM.qst?a=o&d=2995517. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-12.
  122. a aa Anand Mohan Sahay. "Backward Muslims protest denial of burial". Rediff.com. http://www.rediff.com/news/2003/mar/06bihar.htm. abhigman tithi: 2003-03-06.
  123. uttar Bhaarat ke kuchh muslim aabaadi mein jeen vividhta maanav jeevavijnyaaan - 77 khand, number 3, June 2005, peepi 343-353 - ven state university press
  124. a aa i Madan, T.N. (1976). Muslim communities of South Asia : culture and society. Vkas Publishing House. pa॰ 114. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-0706904628.
  125. Ikram, S. M. (1964). "The Interaction of Islam and Hinduism". Muslim Civilization in India. New York: Columbia University Press. http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00islamlinks/ikram/part1_09.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-12.
  126. yogindar Singh sikand, Caste in Indian muslim society
  127. A jalaal, demokresi end othoriteriynijm in south Asia: ek tulanaatmak aur aitihaasik pariprekshya (samakaaleen dakshin Asia), Cambridge university press (26 May 1995), ISBN 0-521-47862-6
  128. bhaarateeya janaganana 2001 - dharm
  129. "Tables: Profiles by main religions: Hindus" (PDF). Census of India 2001: DATA ON RELIGION. Office of the Registrar General, India. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/. abhigman tithi: 2007-04-17.
  130. "Tables: Profiles by main religions: Muslims" (PDF). Census of India 2001: DATA ON RELIGION. Office of the Registrar General, India. http://www.censusindia.gov.in/. abhigman tithi: 2007-04-17.
  131. Sandeep Unnithan and Uday Mahurkar (2008-07-31). "The radical sweep: Cover Story : India Today". Indiatoday.digitaltoday.in. http://indiatoday.digitaltoday.in/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=12343&Itemid=1&issueid=67&limit=1&limitstart=0. abhigman tithi: 2010-09-14.
  132. a aa "Shia women too can initiate divorce". the times of indiya . November 6, 2006. http://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/city/lucknow/Shia-women-too-can-initiate-divorce/articleshow/334804.cms. abhigman tithi: 2010-06-21. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "timesofindia.indiatimes.com" defined multiple times with different content
  133. "Talaq rights proposed for Shia women". Daily News and Analysis, www.dnaindia.com. 5 November 2006. http://www.dnaindia.com/india/report_talaq-rights-proposed-for-shia-women_1062327. abhigman tithi: 2010-06-21.
  134. "India Third in Global Muslim Population". Twocircles.net. http://twocircles.net/2009oct08/india_third_global_muslim_population_1_57_bn.html. abhigman tithi: 2010-07-03.
  135. antarraashtreeya dhaarmik svatantrata report 2003. sanyukt raajya America ke vibhaag dvaara. 19 April 2007 ko pun:praapt.
  136. the fatwa against terorijm: Indian diyobeindis reenaauns vaayoleins bat polising reemeins anacheinjd, kamalaakaant das, (monaash Asia sansthaan, monesh vishvavidyaalaya, Australia), 2008 GTReC antarraashtreeya sammelan
  137. prushth 32, introduction, A historikl ovaravyoo of islaam in south Asia, islaam in south Asia in praiktees- di. baarabara metakaaf prinsatan dvaara vishvavidyaalaya press, 2009
  138. SUBVERSE | paariyaah in yor on hom the times of India 23 April 2009.
  139. raashtra aur shahar ka dhruveekaran
  140. post Gujarat raaits kraaisis end kanteinshan in Indian society TK umamein ke dvaara. sej dvaara 2005 mein prakaashit. ISBN 0-7619-3359-X prushth 119
  141. hyooman development end sosiyel power: prospekteev faraum south Asia ananya mukharji reed dvaara. Taylor aur Francis, 2008 dvaara prakaashit. ISBN 0-415-77552-3. prushth 149
  142. India muslim feel baikalaish jil maikagivring dvaara, BBC Delhi samvaadadaata. BBC samaachaar guroovaar, 6 June 2002.
  143. ghetoyaseshan of muslim in India: treinds end kanseekvenases Imran Ali aur yogindar sikand dvaara. milli gazette online, 12 fravari 2006.
  144. ghetoyaseshan the hindu, 1 August 2006.
  145. the price of eksaklujan Ranjit hosakote the hindu, 31 December 2006.

adhyayan

  • asagar Ali engineer, islaam in India: the impaikt of sivilaaijeshan . shipra pablikeshans, 2002. ISBN 81-7541-115-5.
  • mohammad taahir. muslim in India: reeseint kantreebyooshans too literature on reelijiyn, filosofi, histari, end sosiyl espaikt . anmol prakaashan pra. li., 1993. ISBN 81-7041-620-5. kuchh ansh:
  • mohammad mujeeb. the Indian muslim . maikagil university press, 1967. aaiesabeeen 0-7876-5417-5
  • moorre tharsatan taaitas, Indian islaam: A reelijiys histari of islaam in India . milford, Oxford university press, 1930. ISBN 81-87563-01-X.
  • yogindar sikand. muslim in India sis 1947 : islaamik prospekteevs on intar-feth reeleshans . rautlej, 2004. ISBN 0-415-31486-0.
  • saaaincha:Loc

baahya link