Bhaarat mein aarthik sudhaar

pi vi narasinh Rao ne 1990 ke dashak ke aarambhik dinon mein sudhaaravaadi aarthik neetiyaaain laagoo keen

aiti‍ahaasi‍ak roop se Bhaarat ek bahut vi‍akasi‍at aarthik v‍aayavas‍aatha thi ji‍asake vi‍ash‍aav ke an‍aaya bhaagon ke saath majaboot v‍aayaapaari‍ak sambandh the . aupani‍aveshi‍ak yug ( 1773 -- 1947 ) ke dauraan angrej Bhaarat se sas‍aati daron par kach‍aachi saamagri khareeda karte the aur taiyaar maal bhaarateeya baajaaron mein saamaan‍aaya mool‍aaya se kaheen adhi‍ak uch‍aachatar keemat par becha jaata tha ji‍asake pari‍anaamas‍aavaroop sroton ka dvimaargi hraas hota tha . is avadhi‍ ke dauraan vi‍ash‍aav ki aay mein Bhaarat ka hi‍as‍aasa 1700 isvi ke 22.3 pratishat se gi‍arakar 1952 mein 3.8 prati‍ashat rah gaya . 1947 mein Bhaarat ke s‍aavatantrata praap‍ati‍ ke pash‍aachaat arthav‍aayavas‍aatha ki punani‍armaan prakri‍aya praarambh hui . is uddesh‍aaya se vi‍abhi‍an‍aan neeti‍ayaun aur yojanaaऍn banaai gayeen aur panchavarsheeya yojanaaon ke maadh‍aayam se kaaryaan‍aavi‍at ki gayi .

1950 mein jab Bhaarat ne 3.5 feesadi ki vikaas dar haasil kar li thi to kai arthashaastriyon ne ise british raaj ke antim 50 saalon ki vikaas dar se tiguna ho jaane ka jashn manaaya tha. samaajavaadiyon ne ise Bhaarat ki aarthik neetiyon ki jeet karaar diya tha, ve neetiyaan jo antarmukhi theen aur saarvajanik kshetron ke upakramon ke varchasv waali theen. haalaanki 1960 ke dashak mein East Indian taaigaron (dakshin Korea, taaivaan, Singapore aur Hongkong) ne Bhaarat se doguni vikaas dar haasil kar li thi. jo is baat ka pramaan tha ki unki baahyamukhi aur niji kshetr ko praathamikta dene waali aarthik neetiyaan behtar theen. aise mein Bhaarat ke paas 80 ke dashak ki bajaay ek dashak pehle 1971 mein hi aarthik sudhaaron ko apnaane ke liye ek achha udaaharan mil chuka tha.

Bhaarat mein 1980 tak jeeenapi ki vikaas dar kam thi, lekin 1981 mein aarthik sudhaaron ke shuroo hone ke saath hi isne gati pakad li thi. 1991 mein sudhaar poori tarah se laagoo hone ke baad to yeh majaboot ho gayi thi. 1950 se 1980 ke teen dashakon mein jeeenapi ki vikaas dar keval 1.49 feesadi thi. is kaalakhand mein sarkaari neetiyon ka aadhaar samaajavaad tha. aayakar ki dar mein 97.75 pratishat tak ki vruddhi dekhi gayi. kai udyogon ka raashtreeyakaran kar diya gaya. sarkaar ne arthavyavastha par poori tarah se niyantran ke prayaas aur adhik tej kar diye the. 1980 ke dashak mein halke se aarthik udaaravaad ne prati vyakti jeeenapi ki vikaas dar ko badhaakar prativrsh 2.89 kar diya. 1990 ke dashak mein achhe-khaase aarthik udaaravaad ke baad to prati vyakti jeeenapi badhkar 4.19 feesadi tak pahunch gayi. 2001 mein yeh 6.78 feesadi tak pahunch gayi.

1991 mein Bhaarat sarkaar ne mahat‍aavapoorn aarthik sudhaar pras‍aatut ki‍ae jo is drush‍ati‍ se vruhad prayaas the ki inmein vi‍adesh v‍aayaapaar udaareekaran, vi‍atteeya udaareekaran, kar sudhaar aur vi‍adeshi ni‍avesh ke prati‍ aagrah shaami‍al tha . in upaayon ne bhaarateeya arthav‍aayavas‍aatha ko gati‍ dene mein madad ki. tab se bhaarateeya arthav‍aayavas‍aatha bahut aage ni‍akal I hai . sakal s‍aavadeshi ut‍aapaad ki ausat vruddhi dar (faik‍aatar laagat par) jo 1951 -- 91 ke dauraan 4.34 prati‍ashat thi, 1991-2011 ke dauraan 6.24 prati‍ashat ke roop mein badh gayi . 2015 mein bhaarateeya arthavyavastha 2 triliyn ameriki dollar se aage nikal gayi.

anukram

parichay

Bhaarat ne 1980 ke dashak mein sudhaaron ko kaafi manthar gati se laagoo kiya tha, lekin 1991 ke bhugataan santulan ke sankat ke baad yeh mukhyadhaara ki neeti ban gayi. isi saal soviyt sangh ke patan ne bhaarateeya raajaneetijnyaon ko is baat ka ehsaas kara diya ki samaajavaad par aur jor Bhaarat ko sankat se naheen ubaar paaega aur cheen mein deing shiyaaoping ke kaamayaab baajaaronmukh sudhaaron ne bata diya tha ki aarthik udaareekaran ke beshumaar faayde hain. Bhaarat ki sudhaar prakriya uttarottar aur aniyamit thi, lekin iske sanchit (cumulative) prabhaav ne 2003-08 mein Bhaarat ko chamatkaari arthavyavastha bana diya jahaan sakal raashtreeya utpaad ki vikaas dar 9 pratishat aur prati vyakti vaarshik sakal raashtreeya utpaad vikaas dar 7 pratishat se jyaada ho gayi.[1]

aarthik sudhaar ki disha mein 1991 se ab tak uthaaye gaye kuchh pramukh kadam nimnalikhit hain-

(1) audyogik license pratha ki samaapti,
(2) videshi nivesh se pratibndh hataana,
(3) aayaat shulk mein kami laana tatha maatraat‍aam tareekon ko charanbaddh tareeke se hataana,
(4) baajaar ki shaktiyon dvaara vinimay dar ka nirdhaaran (sarkaar dvaara naheen),
(5) vitteeya kshetr mein sudhaar,
(6) pooainji baajaar ka udaareekaran,
(7) saarvajanik kshetr mein niji kshetr ka pravesh,
(8) nijeekaran,
(9) utpaad shulk mein kami,
(10) aayakar tatha nigam kar mein kami,
(11) seva kar ki shurooaat,
(12) shahari sudhaar,
(13) sarkaar mein karmachaariyon ki sankhya kam karna,
(14) peinshan kshetr mein sudhaar,
(15) moolya sanvardhit kar (vait) aarambh karna,
(16) riyaaraton (sabasidi) mein kami,
(17) raajakosheeya‍ uttaradaayitv aur bajat prabandhan (FRBM) adhiniyam 2003 ko paarit karaana.

sandarbh

inhein bhi dekhein

baahari kadiyaaain