Bhaarat ke nrutya

mohanajodado se praapt kaanse ki nrutya pratima
kucheepudi nrutya

nrutya ka itihaas, maanav itihaas jitna hi puraana hai. iska ka praacheenatam granth bharat muni ka naatyashaastr hai. lekin iske ullekh vedon mein bhi milte hain, jisse pata chalta hai ki praagaitihaasik kaal mein nrutya ki khoj ho chuki thi. is kaal mein maanav jangalon mein svatantr vichrata tha. dheere-dheere usane samooh mein paani ke sroton aur shikaar bahul kshetr mein tik kar rahana aarambh kiya- us samay usaki sarvapratham samasya bhojan ki hoti thi- jiski poorti ke baad vah harshollaas ke saath uchhal kood kar aag ke chaaron or nrutya kiya karte the. ye maanav vipdaaon se bhayabheet ho jaate the- jinke niraakaran hetu inhonne kisi adrushya daivik shakti ka anumaan lagaaya hoga tatha use prasann karne hetu anekon upaayon ka sahaara liya- in upaayon mein se maanav ne nrutya ko araadhana ka pramukh saadhan banaaya.

itihaas ki drushti mein sabse pehle upalabdh saakshya gufaaon mein praapt aadimaanav ke ukere chitron tatha hadppa aur mohanajodado ki khudaaiyon mein praapt moortiya- hain, jinmein ek kaanse ki bani tanvangi ki moorti hai- jiski sameeksha karne vaale vidvaanon ne yeh siddh kiya hai ki yeh nrutya ki bhaavabhangima se yukt hai. bhaarateeya nrutya kala ke itihaas mein- utkhanan se praapt yeh nrutyaangana ki moorti- pratham moolyavaan upalabdhi hai jo aaj bhi Delhi ke raashtreeya sangrahaalaya mein rakhi hui hai. hadppa ki khudaai mein bhi ek kaale patthar ki nrutyarat moorti praapt hui hai jiske sambandh mein puraatatvetta maarshal ne nartaki hone ka daava kiya hai.

anukram

vaidik kaal mein nrutya

sindhughaati ki sabhyata ke pashchaat nrutyakala ke itihaas mein vaidik kaal ka pravesh hota hai. is kaal mein chaaron vedon ki rachana bhi hui. jo hamaari sabhi kalaatmak viraasaton ke mool granth maane bhi jaate hain. sabse pehle rigaved fir kramash: yarjuved, arthavaved aur saamaved ki aachaaryon evam rishiyon dvaara inki sthaapana hui. rigved sansaar ke praacheenatam granthon mein se ek hai aur ismein nrutya sambandhi saamagri prachur maatra mein drushtigochar hoti hai. rigaved ke nimnalikhit shlokon ki pratiyon mein indr ki mahima ka gaan karte hue unhein praaniyon ko nachaane wala kaha hai.

indr yatha hayastitepareetan nrutoshagv: . tatha

nahyangan nruto tvadanyan vindaami raadhase.

arthaat- indr tum bahuton dvaara aahoot tatha sabko nachaane vaale ho. isse spasht hota hai ki tatkaaleen samaaj mein nrutyakala ka prachaar-prasaar sarvatr tha. is yug mein nrutya ke saath nimnalikhit vaadyon ka prayog hota tha. veena vaadan paanighnan toonabrahman taanrutyaandaaya talavam.

arthaat- nrutya ke saath veena vaadak aur mrudangavaadak aur vansheevaadak ko sangat karni chaahiye aur taal bajaane vaale ko baithna chaahiye.

rigved ki tarah yarjuved mein bhi nrutya sambandhi saamagri prachur maatra mein upalabdh hai. yarjuved ke ek mantra se yeh pata chalta hai ki vaidik yug mein nrutya karne vaale ko soot kaha jaata tha aur gaane vaale ko shailoosh kehte the. in logon ka ek samudaaya sthaapit ho chuka tha. ye log ga-bajaakar aur naach kar apna bharan-poshan kiya karte the. samaaj mein nrutya-gaan ki shiksha ka kaarya bhi yahi soot va shailoosh hi kiya karte the. kyonki is yug mein devi-devataaon se lekar stri-purushon tatha sabhi vargon ke liye nrutya ka mahatvapoorn sthaan tha. saamaved ki rachana rigved ke paathya anshon ko gaane ke liye ki gayi at- yeh ved gaan kriya se sambandhit hai- isaliye ismein nrutya sambandhi saamagri naheen milti hai. naatya ke chaturth ang gati ko naatya ved ke nirmaata param pita brahma ne saamaved se hi grahan kiya hai.

nrutyakala ke vikaas mein anya vedon ki tarah 'atharvaved' ka bhi mahatvapoorn sthaan hai. iske adhyayan se nrutya sambandhi saamagri prachurata se milti hai. ismein nrutyakala ka utkrusht roop dekhne ko milta hai. atharvaved ke mantron mein gaayan-vaadan ka ek saath ullekh dekhne ko milta hai.

yasyaan gaayanti nrutyanti bhoomyaan martyaayailivaa: "

"yuddhante yasyama-ndo yasyaan vadati dundubhi:.

arthaat- jis bhoomi mein aanand ke baaje baj rahe hain- jaha- log prasannata se naachate gaate hain aur veer log utsaah se apne raashtra ki raksha mein tatpar hain.

nrutya ko us yug mein vyaayaam ke roop mein maana gaya tha. shareer ko arogya rakhane ke liye nrutyakala ka prayog kiya jaata tha. yeh keval 'nrutt' hi tha jiska prayog samaaj mein keval aanand ke avsaron par kiya jaata tha. uparyukt kathan se pramaanit hota hai ki taandav aur laasya ke beej vaidik kaal mein the. yeh kehna atishyokti naheen hogi ki vaidik kaal mein naatya- nrut- nrutya tatha taandav- laasya ka beejaaropan ho chuka tha.

puraanon mein nrutya ke tatv

harivansh puraan- jain dharm se sambandhit is puraan mein guroo ashtanemi ki leelaaon evam unke samay ki sanskruti ka chitran hai. prastut harivansh puraan ke rachayita ne apna parichay bhali prakaar se dete hue yeh kruti shak sanvat 705 mein samaapt ki thi. ismein nrutya sambandhi ghatnaaon ka ullekh hai. Bhagwan neminaath ke janm ke samay ke kalaapoorn nrutya va gaayan ke samaarohon ka varnan ismein milta hai. harivansh puraan mein naatak kala ka bhi ullekh hai.

shreemadabhaagavat mahaapuraan- ismein anekon sthaanon par nrutt- nrutya ka vistrut vivran paaya gaya hai- saath hi sangeet vaadyon ka aur aahaarya evam abhinay evam naatya ka bhi udaaharan milta hai.

manthan ke samay jab shobha ki moorti swayam lakshmi prakat huinr tab us samay gandharvon ne mangalamayi sangeet chheda- nartakiya- naach naach kar gaane lageen aur shankh- prahar- mrudang aadi bajne lage.

tatha Krishna ke vivranon mein to raadha Krishna ka koi milan nrutya sangeet ke bina poorn hi naheen hota. Bhagwan shreekrushn ki preyasi aur sevikaaen- gopiya- ek doosare ki ba-h mein ba-h daale yamuna ke puleen tat par khadi hain aur Krishna aakar raasaleela praarambh karte hain. raas 'kathak' nrutya ka praarambhik nrutya hai. us yug mein nrutya gaan vaadan vidhaaen shiksha ke aavashyak ang the- tatha gurookul mein inki vidhivt shiksha di jaati thi.

Shiv puraan- Shiv puraan mein bhi nrutya ka ullekh kai vivranon mein paaya gaya hai. isi prakaar tejasvi tejon mein agrani kaanti dhaaran karne vaale Shiv- sab par shaasan karne vaale - sabke janak- prakaash svaroop prakaash dene ko satat- nrutya karne vaale nrutya ko priya maanane vaale hain.

koorm puraan- koorm puraan mein bhi nrutya ka ullekh kai vivranon mein mila hai. jaise 'gandharv- kinnar- muni aur siddh stuti ke prayojan se naachane lage. apsaraaeain mohak nrutya karne lageen.'

raamaayan va mahaabhaarat kaal mein nrutya

raamaayan mein bhi nrutya ke tatv milte hain. Bhagwan Ram ke janm ke samay- vivaahotsav mein- raajyaabhishek - vijyotsav aadi avsaron par nrutya samaarohon ka vivran milta hai.

mahaabhaarat mein bhi samay-samay par nrutya paaya gaya hai. is yug mein aakar nrutt- nrutya- naatya teenon ka vikaas ho chuka tha.

bharatamuni kaal mein nrutya

bharat ke naatya shaastr ke samay tak bhaarateeya samaaj mein kai prakaar ki kalaaon ka poornaroopen vikaas ho chuka tha. jan saadhaaran ki ruchi kalaaon mein itni adhik badh gayi thi ki tatkaaleen prashaasanon mein yada-kada yeh bhaya vyaapt ho jaata ki log kaheen apne kaarya chhod maatr kalaaon tatha aamod pramod mein hi na vakt gujaarane lage so in par kabhi-kabhi pratibandh bhi lag jaata tha. bharat muni ne naatya kala ko apna lakshya bana kar usi ke vikaas ke liye naatya shaastr ki atyant upayogi aur poornat- vyavahaarik vivechanaatmak rachana ki- jo ki aaj itne samay baad bhi naatya-nrutya kala ke liye utana hi upayogi granth hai jitna ki tab raha hoga- yeh saare shaastreeya nrutyon ki reedh hai. naatyashaastr ko hi is kala ka pratham upalabdh granth maan gaya hai. yeh maha granth na keval naatya kala apitu nrutya- sangeet- alankaar shaastr- chhand shaastr aadi anek vishyon ka aadim granth hai- isaliye ise panchamaved kah kar sammaanit kiya gaya hai. bharat muni ka nrutya jagat mein yeh yogadaan bahumoolya hai. iske baad sanskrut ke praacheen granthon jaise kaalidaas ke shaakuntalam- meghadootam- vaatsayaayan ki kaamasootr- tatha mruchhakatikm aadi granthon mein in nrutya ka vivran hamaari bhaarateeya sanskruti ki kalaapriyta ko darshaata hai- jo ki aaj bhi akshunn hai.

aadhunik kaal mein nrutya

aaj bhi hamaare samaaj mein nrutya- sangeet ko utana hi mahatva diya jaata hai ki hamaare koi bhi samaaroh nrutya ke bina sampoorn naheen hote. Bhaarat ke vividh shaastreeya nrutyon ki anvarat shishya paranparaaeain hamaari is saanskrutik viraasat ki dhaara ko lagaataar peedhi dar peedhi pravaahit karti raheingi.

sandarbh


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