Bhaarat ke Governor general

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Governor-general ka dhvaj (1885-1947) jismein order of the star of India ek sangheeya dhvaj mein ek bhaarateeya shaahi mukut ke neeche darshit

Bhaarat ke Governor-general (ya 1858-1947 tak vaaisayauya evam Governor-general) Bhaarat mein british raaj ka adhyaksh aur bhaarateeya svatantrata uparaant Bhaarat mein, british shaasak ka pratinidhi hota tha. inka kaaryaalaya san 1773 mein banaaya gaya tha, jise fort William ki preseedeinsi ka Governor-general ke adheen rakha gaya tha. is kaaryaalaya ka fort William par seedha niyantran tha, evam anya british East India company ke adhikaariyon ka paryavekshan karta tha. sampoorn british Bhaarat par poorn adhikaar 1833 mein diye gaye aur tab se yeh Bhaarat ke Governor-general ban gaye.

Bhaarat ke antim british Governor-general

1858 mein Bhaarat british shaasan ki adheen aa gaya tha. Governor-general ki upaadhi uske bhaarateeya british praant (Punjab, Bengal, Mumbai, Madras, sanyukt praant, ityaadi) aur british Bhaarat, shabd svatantrata poorv kaal ke avibhaajit Bhaarat ke inheen british niyantran ke praanton ke liye prayog hota hai.

vaise adhikaansh british Bhaarat, british sarkaar dvaara seedhe shaasit na hokar, uske adheen rahe shaasakon dvaara hi shaasit hota tha. Bhaarat mein saamanton aur rajavaadon ko Governor-general ke british sarkaar ke pratinidhi hone ki bhoomika ko darshit karne hetu, san 1858 se vaaisarauya evam Governor-general of India (jise laghuroop mein vaaisarauya kaha jaata tha) prayog hui. vaaisarॊya upaadhi 1947 mein svatantrata uparaant lupt ho gayi, lekin Governor-general ka kaaryaalaya san 1950 mein, bhaarateeya ganatantrata tak astitv mein raha.

1858 tak, Governor-general ko british East India company ke nideshakon dvaara chayanit kiya jaata tha aur vah unheen ko javaabadeh hota tha. baad mein vah mahaaraaja dvaara british sarkaar, Bhaarat raajya sachiv, british cabinet; in sabhi ki rai se chayan hone laga. 1947 ke baad, samraat ne usaki niyukti jaari rakhi, lekin bhaarateeya mantriyon ki rai se, na ki british mantriyon ki salaah se.

Governor-general paanch varsh ke kaaryakaal ke liye hota tha. use pehle bhi hataaya ja sakta tha. is kaal ke poorn hone par, ek asthaayi Governor-general banaaya jaata tha. jab tak ki naya Governor-general padabhaar grahan na kar le. asthaayi Governor-general ko praay: praanteeya gavarnaron mein se chuna jaata tha.

anukram

itihaas

vaarran haastings, Bhaarat ke pratham Governor-general fort William ke( 1774-1785) Bhaarat ke kai bhaagon par East India company ka raaj tha, jo naamamaatr ko mugal baadshah ke pratinidhi ke taur par raaj karti thi. 1773 mein, company mein bhrash:taachaar ke chalte, british sarkaar ne, reguleshan act adhiniyam ke tahat, Bhaarat ka prashaasan aanshik roop se apne niyantran mein le liya tha. Bengal mein fort William ki presedeinsi ke shaasan hetu ek Governor-general, tatha ek parishad ka gathan kiya gaya. pratham Governor-general evam parishad ka naam adhiniyam mein likhit hai. unke uttaraadhikaari East India company ke nideshakon dvaara chayanit hona tay hua tha. is adhiniykm ke anusaar Governor-general tatha parishad ka paanch varsheeya kaaryakaal nishchit kiya gaya tha. parantu shaasan ko unhein madhyaavadhi mein hataane ka poornaadhikaar tha.

chitr:Viceroy Lord Canning meets Maharaja Ranbir Singh of Kashmir, 9 March 1860.jpg
Lord kainning, Kashmir ke tatkaaleen mahaaraaja ranaabeer Singh se, 9 March 1860 ko milte hue.

1833 ke chaartar act adhiniyam ne fort William ke Governor-general evam parishad ko badal kar Bhaarat ka Governor-general evam parishad bana diya. lekin unhein chayan karne ki saamarthya nideshakon ko hi rakhi, keval usako shaasan ke anumodan ka vishay bana diya.

1857 ke sangraam ke baad, East India company samaapt kar di gayi aur Bhaarat british shaasan ke adheen aa gaya. gavarnmeint of India act 1858 adhiniyam ke dvaara, Governor-general ko niyukt karne ka dhikaar diya gaya. Bhaarat aur Pakistan ko 1947 mein svatantrata mili, parantu Governor-general fir bhi jaari rahe, jab tak ki donon deshon ke samvidhaan naheen ban gaye. maauntabaitan kuchh samay Bhaarat ka Governor-general bana raha. lekin donon deshon ke apne Governor-general bane. baad mein Bhaarat 1950 mein dharm-nirpeksh ganatantr bana aur 1956 mein Pakistan islaami ganaraajya bana.

Governor-general ke prakaarya

Lord karjan, Bhaarat ke vaaisarauya ki veshabhoosha mein, jo pad 1899-1905 tak chala

Governor-general ko pehle pahal, keval Bengal preseedeinsi par hi adhikaar tha. reguleting adhiniyam dvaara, unhein videsh sambandh evam raksha sambandhi kai atirikt adhikaar diye gaye. East India company ki anya preseedeinsiyon jaise Madras preseedeinsi, Mumbai preseedeinsi, evam beingakulu preseedeinsi (bainakoolan) ko, bina fort William ke Governor-general evam parishad ki agrim anumodan ke; na to koi yuddh ki ghoshana ke adhikaar the, na hi kisi bhaarateeya rajavaadॊn se shaanti sambandh banaane ke adhikaar diye gaye the.

Governor-general ki videsh maamalon ke adhikaar India act 1784 ke dvaara badhaaye gaye. is adhiniyam ke tahat, company ke anya Governor naato koi yuddh ghoshit kar sakte the, na hi shaanti prakriya, na hi koi sandhi prastaav ya anumati kisi bhi bhaarateeya raajaaon se, jab tak ki Governor-general ya company ke nideshakon se anumati ya aadesh na mila ho.

haalaanki Governor-general videsh neetiyon ka sanchaalak ban gaya, parantu vah Bhaarat ka poorn adhyaksh naheen tha. yeh sthiti keval chaartar act 1833 ke tahat aayi, jisne use poore british Bhaarat par naagrik evam sainya shaasan ke poorn adheekshan, nirdeshan, evam niyantran ke adhikaar diye. is adhiniyam se use vaidhaanik adhikaar bhi mile.

Lord dafarin, Bhaarat ke vaaisarauya.

1858 uparaant, Governor-general Bhaarat ka mukhya prashaasak aur british shaasan ka pratinidhi ban gaya. Bhaarat ko kai praanton mein baanta gaya, pratyek ke ek Governor ya prashaasak niyukt hue. Governor british sarkaar dvaara niyukt hue the, jinke ve seedhe javaabadehi the. lieutenant Governor, cheef commissioner (mukhya aayukt) evam prashaasak (edaministretar) niyukt hue, jo ki Governor ke adheen kaaryarat the.

Lord maitakaaf, Bhaarat ke vaaisarauya.

Governor-general sabse shaktishaali raajya bhi swayam dekhta tha, jaise:-Hyderabad ke nijaam, Mysore ke mahaaraaja, gvaaliyr ke sindhiya mahaaraaja, Baroda ke gaayakvaad mahaaraaja, Jammu evam Kashmir ke mahaaraaja, ityaadi. shesh: rajavaade ya to rajputana agency]] evam central India agency dekhti thi (jo ki Governor-general ke pratinidhi ki adhyakshata mein hota tha), ya praanteeya shaasan.

ek baar Bhaarat ke svatantrata praapt karne ke uparaant, bhaarateeya mantreemandal (cabinet) ke din par din adhikaar praapt karte rahane par, Governor-general ki bhoomika keval aupachaarik rah gayi thi. raashtra ke ganatantr banane par, gair-karyapaalak Bhaarat ke raashtrapati ne vahi prakaarya jaari rakhe.

parishad

Governor-general ko apne vaidhaanik evam kaaryapaalak adhikaaron ke prayog hetu, sarvada hi parishad ki salaah mili. Governor-general ko, kaiprakaaryon ke dauraan, Governor-general in kaunsil kaha jaata tha.

William dainisn, Bhaarat ke vaaisarauya.
  • reguleting act 1773 adhiniyam ne East India company ke nideshakon ko chunaavon dvaara, chaar salaahakaar niyukt karaaye. Governor-general ke paas in salaahakaaron sahit, ek mat (vote) ka adhikaar tha, jiske saath hi use samaan mat sankhya ki sthiti mein uthe vivaad ko sulajhaane hetu, ek atirikt mat diya gaya tha. parishad ka nirnaya Governor-general ko maanya hona tha.
  • 1784 mein, parishad ko teen sadasya tak seemit kar diya gaya, jabki Governor-general ke paas abhi bhi do vote the. 1786 mein, Governor-general ke adhikaar aur badhaaye gaye, auir parishad ke nirnaya ab uske liye baadhya naheen the.
  • chaartar act 1833 se parishad ke dhaanche mein aur badlaav aaye. yeh pratham adhiniyam tha, jiske tahat Governor-general ki kaaryapalak evam vaidhaanik uttaradaayitvon mein antar bataaya gaya. iske tahat parishad mein chaar sadasya hone chaahiye the, jo ki nideshakagan chunate the. pratham teen sadasya pratyek avsar par bhaag lete the, parantu chauthe sadasya ko keval vidhaan ke bahas ke dauraan hi baithane ki anumati thi.
  • 1858 mein nideshakagan ke adhikaar ghata diye gaye. unka parishad ke sadasya chunane ka adhikaar band ho gaya. iske sthaan par, chauthe sadasya, jise keval vaidhaanik baithak mein mat dene ka adhikaar tha, use shaasak hi chunate the aur anya teen sadasya Bhaarat ke raajya sachiv chunate the.
William dainisn, Bhaarat ke vaaisarauya.
  • Indian kaaunsil act 1861 adhiniyam dvaara parishad ke sanyojan mein kai badlaav kiye gaye. teen sadasya Bhaarat ke raajya sachiv dvaara niyukt hona tay hua aur do sadasya mukhya shaasak dvaara (1869 mein paanchon sadasyon ke chunaav ka adhikaar british samraat ke paas chala gaya). Governor-general ko atirikt chh: se baarah sadasya (1892 mein chh: se dar hue aur 1909 mein das se baarah). bhaarateeya sachiv dvaara chune gaye paanch log kaaryapaalak vibhaag ke mukhya hote the, jabki Governor-general dvaara chayanit sadasya bahas mein aur vidhaan mein mat dene ka kaarya karte the.
  • 1919 mein, raajya parishad evam vaidhaanik sabha ke sanyojan se bana bhaarateeya vidhaan astitv mein aaya, jisne Governor-general ki parishad ke vaidhaanik prakaaryon ka kaarya sambhaala. Governor-general ko vidhaan ke oopar mahatvapoorn adhikaar tha. vah vidhaan ki sahamati ke bina bhi aarthik vyaya ko adhikrut kar sakta tha. yeh keval bhoomi (raajanaitik), raksha aadi uddeshyon hetu, evam aapaatakaal mein sabhi nirnayon mein, seemit tha. yadi usane sanstuti ki hai, lekin keval ek hi chaimbar ne koi bill paas kiya hai, to bhi vah doosare chaimabr ke aapatti karne par bhi us bill ko adhyaadesh bana kar jaari kar sakta tha. vidhaan ko videsh maamalon evam raksha mein koi adhikaar naheen tha. raajya parishad ka adhyaksh, Governor-general dvaara niyukt kiya jaata tha. vidhaan sabha apna adhyaksh chunati thi, lekin iska chunaav, Governor-general ki sahamati se hi hota tha.

shaili evam upaadhi

Lord haarding, Bhaarat ke vaaisarauya.

Governor-general (jab ve vaaisarauya the 1858 se 1947 tak ke samay samet) ekseeleinsi ki shaili prayog kiya karte the, evam Bhaarat mein, anya sabhi sarkaari adhikaariyon par varchasv rakhate the. unhein yor ekseeleinsi se sambodhit kiya jaata tha, tatha unke liye hij ekseeleinsi prayog kiya jaata tha. 1858-1947 ke kaal mein, Governor-general ko French bhaasha se Roy yaani raaja aur vaais angreji se, yaani up, milaakar vaaisarauya kaha jaata tha. inki patniyon ko vaaisaraain kaha jaata tha. unke liye har ekseeleinsi, evam unhein yor ekseeleinsi kehkar sambodhit kiya jaata tha. parantu Britain ke mahaaraaja ke Bhaarat mein hone par, yeh upaadhiyaan prayog naheen hoti theen.

san 1861 mein, jab order of the star of India, vaaisarauya ko grand master ex ofeeshiyo (paden ya padaanusaar) ghoshit kiya gaya. Governor-general ko 1877 mein, paden grand master of order of Indian empaayar bhi ghoshit kiya gaya.

adhikaansh Governor-general evam vaaisarauya peeyar the. jo naheen the, unamein sar John shor baironat, evam kaurd William baintik Lord the, kyonki ve ek Duke ke putr the. keval pratham aur antim Governor-general vaarran haastings tatha chakravarti raajagopaalaachaarya aur kuchh asthaayi Governor-general, ko koi vishesh upaadhi naheen thi.

dhvaj

british raaj ka dhvaj, jis par star of India ankit hai.

1885 ke lagbhag, Governor-general ko beech mein ek star of India, ke oopar ek mukut laga hua, sangheeya dhvaj faharaane ki anumati de di gayi. yeh dhvaj, Governor-general ka niji dhvaj naheen tha, yeh Governor, lieutenant Governor, cheef commissioner (mukhya aayukt) evam Bhaarat mein anya british adhikaariyon dvaara bhi prayog kiya jaata tha. saagar yaatra ke dauraan, keval Governor-general hi is dhvaj ki mukhya dhvaj stambh par faharaata tha, anya use gaun stambhon se hi faharaate the.

1947 se 1950 tak, Bhaarat ke Governor-general, ek shaahi dhaal (ek mukut par Singh aaseen) sahit ek neela dhvaj prayog kiya karte the. is chinh ke neeche shabd “aBhaarat” sunahare aksharon mein ankit hota tha. yahi namoona kai anya Governor-general dvaara bhoo prayog kiya gaya. yeh kisi Governor-general ka antim niji dhvaj tha.

aavaas

poori unneesaveen shataabdi ke dauraan gavarnmeint house hi Governor-general ka sarkaari aavaas hua karta tha.

fort William ke Governor-general bailveder house, Calcutta mein aarambhik unneesaveen shataabdi tak raha karte the. fir gavarnmeint house ka nirmaan hua. 1854 mein, Bengal ke lieutenant Governor ne vahaan apna aavaas banaaya. ab belaveder house mein bhaarateeya raashtreeya pustakaalaya hai.

Lord kainning

Lord vailesli, jinhonne kaha tha, ki Bhaarat ko ek mahal se shaasit hona chaahiye, na ki ek daak bangale se; ne ek ek vruhat haveli banavaayi, jise gavarnmeint house kaha gaya. yeh 1799-1803 ke beech nirmit hua. yeh haveli san 1912 tak prayog mein rahi, jab tak ki rajdhani Calcutta mein rahi. fir rajdhani Delhi sthaanaantarit ki gayi. tab Bengal ke lefti. Governor ko Governor ka poornaadhikaar diya gaya aur gavarnmeint house mein aavaas diya gaya. ab yahi bhavan, vartamaan pashchim Bengal ka raajyapaal aavaas hai. ise ab isi naam ke hindi roopaantar, raaj bhavan kaha jaata hai.

1854 mein, Bengal ke lieutenant Governor ne gavarnmeint house mein, apna aavaas banaaya. ab belaveder house mein bhaarateeya raashtreeya pustakaalaya hai.

jab rajdhani ko Calcutta se Delhi sthaanaantarit kiya gaya, vaaisarauya ne nav-nirmit sar edvin lootyans dvaara abhiklpit, vaaisarauya house mein aavaas kiya. haalaanki nirmaan 1912 mein aarambh hua, parantu vah 1929 tak bhi poorn na ho saka; aur 1931 tak bhi usaka aupachaarik udghaatan naheen sampann ho paaya. isaakhi antim laagat paaund 8,77,000 (aaj ke anusaar saadhe teen karod paaund) thi. vartamaan mein, yeh aavaas, apne vartamaan hindi naam “raashtrapati bhavana” se prasiddh hai.

poore british prashaasan ke dauraan, Governor-general Shimla sthit vaaisareegal lodge (dekhein “raashtrapati nivaasa”) mein greeshm ritu bitaate the. poori sarkaar greesh ritu ki garmi se bachane hetu, har varsh Shimla jaate the.

Governor-general ki soochi

fort William preseedeinsi

yahaan ke Governor-general ki soochi, 17741833
Lord raaipan

Governor-general

Bhaarat ke Governor-general

1833–1858
veval, Bhaarat ke Governor general

Bhaarat ke vaaisarauya evam Governor-general

1858–1947

Bhaarat ke Governor-general

1947–1950

Pakistan ke Governor-general

1947–1958

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

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