Bhaarat ka vibhaajan

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1947 aur 1948 mein bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ko Britain se svatantrata mili aur chaar nae svatantr raashtra bane: Bhaarat, seelon (ab Sri Lanka), barma (ab myaanmaar) aur Pakistan (jismein poorvi Pakistan (ab Bangladesh) shaamil hai)

Bhaarat ka vibhaajan maauntabetan yojana ke aadhaar par taiyaar bhaarateeya svatantrata adhiniyam 1947 ke aadhaar par kiya gaya. is adhiniyam mein kaaha gaya ki 15 August 1947 ko Bhaarat va Pakistan adhiraajya naamak do svaayattyopanivesh bana diye jaaengein aur unako britaani sarkaar satta saunp degi.[1] svatantrata ke saath hi 14 August ko Pakistan adhiraajya (baad mein islaami jamhooriya A Pakistan) aur 15 August ko bhaarateeya sandh (baad mein Bhaarat ganaraajya) ki sansthaapana ki gayi. is ghatnaakram mein mukhyat: british Bhaarat ke Bengal praant ko poorvi Pakistan aur Bhaarat ke pashchim Bengal raajya mein baaaint diya gaya aur isi tarah british Bhaarat ke Punjab praant ko pashchimi Pakistan ke Punjab praant aur Bhaarat ke Punjab raajya mein baaaint diya gaya. isi dauraan british Bhaarat mein se seelon (ab Sri Lanka) aur barma (ab myaanmaar) ko bhi alag kiya gaya, lekin ise Bhaarat ke vibhaajan mein naheen shaamil kiya jaata hai. isi tarah 1971 mein Pakistan ke vibhaajan aur Bangladesh ki sthaapana ko bhi is ghatnaakram mein naheen gina jaata hai. (Nepal aur bhootaan is dauraan bhi svatantr raajya the aur is bantavaare se prabhaavit naheen hue.)

15 August 1947 ki aadhi raat ko Bhaarat aur Pakistan kaanooni taur par do svatantr raashtra bane. lekin Pakistan ki satta parivartan ki rasmein 14 August ko Karachi mein ki gain taaki aakhiri british vaaisaraaaiya Louis maauntabaitan, karaanchi aur nai Delhi donon jagah ki rasmon mein hissa le sake. isliye Pakistan mein svatantrata diwas 14 August aur Bhaarat mein 15 August ko manaaya jaata hai.

Bhaarat ke vibhaajan se karodon log prabhaavit hue. vibhaajan ke dauraan hui hinsa mein kareeb 5 lakh[2] log maare gaye aur kareeb 1.45 karod sharanaarthiyon ne apna ghar-baar chhodkar bahumat sanpradaaya vaale desh mein sharan li.[tathya vaanchhit]

anukram

prushthabhoomi

Bhaarat ke british shaasakon ne hamesha hi Bhaarat mein "foot daalo aur raajya karo" ki neeti ka anusaran kiya. unhonne Bhaarat ke naagrikon ko sanpradaaya ke anusaar alag-alag samoohon mein baaaint kar rakha. unki kuchh neetiyaaain hinduon ke prati bhedabhaav karti theen to kuchh musalmaanon ke prati. 20veen sadi aate-aate musalmaan hinduon ke bahumat se darane lage aur hinduon ko lagne laga ki british sarkaar aur bhaarateeya neta musalmaanon ko visheshaadhikaar dene aur hinduon ke prati bhedabhaav karne mein lage hain. isliye Bhaarat mein jab aajaadi ki bhaavana ubharane lagi to aajaadi ki ladaai ko niyantrit karne mein donon sanpradaayon ke netaaon mein hod rahane lagi.

san 1906 mein dhaaka mein bahut se musalmaan netaaon ne milkar muslim league ki sthaapana ki. in netaaon ka vichaar tha ki musalmaanon ko bahusankhyak hinduon se kam adhikaar upalabdh the tatha bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress hinduon ka pratinidhitv karti thi. muslim league ne alag-alag samay par alag-alag maangein rakheen. 1930 mein muslim league ke sammelan mein prasiddh urdoo kavi muhammad ikbaal ne ek bhaashan mein pehli baar musalmaanon ke liye ek alag raajya ki maaaing uthaai.[tathya vaanchhit] 1935 mein sindh praant ki vidhaan sabha ne bhi yahi maang uthaai. ikbaal aur maulaana muhammad Ali jauhar ne muhammad Ali jinna ko is maang ka samarthan karne ko kaha.[tathya vaanchhit] is samay tak jinna hindu-muslim ekta ke paksh mein lagte the, lekin dheere-dheere unhone aarop lagaana shuroo kar diya ki Congressi neta musalmaanon ke hiton par dhyaan naheen de rahe. Lahore mein 1940 ke muslim league sammelan mein jinna ne saaf taur par kaha ki vah do alag-alag raashtra chaahate hain

"hinduon aur musalmaanon ke dharm, vichaaradhaaraaeain, reeti-rivaaj aur saahitya bilkul alag-alag hain... ek raashtra bahumat mein aur doosra alpamat mein, aise do raashtron ko saath baaaindh kar rakhane se asantosh badh kar rahega aur ant mein aise raajya ki banaavat ka vinaash ho kar rahega."[tathya vaanchhit]

hindu mahaasabha jaise hindu sangathan Bhaarat ke bantavaare ke prabal virodhi the, lekin maanate the ki hinduon aur musalmaanon mein matabhed hain. 1937 mein Allahabad mein hindu mahaasabha ke sammelan mein ek bhaashan mein veer saavarakar ne kaha tha - aaj ke din Bhaarat ek raashtra naheen hai, yahaaain par do raashtra hain-hindu aur musalmaan.[3] Congress ke adhiktar neta panth-nirpeksh the aur sanpradaaya ke aadhaar par Bhaarat ka vibhaajan karne ke viruddh the. mahaatma Gandhi ka vishvaas tha ki hindu aur musalmaan saath rah sakte hain aur unhein saath rahana chaahiye. unhonne vibhaajan ka ghor virodh kiya: "meri poori aatma is vichaar ke viruddh vidroh karti hai ki hindu aur musalmaan do virodhi mat aur sanskrutiyaaain hain. aise siddhaant ka anumodan karna mere liye ishvar ko nakaarane ke samaan hai."[tathya vaanchhit] bahut saalon tak Gandhi aur unke anuyaayiyon ne koshish ki ki musalmaan Congress ko chhod kar na jaaen aur is prakriya mein hindu aur musalmaan garam dalon ke neta unase bahut chidh gaye.

angrejon ne yojanaabaddh roop se hindu aur musalmaan donon sanpradaayon ke prati shak ko badhaava diya. muslim league ne August 1946 mein sidhi kaaryavaahi diwas manaaya aur Calcutta mein bheeshan dange kiye jismein kareeb 5000 log maare gaye aur bahut se ghaayal hue. aise maahaul mein sabhi netaaon par dabaav padne laga ki ve vibhaajan ko sveekaar karein taaki desh poori tarah yuddh ki sthiti mein na aa jaae.

vibhaajan ki prakriya

Partition of India-en.svg

Bhaarat ke vibhaajan ke dhaanche ko '3 June plaan' ya maauntabaitan yojana ka naam diya gaya. Bhaarat aur Pakistan ke beech ki seemaarekha London ke vakeel sar siril raidaklif ne tay ki. hindu bahumat vaale ilaake Bhaarat mein aur muslim bahumat vaale ilaake Pakistan mein shaamil kiye gaye. 18 July 1947 ko british sansad ne bhaarateeya svatantrata adhiniyam paarit kiya jismein vibhaajan ki prakriya ko antim roop diya gaya. is samay british Bhaarat mein bahut se raajya the jinke raajaaon ke saath british sarkaar ne tarah-tarah ke samjhaute kar rakhe the. in 565 raajyon ko aajaadi di gayi ki ve chunein ki ve Bhaarat ya Pakistan kis mein shaamil hona chaaheinge. adhiktar raajyon ne bahumat dharm ke aadhaar par desh chuna. jin raajyon ke shaasakon ne bahumat dharm ke anukool desh chuna unke ekeekaran mein kaafi vivaad hua (dekhein Bhaarat ka raajanaitik ekeekaran). vibhaajan ke baad Pakistan ko sanyukt raashtra mein nae sadasya ke roop mein shaamil kiya gaya aur Bhaarat ne british Bhaarat ki kursi sambhaali.[4]

sampatti ka bantavaara

british Bhaarat ki sampatti ko donon deshon ke beech baaainta gaya lekin yeh prakriya bahut lambi khinchane lagi. Gandhiji ne Bhaarat sarkaar par dabaav daala ki vah Pakistan ko dhan jaldi bheje[tathya vaanchhit] jabki is samay tak Bhaarat aur Pakistan ke beech yuddh shuru ho chuka tha aur dabaav badhaane ke liye anashan shuru kar diya. Bhaarat sarkaar ko is dabaav ke aage jhukna pada aur Pakistan ko dhan bhejana pada. Nathuram Godse ne mahaatma Gandhi ke is kaam ko unki hatya karne ka ek kaaran bataaya.[tathya vaanchhit]

danga fsaad

bahut se vidvaanon ka mat hai ki british sarkaar ne vibhaajan ki prakriya ko theek se naheen sambhaala. choonki svatantrata ki ghoshana pehle aur vibhaajan ki ghoshana baad mein ki gayi, desh mein shaanti kaayam rakhane ki jimmevaari Bhaarat aur Pakistan ki nayi sarkaaron ke sar par I. kisi ne yeh naheen socha tha ki bahut se log idhar se udhar jaaenge. logon ka vichaar tha ki donon deshon mein alpamat sanpradaaya ke logon ke liye suraksha ka intajaam kiya jaaega. lekin donon deshon ki nayi sarkaaron ke paas hinsa aur aparaadh se nibatne ke liye aavashyak intajaam naheen tha. falasvaroop danga fsaad hua aur bahut se logon ki jaane gain aur bahut se logon ko ghar chhodkar bhaagna pada. andaaja lagaaya jaata hai ki is dauraan lagbhag 5 lakh se 30 lakh log maare gaye[tathya vaanchhit], kuchh dangon mein, to kuchh yaatra ki mushkilon se.

jan sthaanaantaran

vibhaajan ke dauraan Punjab mein ek train par sharanaarthi

vibhaajan ke baad ke maheenon mein donon naye deshon ke beech vishaal jan sthaanaantaran hua. Pakistan mein bahut se hinduon aur sikhon ko balaat beghar kar diya gaya. lekin Bhaarat mein Gandhiji ne Congress par dabaav daala aur sunishchit kiya ki musalmaan agar chaahein to Bhaarat mein rah sakein. seema rekhaaen tay hone ke baad lagbhag 1.45 karod logon ne hinsa ke dar se seema paar karke bahumat sanpradaaya ke desh mein sharan li. 1951 ki visthaapit janaganana ke anusaar vibhaajan ke ekdam baad 72,26,000 musalmaan Bhaarat chhodkar Pakistan gaye aur 72,49,000 hindu aur sikh Pakistan chhodkar Bhaarat aae.[tathya vaanchhit] ismein se 78 pratishat sthaanaantaran pashchim mein, mukhyataya Punjab mein hua.

sharanaarthi

Bhaarat mein aae sharanaarthi pashchim mein mukhyat: Punjab aur Delhi mein aur poorv mein mukhyat: pashchim Bengal, asam aur tripura mein basaae gaye. sindh se aae sharanaarthi Gujarat aur Rajasthan mein base. punjabi bolne vaale muslim mukhyat: Pakistan ke Punjab praant mein base aur jaldi hi vahaaain sammilit ho gaye. lekin urdoo bolne vaale muslim jo Delhi, uttar pradesh, Hyderabad aur anya praanton se Pakistan gaye unhein vahaaain basane aur sammilit hone mein bahut kathinaaiyaaain aain. in sharanaarthiyon ko muhaajir ka naam diya gaya.

saahitya aur cinema mein Bhaarat ka vibhaajan

Bhaarat ke vibhaajan aur uske saath hue dange-fsaad par kai lekhakon ne upanyaas aur kahaaniyaaain likhi hain, jinmein se mukhya hain,

pinjar ko film aur tamas ko prasiddh dooradarshan dhaaraavaahik ke roop mein roopaantarit kiya gaya hai. iske alaava garam hava, deepa mahata ki arth (jameen), kamal hasan ki he Ram bhi Bhaarat ke vibhaajan par aadhaarit hain.

baahari kadiyaaain

yeh bhi dekhe

sandarbh

teeka-tippani

  1. subhaash kashyap-Bhaarat ka samvidhaan pru-22
  2. TIME Essay HURRYING MIDNIGHT
  3. V.D. Savarkar, Samagra Savarkar Wangmaya Hindu Rasthra Darshan (Collected works of V.D.Savarkar) Vol VI, Maharashtra Prantik Hindusabha, Poona, 1963, prushth 296
  4. taumas aarageesi, Nations, States, and Secession: Lessons from the Former Yugoslavia, medatareniyn kvautarali, Volume 5 Number 4 Fall 1994, pru. 40–65, Duke university press

granth aur nibandhasoochi