Bhaarat ka raajaneetik ekeekaran

1947 mein svatantrata ke turant baad Bhaarat ki raajaneetik sthiti
1909 mein 'britaani Bhaarat' tatha desi riyaasatein

svatantrata ke samay 'Bhaarat' ke antargat teen tarah ke kshetr the-

in sabhi kshetron ko ek raajanaitik ikaai ke roop mein ekeekrut karna bhaarateeya raashtreeya Congress ka ghoshit lakshya tha. Bhaarat sarkaar ne samay ke saath in lakshyon ko kamobesh haasil kiya.

anukram

Bhaarat ki ekta ka itihaas

parichay

san 1947 mein svatantr hone ke baad Bhaarat svatantr riyaasaton mein banta hua tha. 15 August 1947 ki taareekh laard lui maauntabaitan ne jaanaboojh kar tay ki thi kyonki ye dviteeya vishv yuddh mein Japan dvaara samarpan karne ki doosari varshagaanth thi. 15 August 1945 ko Japan aatm samarpan kar diya tha, tab maauntabaitan sena ke saath barma ke jangalon mein the. isi varshagaanth ko yaadagaar banaane ke liye maauntabaitan ne 15 August 1947 ko Bhaarat ki aajaadi ke liye tay kiya tha. kintu Bhopal ke logon ko Bhaarat sangh ka hissa banane ke liye baad mein do saal aur intajaar karna pada tha. tab sardaar Patel ne koi 600 deshi riyaasaton ko Bhaarat mein milaakar Bhaarat ko ek sootr mein baandha aur Bhaarat ko maujooda svaroop diya. ek kushal prashaasak hone ke kaaran krutajnya raashtra unhein 'lauh purush' ke roop mein bhi yaad karta hai.[1]

aajaadi praapti ke dauraan Bhaarat mein kareeb 662 deshi riyaasatein theen. sardaar Patel tab antarim sarkaar mein upapradhaanamantri ke saath desh ke gruhamantri the. Junagadh, Hyderabad aur Kashmir ko chhodakr 552 riyaasaton ne svejha se bhaarateeya parisangh mein shaamil hone ki sveekruti di thi.

vaastav mein, maauntabaitan ne jo prastaav Bhaarat ki aajaadi ko lekar javaaharalaal Nehru ke saamane rakha tha usamein ye praavadhaan tha ki Bhaarat ke 565 rajavaade Bhaarat ya Pakistan mein kisi ek mein vilay ko chuneinge aur ve chaahein to donon ke saath na jaakar apne ko svatantr bhi rakh sakeinge. in 565 rajavaadon jinmein se adhikaansh prinsali state (british bhaarateeya saamraajya ka hissa) the mein se Bhaarat ke hisse mein aae rajavaadon ne ek-ek karke vilay patra par hastaakshar kar diye, ya yooain kah sakte hain ki sardaar vallabh bhaai Patel tatha VP Menon ne hastaakshar karva liye.

bache rah gaye the - Hyderabad, joonaagadh, Kashmir aur Bhopal. inmein se Bhopal ka vilay sabse ant mein Bhaarat mein hua. Bhaarat sangh mein shaamil hone waali antim riyaasat Bhopal isliye thi kyonki Patel aur Menon ko pata tha ki Bhopal ko antat: milna hi hoga. joonaagadh Pakistan mein milne ki ghoshana kar chuka tha to kaashmeer svatantr bane rahane ki. joonaagadh, kaashmeer tatha Hyderabad teenon raajyon ko sena ki madad se vilay karavaaya gaya kintu Bhopal mein iski aavashyakta naheen padi.

Bhopal jahaan navaab hameedullaah Khan us riyaasat ke navaab the jo Bhopal, seehor aur raayasen tak faili hui thi. is riyaasat ki sthaapana 1723-24 mein aurangajeb ki sena ke bahaadur Afghan yoddha dost mohammad Khan ne seehor, aashta, khilcheepur aur ginnaur ko jeet kar sthaapit ki thi. 1728 mein dost mohammad Khan ki mrutyu ke baad uske bete yaar mohammad Khan ke roop mein Bhopal riyaasat ko apna pehla navaab mila tha.

March 1818 mein jab najar mohammad Khan navaab the to englo Bhopal sandhi ke tahat Bhopal riyaasat bhaarateeya british saamraajya ki prinsali state ho gayi. 1926 mein usi riyaasat ke navaab bane the hameedullaah Khan. Aligadh vishvavidyaalaya se shikshit navaab hameedullaah do baar 1931 aur 1944 mein chembar of prinses ke chaansalar bane tatha Bhaarat vibhaajan ke samay ve hi chaansalar the. aajaadi ka masauda ghoshit hone ke saath hi unhonne 1947 mein chaansalar pad se tyaagapatr de diya tha, kyonki ve rajavaadon ki svatantrata ke pakshadhar the.

navaab hameedullaah 14 August 1947 tak oohaapoh mein the ki vo kya nirnaya lein. jinna unhein Pakistan mein sekretari general ka pad dekar vahaaain aane ki peshakash de chuke the aur idhar riyaasat ka moh tha. 13 August ko unhonne apni beti aabida ko Bhopal riyaasat ka shaasak ban jaane ko kaha taaki ve Pakistan jaakar sekretari general ka pad sabhaal sakein, kintu aabida ne isse inkaar kar diya.

Bhopal ka vileeneekaran sabse ant mein hua to uske peechhe ek kaaran ye bhi tha ki navaab hameedullaah jo chembar of prinses ke chaansalar the unka desh ki aantarik raajaneeti mein bahut dakhal tha, ve Nehru aur jinna donon ke ghanishth mitr the.

March 1948 mein navaab hameedullaah ne Bhopal ke svatantr rahane ki ghoshana ki. May 1948 mein navaab ne Bhopal sarkaar ka ek mantreemandal ghoshit kar diya tha jiske pradhaanamantri chaturanaaraayan maalaveeya the. is samay tak aate-aate Bhopal riyaasat mein vileeneekaran ko lekar vidroh panapane laga tha. saath hi vileeneekaran ki sootradhaar Patel-Menon ki jodi bhi dabaav banaane lagi thi.

ek aur samasya ye saamane aa gayi thi ki chatur Narayan maalaveeya bhi vileeneekaran ke paksh mein ho chuke the. prajaamandal vileeneekaran aandolan ka pramukh dal ban chuka tha. October 1948 mein navaab haj par chale gaye aur December 1948 mein Bhopal ke itihaas ka jabaradast pradarshan vileeneekaran ko lekar hua, kai pradarshanakaari giraftaar kiye gaye jinmein thaakur laal Singh, Dr shankar dayaal sharma, bhainro prasaad aur uddhavadaas Mehta jaise naam bhi shaamil the. poora Bhopal band tha, raajya ki police aandolanakaariyon par paani feink kar unhein niyantrit karne ki koshish kar rahi thi.

23 January 1949 ko dau॰ shankar dayaal sharma ko aath maah ke liye jail bhej diya gaya. in sabke beech VP Menon ek baar fir se Bhopal aae Menon ne navaab ko spasht shabdon mein kaha ki Bhopal svatantr naheen rah sakta, bhaugolik, naitik aur saanskrutik najar se dekhein to Bhopal maalava ke jyaada kareeb hai isliye Bhopal ko madhyabhaarat ka hissa banana hi hoga. aakhirkaar 29 January 1949 ko navaab ne mantrimandal ko barkhaast karte hue satta ke saare sootr ek baar fir se apne haath mein le liye. pandit chaturanaaraayan maalaveeya ikkees din ke upavaas par baith chuke the.

VP Menon poore ghatnaakram ko Bhopal mein hi rahakar dekh rahe the, ve laal kothi (vartamaan Rajbhavan) mein ruke hue the tatha lagataar dabaav banaae hue the navaab par. aur antat: 30 April 1949 ko navaab ne vileeneekaran ke patra par hastaakshar kar diye. sardaar Patel ne navaab ko likhe patra mein kaha -mere liye ye ek badi niraashaajanak aur dukh ki baat thi ki aapke avivaadit hunar tatha kshamataaon ko aapne desh ke upayog mein us samay naheen aane diya jab desh ko usaki jaroorat thi.

antat: 1 June 1949 ko Bhopal riyaasat, Bhaarat ka hissa ban gayi, kendra dvaara niyukt cheef commissioner shri enabi bainarji ne kaaryabhaar sanbhaal liya aur navaab ko mila 11 lakh saalaana ka priveepars. Bhopal ka vileeneekaran ho chuka tha. lagbhag 225 saal puraane (1724 se 1949) navaabi shaasan ka prateek raha tiranga (kaala, safed, hara) laal kothi se utaara ja raha tha aur Bhaarat sangh ka tiranga (kesariya, safed, hara) chadhaaya ja raha tha.

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

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