Bhaarat ka itihaas

Bhaarat ka itihaas kai hajaar saal puraana maana jaata hai. meharagadh puraataatvik drushti se mahatvapoorn ek sthaan hai jahaaain navapaashaan yug (7000 isa-poorv se 2500 isa-poorv) ke bahut se avashesh mile hain. sindhu ghaati sabhyata, jiska aarambh kaal lagbhag 3300 isaapoorv se maana jaata hai, praacheen misr aur sumer sabhyata ke saath vishv ki praacheenatam sabhyata mein se ek hain. is sabhyata ki lipi ab tak safalta poorvak padhi naheen ja saki hai. sindhu ghaati sabhyata vartamaan Pakistan aur usase sate bhaarateeya pradeshon mein faili thi. puraatattv pramaanon ke aadhaar par 1900 isaapoorv ke aaspaas is sabhyata ka aksmaat patan ho gaya. 19vi shataabdi ke paashchaatya vidvaanon ke prachalit drushtikonon ke anusaar aaryon ka ek varg bhaarateeya up mahaadveep ki seemaaon par 2000 isa poorv ke aaspaas pahuncha aur pehle Punjab mein bas gaya aur yahi rigved ki richaaon ki rachana ki gayi. aaryon dvaara uttar tatha madhya Bhaarat mein ek viksit sabhyata ka nirmaan kiya gaya, jise vaidik sabhyata bhi kehte hain. praacheen Bhaarat ke itihaas mein vaidik sabhyata sabse praarambhik sabhyata hai jiska sambandh aaryon ke aagaman se hai. iska naamakaran aaryon ke praarambhik saahitya vedon ke naam par kiya gaya hai. aaryon ki bhaasha sanskrut thi aur dharm "vaidik dharm" ya "sanaatan dharm" ke naam se prasiddh tha, baad mein videshi aakraantaaon dvaara is dharm ka naam hindu pada.

vaidik sabhyata sarasvati nadi ke tateeya kshetr jismein aadhunik Bhaarat ke Punjab (Bhaarat) aur Haryana raajya aate hain, mein viksit hui. aam taur par adhiktar vidvaan vaidik sabhyata ka kaal 2000 isa poorv se 600 isa poorv ke beech mein maanate hai, parantu nae puraatattv utkhananon se mile avasheshon mein vaidik sabhyata se sambandhit kai avashesh mile hai jisse kuchh aadhunik vidvaan yeh maanane lage hai ki vaidik sabhyata Bhaarat mein hi shuru hui thi, aarya bhaarateeya mool ke hi the aur rigved ka rachana kaal 3000 isa poorv raha hoga, kyonki aaryo ke Bhaarat mein aane ka na to koi puraatattv utkhananon par adhaarit pramaan mila hai aur na hi di N A anusandhaanon se koi pramaan mila hai. haal hi mein bhaarateeya puraatatv parishd dvaara ki gayi sarasvati nadi ki khoj se vaidik sabhyata, hadppa sabhyata aur aaryon ke baare mein ek naya drushtikon saamane aaya hai. hadppa sabhyata ko sindhu-sarasvati sabhyata naam diya hai, kyonki hadppa sabhyata ki 2600 bastiyon me se vartamaan Pakistan mein sindhu tat par maatr 265 bastiyaan theen, jabki shesh adhikaansh bastiyaan sarasvati nadi ke tat par milti hain, sarasvati ek vishaal nadi thi. pahaadon ko todti hui niklati thi aur maidaanon se hoti hui samudra mein jaakar vileen ho jaati thi. iska varnan rigved mein baar-baar aata hai, yeh aaj se 4000 saal poorv bhoogarbhi badlaav ki vajah se sookh gayi thi.

isa poorv 7 veen aur shurooaati 6 veen shataabdi sadi mein jain aur bauddh dharm sampradaaya lokapriya hue. ashok (isaapoorv 265-241) is kaal ka ek mahatvapoorn raaja tha jiska saamraajya Afghanistan se manipur tak aur takshashila se Karnataka tak fail gaya tha. par vo sampoorn dakshin tak naheen ja saka. dakshin mein chol sabse shaktishaali nikle. sangam saahitya ki shuruaat bhi dakshin mein isi samay hui. Bhagwan Gautam buddh ke jeevanakaal mein, isa poorv 7 veen aur shurooaati 6 veen shataabdi ke dauraan solah badi shaktiyaan (mahaajanapad) vidyamaan the. ati mahat‍aavapoorn ganaraaj‍aayon mein kapilvas‍aatu ke shaak‍aaya aur vaishaali ke lich‍aachhavi ganaraaj‍aaya the. ganaraaj‍aayon ke alaava raajatantreeya raaj‍aaya bhi the, jinmein se kaushaam‍aabi (vat‍aas), magadh, koshal, kuru, paanchaal, chedi aur avanti mahat‍aavapoorn the. in raaj‍aayon ka shaasan aise shaktishaali v‍aayaktiyon ke paas tha, jin‍aahonne raaj‍aaya vis‍aataar aur padosi raaj‍aayon ko apne mein milaane ki neeti apna rakhi thi. tathaapi ganaraaj‍aayaat‍aamak raaj‍aayon ke tab bhi s‍aapash‍aat sanket the jab raajaaon ke adheen raaj‍aayon ka vis‍aataar ho raha tha. iske baad Bhaarat chhote-chhote saamraajyon mein bant gaya.

aathaveen sadi mein sindh par arabi adhikaar ho gaaya. yeh islaam ka pravesh maana jaata hai. baarahaveen sadi ke ant tak Delhi ki gaddi par turk daason ka shaasan aa gaya jinhonne agale kai saalon tak raaj kiya. dakshin mein hindu vijyanagar aur golakunda ke raajya the. 1556 mein vijay nagar ka patan ho gaya. san 1526 mein madhya Asia se nirvaasit Rajkumar baabar ne Kabul mein panaah li aur Bhaarat par aakraman kiya. usane mugl vansh ki sthaapana ki jo agale 300 saalon tak chala. isi samay dakshin-poorvi tat se Portugal ka samudri vyaapaar shuru ho gaya tha. baabar ka pota Akbar dhaarmik sahishnuta ke liye vikhyaat hua. usane hinduon par se jajiya kar hata liya. 1659 mein aurangjeb ne ise fir se laagoo kar diya. aurangjeb ne Kashmir mein tatha anya sthaanon par hinduon ko balaat musalmaan banavaaya. usi samay kendreeya aur dakshin Bhaarat mein shivaaji ke netrutv mein maraathe shaktishaali ho rahe the. aurangajeb ne dakshin ki or dhyaan lagaaya to uttar mein sikhon ka udaya ho gaya. aurangjeb ke marate hi (1707) mugal saamraajya bikhr gaya. angrejon ne dachon, purtagaaliyon tatha fraansisiyon ko bhagaakar Bhaarat par vyaapaar ka adhikaar sunishchit kiya aur 1857 ke ek vidroh ko kuchalane ke baad satta par kaabij ho gaye. Bhaarat ko aajaadi 1947 mein mili jismein mahaatma gaaaindhi ke ahinsa aadhaarit aandolan ka yogadaan mahatvapoorn tha. 1947 ke baad se Bhaarat mein ganataantrik shaasan laagoo hai. aajaadi ke samay hi Bhaarat ka vibhaajan hua jisse Pakistan ka janm hua aur donon deshon mein Kashmir sahit anya muddon par tanaav bana hua hai.

anukram

srot

samaanyat vidvaan bhaarateeya itihaas ko ek sampann par ardhalikhit itihaas bataate hain par bhaarateeya itihaas ke kai srot hai. sindhu ghaati ki lipi, ashok ke shilaalekh, herodotas, fa hiyaan, hven saang, sangam saahitya, maarkopolo, sanskrut lekhakon aadi se praacheen Bhaarat ka itihaas praapt hota hai. madhyakaal mein al-beruni aur uske baad Delhi saltanat ke raajaaon ki jeevani bhi mahatvapoorn hai. baabaranaama, aain-A-akabari aadi jeevaniyaaain hamein uttar madhyakaal ke baare mein bataati hain.

Bhaarat mein maanav jeevan ka praacheenatam pramaan 100,000 se 80,000 varsh poorv ka hai.. paashaan yug (bheemabetaka, madhya pradesh) ke chattaanon par chitron ka kaalakram 40,000 E poo se 9000 E poo maana jaata hai. pratham sthaayi bastiyaan ne 9000 varsh poorv svarup liya. uttar pashchim mein sindhu ghaati sabhyata 7000 E poo viksit hui, jo 26veen shataabdi isa poorv aur 20veen shataabdi isa poorv ke madhya apne charam par thi. vaidik sabhyata ka kaalakram bhi jyotish ke vishleshan se 4000 E poo tak jaata hai.

raashtra ke rup mein udaya

Bhaarat ko ek sanaatan raashtra maana jaata hai kyonki yeh maanav sabhyata ka pehla raashtra tha. shreemadbhaagavat ke panyacham skandh mein Bhaarat raashtra ki sthaapana ka varnan aata hai.

bhaarateeya darshan ke anusaar srushti utpatti ke pashchaat brahma ke maanas putr svaayanbhuv manu ne vyavastha sambhaali. inke do putr, priyvrat aur uttaanapaad the. uttaanapaad bhakt dhruv ke pita the. inheen priyvrat ke das putr the. teen putr baalyakaal se hi virkt the. is kaaran priyvrat ne pruthvi ko saat bhaagon mein vibhkt kar ek-ek bhaag pratyek putr ko saunp diya. inheen mein se ek the aagneedhr jinhein jamboodveep ka shaasan kaarya saunpa gaya. vruddhaavastha mein aagneedhr ne apne nau putron ko jamboodveep ke vibhinn nau sthaanon ka shaasan daayitv saunpa. in nau putron mein sabse bade the naabhi jinhein himvarsh ka bhoo-bhaag mila. inhonne himvarsh ko swayam ke naam ajanaabh se jodkar ajanaabhavarsh prachaarit kiya. yeh himvarsh ya ajanaabhavarsh hi praacheen Bhaarat desh tha. raaja naabhi ke putr the rishabh. rishabhadev ke sau putron mein bharat jyeshth evam sabse gunavaan the. rishabhadev ne vaanaprasth lene par unhein raajapaat saunp diya. pehle bhaaratavarsh ka naam riashabhadev ke pita naabhiraaj ke naam par ajanaabhavarsh prasiddh tha. bharat ke naam se hi log ajanaabhakhand ko bhaaratavarsh kehne lage.

praacheen Bhaarat

1000 E poo ke pashchaat 16 mahaajanapad uttar Bhaarat mein milte hain. 500 isavi poorv ke baad, kai svatantr raajya ban gaye. uttar mein maurya vansh, jismein chandragupt maurya aur ashok sammilit the, ne Bhaarat ke saanskrutik patal par ullekhaneeya chhaap chhodi | 180 isavi ke aarambh se, madhya Asia se kai aakraman hue, jinke parinaamasvaroop uttari bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein indo-greek, indo-skithian, indo-paarthiyn aur antat: kushaan raajavansh sthaapit hue | teesari shataabdi ke aage ka samay jab Bhaarat par gupt vansh ka shaasan tha, Bhaarat ka "svarnim kaal" kahalaaya. dakshin Bhaarat mein bhinn-bhinn samayakaal mein kai raajavansh chaalukya, cher, chol, kadamb, pallav tatha paandya chale | vigyaan, kala, saahitya, ganit, khagol shaastr, praacheen praudyogiki, dharm, tatha darshan inheen raajaaon ke shaasanakaal mein fle-foole |

madhyakaaleen Bhaarat

12veen shataabdi ke praarambh mein, Bhaarat par islaami aakramanon ke pashchaat, uttari va kendreeya Bhaarat ka adhikaansh bhaag Delhi saltanat ke shaasanaadheen ho gaya; aur baad mein, adhikaansh upamahaadveep mugal vansh ke adheen. dakshin Bhaarat mein vijyanagar saamraajya shaktishaali nikla. haalaanki, visheshat: tulanaatmak roop se, sanrakshit dakshin mein, anek raajya shesh rahe athva astitv mein aaye.

17veen shataabdi ke madhyakaal mein Portugal, dach, France, Britain sahit anekon yuropeeya deshon, jo ki Bhaarat se vyaapaar karne ke ichhuk the, unhonein desh mein sthaapit shaasit pradesh, jo ki aapas mein yuddh karne mein vyast the, ka laabh praapt kiya. angrej dusare deshon se vyaapaar ke ichhuk logon ko rokane mein safal rahe aur 1840 E tak lagbhag sampoorn desh par shaasan karne mein safal hue. 1857 E mein british ist India company ke viruddh asafal vidroh, jo ki bhaarateeya svatantrata ke pratham sangraam se jaana jaata hai, ke baad Bhaarat ka adhikaansh bhaag seedhe angreji shaasan ke prashaasanik niyantran mein aa gaya.

aadhunik Bhaarat

beesaveen shataabdi ke praarambh mein angreji shaasan se svatantrata praapti ke liye sangharsh chala. is sangharsh ke parinaamasvaroop 15 August, 1947 E ko safal hua jab Bhaarat ne angreji shaasan se svatantrata praapt ki, magar desh ko vibhaajan kar diya gaya. taduparaant 26 January, 1950 E ko Bhaarat ek ganaraajya bana.

inhein bhi dekhein

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