Bhaarat ka bhoogol

Bhaarat
भारत
mahaadveep Asia
anyachal dakshin Asia
bhaarateeya upamahaadveep
sthiti 21°aN 78°aE / 21°aN 78°aE / 21; 78
kshetrafal kram {{{kram}}}
32,87,263 km² (12,69,219.3 sq mi)
90.44% sthalabhaag
9.56 % jalabhaag
seemaant sthaleeya seemaayein:
15,106.70 kimi (9,386.87 meal)
Afghanistan:
80 kimi (50 meal)
4,096.70 kimi (2,545.57 meal)Bangladesh:
4,096.70 kimi (2,545.57 meal)
cheen:
3,488 kimi (2,167 meal)
Pakistan:
2,910 kimi (1,808 meal)
Nepal:
1,751 kimi (1,088 meal)
barma:
1,643 kimi (1,021 meal)
bhootaan:
699 kimi (434 meal)
sarvochch bindu kanchanajanga
8,598 mi (28,208.7 fut)
sarvanimn bindu kanyaakumaari
−2.2 mi (−7.2 fut)
sabse lambi nadi ganga–brahmaputr[krupaya uddharan jodein]
sabse badi jheel chilka jheel

Bhaarat ka bhoogol ya Bhaarat ka bhaugolik svaroop se aashay Bhaarat mein bhaugolik tatvon ke vitran aur iske pratiroop se hai jo lagbhag har drushti se kaafi vividhtaapoorn hai. dakshin Asia ke teen praayadveepon mein se madhyavarti praayadveep par sthit yeh desh apne 31,66,414 varg kimi kshetrafal ke saath vishv ka saatavaaain sabse bada desh hai. saath hi lagbhag 1.2 arab janasankhya ke saath yeh poore vishv mein cheen ke baad doosra sabse adhik janasankhya wala desh bhi hai.

Bhaarat ki bhaugolik sanrachana mein lagbhag sabhi prakaar ke sthalaroop paae jaate hain. ek or iske uttar mein vishaal himaalaya ki parvatamaalaayein hain to doosari or aur dakshin mein vistrut hind mahaasaagar, ek or ooaincha-neecha aur kata-fata dakkan ka pathaar hai to vaheen vishaal aur samatal sindhu-ganga-brahmaputr ka maidaan bhi, thaar ke vistrut marusthal mein jahaaain vividh marusthaleeya sthalarup paae jaate hain to doosari or samudra tateeya bhaag bhi hain. kark rekha iske lagbhag beech se gujarati hai aur yahaaain lagbhag har prakaar ki jalavaayu bhi paayi jaati hai. mitti, vanaspati aur praakrutik sansaadhano ki drushti se bhi Bhaarat mein kaafi bhaugolik vividhta hai.

praakrutik vividhta ne yahaaain ki nrujaateeya vividhta aur janasankhya ke asamaan vitran ke saath milkar ise aarthik, saamajik aur saanskrutik vividhta pradaan ki hai. in sabke baavajood yahaaain ki aitihaasik-saanskrutik ekta ise ek raashtra ke roop mein paribhaashit karti hai. himaalaya dvaara uttar mein surakshit aur lagbhag 7 hajaar kilometer lambi samudri seema ke saath hind mahaasaagar ke uttari sheersh par sthit Bhaarat ka bhoo-raajanaitik mahatva bhi bahut badh jaata hai aur ise ek pramukh kshetreeya shakti ke roop mein sthaapit karta hai.


anukram

avasthiti evam vistaar

Bhaarat ki nirpeksh avasthiti 08° 04' u. se 37° 06'u. akshaansh tak aur 68° 07' poo. se 97° 25' poo. deshaantar ke madhya hai. iski uttar se dakshin lambaai 3,214 kimi aur poorv se pashchim chaudaai 2933 kimi hai. iski sthaleeya seema ki lambaai 15,200 kimi tatha samudra tat ki lambaai 7,517 kimi hai. kul kshetrafal 31,66,414 varg kimi hai. Bhaarat ki sthaleeya seema uttar-pashchimi mein Pakistan aur Afghanistan se lagti hai, uttar mein Tibet (ab cheen ka hissa) aur cheen tatha Nepal aur bhootaan se lagi hui hai aur poorv me Bangladesh tatha myaanmaar se. Bengal ki khaadi mein sthit andamaan va nikobaar dveepasamooh aur arab saagar mein sthit lakshadveep, Bhaarat ke dveepeeya hisse hain. is prakaar Bhaarat ki samudri seema dakshin-pashchim mein maaladeev dakshin mein shri lanka aur sudoor dakshin-poorv mein Thailand aur Indonesia se lagti hai. Pakistan, Bangladesh aur myaanmaar ke saath Bhaarat ki sthaleeya seema aur samudri seema donon judi hain.

Bhaarat ka sabse uttari bindu indira call aur sabse dakshini bindu indira point tatha sabse poorvi bindu kibithoo aur sabse pashchimi bindu guhar moti hai. mukhya bhoomi ka sabse dakshini bindu kanyaakumaari hai. uttaratam bindu indira call ka naamakaran iske khoji bulak varkamain ne 1912 mein bhaarateeya devi lakshmi ke ek naam indira ke aadhaar kiya aur iska indira gaaaindhi se koi sambandh naheen hai.

prashaasanik ikaaiyaaain

vartamaan mein Bhaarat 29 raajyon tatha 7 kendrashaasit pradeshon me bainta hua hai. raajyon ki chuni hui svatantr sarkaarein hain, jabki kendrashaasit pradeshon par kendra dvaara niyukt prabandhan shaasan karta hai, haalaaainki paundicheri aur Delhi ki lokataantrik sarkaar bhi hain.

antaarkatika mein dakshin gangotri aur maitri par bhi Bhaarat ke vaigyaanik-sthal hain, yadyapi abhi tak koi vaastavik aadhiptya sthaapit naheen kiya gaya hai.

raajyon ke naam nimnavat hain- (koshtak mein rajdhani ka naam)
हिन्द महासागर बंगाल की खाड़ी अंडमान सागर अरब सागर लक्षद्वीप सागर सियाचीन अण्डमान और निकोबार द्वीपसमूह चण्डीगढ़ दादरा और नगर हवेली दमन और दीव दिल्ली लक्षद्वीप पुदुच्चेरी पुदुच्चेरी पुदुच्चेरी आंध्र प्रदेश अरुणाचल प्रदेश असम बिहार छत्तीसगढ़ गोवा गुजरात हरियाणा हिमाचल प्रदेश जम्मू और कश्मीर झारखण्ड कर्णाटक केरल मध्य प्रदेश महाराष्ट्र मणिपुर मेघालय मेघालय नागालैण्ड ओड़िशा पंजाब राजस्थान सिक्किम तमिलनाडु त्रिपुरा उत्तर प्रदेश उत्तराखण्ड पश्चिम बंगाल अफ़्गानिस्तान बांग्लादेश भूटान म्यान्मार चीन नेपाल पाकिस्तान श्रीलंका ताजिकिस्तान दादरा और नगर हवेली दमन और दीव पुदुच्चेरी पुदुच्चेरी पुदुच्चेरी पुदुच्चेरी आंध्र प्रदेश तेलंगाना गोवा गुजरात जम्मू और कश्मीर कर्णाटक केरल मध्य प्रदेश महाराष्ट्र राजस्थान तमिलनाडु असम मेघालय अरुणाचल प्रदेश नागालैण्ड मणिपुर मिज़ोरम त्रिपुरा पश्चिम बंगाल सिक्किम भूटान बांग्लादेश बिहार झारखण्ड ओड़िशा छत्तीसगढ़ उत्तर प्रदेश उत्तराखण्ड नेपाल दिल्ली हरियाणा पंजाब हिमाचल प्रदेश चण्डीगढ़ Pakistan श्रीलंका श्रीलंका श्रीलंका श्रीलंका श्रीलंका श्रीलंका श्रीलंका श्रीलंका श्रीलंका
Bhaarat ke 29 raajyon aur 7 kendra shaasit pradeshon ke ek klik karne yogya naksha
kendrashaasit pradesh

† Chandigarh ek keindrashaasit pradesh aur Punjab aur Haryana donon raajyon ki rajdhani hai.

bhoogarbhashaastreeya pahaloo

bhaarateeya plate ki gati

Bhaarat poori taur par bhaarateeya plate ke oopar sthit hai jo bhaarateeya Australiaee plate (Indo-Australian Plate) ka upakhand hai. praacheen kaal mein yeh plate gondavaanaalaind ka hissa thi aur Africa aur antaarkatika ke saath judi hui thi. takareeban 9 karod varsh pehle kreeteshiys kaal mein yeh plate 15 se॰amee॰/varsh ki gati se uttar ki or badhne lagi aur ioseen peeriyd mein yooreshiyn plate se takaraai. bhaarateeya plate aur yooreshiyn plate ke madhya sthit tetheej bhoosannati ke avasaadon ke vaalan dvaara oopar uthane se Tibet pathaar aur himaalaya parvat ka nirmaan hua. saamane ki droni mein baad mein avasaad jama ho jaane se sindhu-ganga maidaan bana. bhaarateeya plate abhi bhi lagbhag 5 se॰amee॰/varsh ki gati se uttar ki or gatishiil hai aur himaalaya ki oonchaai mein abhi bhi 2 mi॰mee॰/varsh ki gati se utthaan ho raha hai.

praayadveepeeya pathaar Bhaarat ka praacheenatam drudh bhookhand hai. iska nirmaan bhoovaijnyaaanik itihaas ke praarambh kaal mein hua tha jise aarkiyn mahaakalp ya aadyamahaakalp kehte hain. tab se yeh baraabar samudra ke oopar raha. yeh mukhya grenaait, nees aur shist naamak chattaanon se bana hai. paratadaar chattaanein bhi atyant puraani hain. araavali parvat praacheenatam valit parvat hai. poorvi ghaat praacheen valit tatha pashchimi ghaat avashisht pahaadon ke udaaharan hain. dakshini praayadveep mein jo bhi bhusanchalan ke pramaan milte hain ve keval lanbavat sanchalan ke hain jisse daraaron athva bhranshon ka nirmaan hua. is prakaar ka pehla sanchalan madhyajeevi mahaakalp (Mesozoic Era) athva gondavaana kaal mein hua. samaantar bhranshon ke beech ki bhoomi neeche dhains gayi aur un dhainse bhaagon mein anuprasth paratadaar chattaanon ko gondavaan kram ki chattaanon mein milta hai. inka vistaar, Damodar, mahaanadi tatha godaavari nadiyon ki ghaatiyon mein lambe evam sakeern kshetron mein paaya jaata hai. madhyajeevi mahaakalp ke antim kaal mein lambi daraaron se laava nikal kar praayadveep ke uttar-pashchimi bhaagon ke vistrut kshetr mein fail gaya. dakkan ka yeh laava kshetr ab bhi lagbhag do lakh varg meal mein faila hua paaya jaata hai. is kshetr ki chattaan besaalt hai jiske vikhandan se kaali mitti ka nirmaan hua hai.

atyant praacheen kaal se sthir evam sthal bhaag rahane ke kaaran dakshini praayadveep mein anaachhaadan ki shaktiyaan nirantar kaam karti rahi hain jiske falasvaroop iska adhikaansh bhaag gharshit ho gaya hai, andar ki puraani chattaanein dharaatal par aa gayi hain.

himaalaya ka parvateeya bhaag dhikaanshat: naveen paratadaar chattaanon dvaara nirmit hai, jo laakhon varsho tak tethis samudra mein ekatrit hoti rahi theen. saagar mein ekatrit malabe ne truteeya mahaakalp mein bhoosanchalan ke kaaran vishaal moddaar shreniyon ka roop dhaaran kiya. is prakaar himaalaya parvatamaala mukhyat: vaisi chattaanon se nirmit hai jo samudri nikshep se bani hain aur dakshini pathaar ki tulana mein yeh ek asthir sthal hai. paratadaar chattaanein jo kshaitij avastha mein jama hui theen, bhoosanchalan ke prabhaav se atyant mud gayi hain aur ek doosare par chadh gayi hain. vishaal kshetron mein valan (folds), bhransh (faults), kshep-bhransh (thrust faults) tatha shayaan valan (recumbent folding) ke udaaharan milte hain.

sindhu-ganga maidaan bhoovaijnyaaanik drushti se sabse naveen hai. himaalaya parvatamaala ke nirmaan ke samay uttar se jo bhoosanchalan aaya uske dhakke se praayadveep ka uttari kinaara neeche dhains gaya jisse vishaal khadd ban gaya. himaalaya parvat se niklanevaali nadiyon ne apne nikshepon dvaara is khadd ko bharna shuroo kiya aur is prakaar unhonne kaalaantar mein ek vistrut maidaan ka nirmaan kiya. is prakaar yeh maidaan mukhyat: himaalaya ke apaksharan se utpann talachhat aur nadiyon dvaara jama kiye hue jalodhak se bana hai. ismein baaloo tatha mitti ki tahein milti hain, jo atyantanootan (Pleistocene) aur naveenatam kaal ki hain.

bhautik pradesh

himaalaya ka parvateeya bhaag

raathong shikhar, kanchanajangha ke sameep sthit, jemaathaang gleshiyr ke paas se liya gaya chitr

Bhaarat ke uttar mein himaalaya ki parvatamaala nae aur moddaar pahaadon se bani hai. yeh parvatashreni Kashmir se arunaachal tak lagbhag 1,500 meal tak faili hui hai. iski chaudaai 150 se 200 meal tak hai. yeh sansaar ki sabse ooainchi parvatamaala hai aur ismein anek chotiyaaain 24,000 foot se adhik ooainchi hain. himaalaya ki sabse ooainchi choti mount evarest hai jiski ooainchaai 29,028 foot hai jo Nepal mein sthit hai. anya mukhya chotiyaaain kanchanajanga (27,815 foot), dhaulaagiri (26,795 foot), nanga parvat (26,620 foot), gosaaithaan (26,291 foot), nandaadevi (25,645 foot) ityaadi hain. gaudavin ostin (mount ke 2) jo 28,250 foot ooainchi hai, himaalaya ka naheen, balki Kashmir ke karaakoram parvat ka ek shikhar hai. himaalaya pradesh mein 16,000 foot se adhik ooainchaai par hamesha barf jami rahati hai. isliye is parvatamaala ko himaalaya kehna sarvatha upayukt hai.

himaalaya ke adhiktar bhaagon mein teen samaantar shreniyaaain milti hain:

  • (k) bruhat athva aabhyaantarik himaalaya (The great or inner Himalayas)- sabse uttar mein pai jaanevaali shreni sabse ooainchi hai. yeh Kashmir mein nangaaparvat se lekar asam tak ek durbhedya deevaar ki tarah khadi hai. iski ausat ooainchaai 20,000 foot hai.
  • (kh) laghu athva madhya himaalaya (The lesser or middle Himalayas) - jyon jyon ham dakshin ki or jaate hain, pahaadon ki ooainchaai kam hoti jaati hai. laghu athva madhya himaalaya ki ooainchaai praaya: 12,000 se 15,000 foot tak se adhik naheen hai. ausat ooainchaai lagbhag 10,000 foot hai aur chaudaai 40 se 50 meal. in shreniyon ka kram jatil hai aur isse yatr tatr kai shakhaaऍ niklati hain. bruhat himaalaya aur madhya himaalaya ke beech anek upajaaoo ghaatiyaaain hain jinmein Kashmir ki ghaati tatha Nepal mein kaathamaandoo ki ghaati vishesh ullekhaneeya hain. Bhaarat ke prasiddh shailaavaas Shimla, masoori, naineetaal, Darjiling madhya himaalaya ke nichle bhaag mein, mukhyat: 6,000 se 7,500 foot hai (maanachitr 1).
  • (g) baahya himaalaya (Outer Himalayas) - ise shivaalik shreni bhi kehte hain. yeh shreni himaalaya ki sabhi shreniyon se nai hai aur iska nirmaan himaalaya nirmaan ke antim kaal mein kankad, ret tatha mitti ke dabane aur mudne se hua hai. iski chaudaai paaainch se 60 meal tak hai. madhya aur baahya himaalaya ke beech kai ghaatiyaaain milti hain rjinhein doon (deharaadoon) kehte hain.

poorv mein Bhaarat aur barma ke beech ke pahaad bhinn bhinn naamon se khyaat hain. uttar mein yeh patakai bum ki pahaadi kahalaati hai. naaga parvat se ek shaakha pashchim ki or asam mein chali gayi hain jismein khaasi aur gaaro ki pahaadiyaaain hai. in pahaadon ki ausat ooainchaai 6,000 foot hai aur adhik varsha ke kaaran ye ghane jangalon se aachhaadit hain.

himaalaya ki ooainchi parvatamaala ko kuchh hi sthaanon par, jahaaain darre hain, paar kiya ja sakta hai. isliye in darro ka bada mahatva hai. uttar-pashchim mein Khyber aur bolan ke darre hain jo ab Pakistan mein hain. uttar mein Rawalpindi se Kashmir jaane ka raasta hai jo ab Pakistan ke adhikaar mein hai. Bhaarat ne ek naya raasta pathaanakot se banihaal darra hokar shreenagar jaane ke liye banaaya hai. shreenagar se joji la darre dvaara leh tak jaane ka raasta hai. himaalaya pradesh se Tibet jaane ke liye shipki la darra hai jo Shimla ke paas hai. fir poorv mein Darjiling ka darra hai, jahaaain se chunbi ghaati hote hue Tibet ki rajdhani laasa tak jaane ka raasta hai. poorv ki pahaadiyon mein bhi kai darre hain jinse hokar barma jaaya ja sakta hai. inmein mukhya maneepur tatha hukaung ghaati ke darre hain.

sindhu-ganga maidaan

himaalaya ke dakshin mein ek vistrut samatal maidaan hai jo lagbhag saare uttar Bhaarat mein faila hua hai. yeh ganga, brahmaputr tatha sindhu aur unki sahaayak nadiyon dvaara bana hai. yeh maidaan ganga sindhu ke maidaan ke naam se jaana jaata hai. iska adhiktar bhaag ganga, nadi ke kshetr mein padta hai. sindhu aur usaki sahaayak nadiyon ke maidaan ka aadhe se adhik bhaag ab pashchimi Pakistan mein padta hai aur Bhaarat mein sataluj, raavi aur vyaas ka hi maidaan rah gaya hai. isi prakaar poorv mein, ganga nadi ke delta ka adhikaansh bhaag poorvi Pakistan mein padta hai. uttar ka yeh vishaal maidaan poorv se pashchim, Bhaarat ki seema ke andar lagbhag 1,500 meal lamba hai. iski chaudaai 150 se 200 meal tak hai. is maidaan mein kaheen koi pahaad naheen hai. bhoomi samatal hai aur samudra ki satah se dheere dheere pashchim ki or uthati gayi. kaheen bhi yeh 600 foot se adhik ooaincha naheen hai. Delhi, jo ganga aur sindhu ke maidaanon ke beech apekshaakrut ooainchi bhoomi par sthit hai, keval 700 foot ooainchi bhoomi par sthit hai. atyant chauras hone ke kaaran iski dharaataleeya aakruti mein ekaroopata ka anubhav hota hai, kintu vaastav mein kuchh mahatvapoorn antar paae jaate hain.

himaalaya (shivaalik) ki talahati mein jahaaain nadiyaaain parvateeya kshetr ko chhodkar maidaan mein pravesh karti hain, ek sankeern peti mein kankad patthar mishrit nikshep paaya jaata hai jismein nadiyaaain antardhaan ho jaati hain. is dhaluvaaain kshetr ko bhaabar kehte hain. bhaabar ke dakshin mein taraai pradesh hai, jahaaain vilupt nadiyaaain pun: prakat ho jaati hain. yeh kshetr daladalon aur jangalon se bhara hai. iska nikshep bhaabhar ki tulana mein adhik maheen kanon ka hai. bhaabhar ki apeksha yeh adhik samatal bhi hai. kabhi kaheen jangalon ko saaf kar ismein kheti ki jaati hai. taraai ke dakshin mein jalodh maidaan paaya jaata hai. maidaan mein jalodhk do kism ke hain, puraana jalodhk aur naveen jalodhk. puraane jalodhk ko baaaingar kehte hain. yeh apekshaakrut ooainchi bhoomi mein paaya jaata hai, jahaaain nadiyon ki baadh ka jal naheen pahuainch paata. ismein kaheen kaheen choone ke kankad milte hain. naveen jalodhk ko khaadar kehte hain. yeh nadiyon ki baadh ke maidaan tatha delta pradesh mein paaya jaata hai, jahaaain nadiyaaain prati varsh nai talachhat jama karti hain. maidaan ke dakshini bhaag mein kaheen kaheen dakshini pathaar se nikli hui chhoti moti pahaadiyaaain milti hain. iske udaaharan Bihar mein gaya tatha raajagiri ki pahaadiyaaain hain.

praayadveepeeya pathaari bhaag

Maharashtra mein maatheraan ke paas pashchimi ghaat shreni ka ek drushya

uttari Bhaarat ke maidaan ke dakshin ka poora bhaag ek vistrut pathaar hai jo duniya ke sabse puraane sthal khand ka avashesh hai aur mukhyat: kadi tatha daanedaar kaayaantarit chattaanon se bana hai. pathaar teen or pahaadi shreniyon se ghira hai. uttar mein vindhyaachal tatha satapuda ki pahaadiyaaain hain, jinke beech narmada nadi pashchim ki or bahti hai. narmada ghaati ke uttar vindhyaachal prapaati dhaal banaata hai. satapuda ki parvatashreni uttar Bhaarat ko dakshin Bhaarat se alag karti hai aur poorv ki or mahaadev pahaadi tatha maikaal pahaadi ke naam se jaani jaati hai. satapuda ke dakshin ajanta ki pahaadiyaaain hain. praayadveep ke pashchimi kinaare par pashchimi ghaat aur poorvi kinaare par poorvi ghaat naamak pahaadiyaaain hain. pashchimi ghaat poorvi ghaat ki apeksha adhik ooaincha hai aur lagaataar kai sau meelon tak, 3,500 foot ki ooainchaai tak chala gaya hai. poorvi ghaat na keval neecha hai, balki Bengal ki khaadi mein girnevaali nadiyon ne ise kai sthaanon mein kaat daala hai jinmein uttar se dakshin mahaanadi, godaavari, Krishna tatha kaaveri mukhya hain. dakshin mein poorvi aur pashchimi ghaat neelagiri ki pahaadi mein mil jaate hai, jahaaain dodaabeta ki 8,760 foot ooainchi choti hai. neelagiri ke dakshin annaamalaai tatha kaardemam (ilaayachi) ki pahaadiyaaain hain. annaamalaai pahaadi par anemudi, pathaar ki sabse ooainchi choti (8,840 foot) hai. in pahaadiyon aur neelagiri ke beech paalaghaat ka darra hai jisse hokar pashchim ki or rel gayi hai. pashchimi ghaat mein Mumbai ke paas thaalaghaat aur bhoraghaat do mahatvapoorn darre hain jinse hokar relein Mumbai tak gayi hain.

uttar-pashchim mein vindhyaachal shreni aur araavali shreni ke beech maalava ke pathaar hain jo laava dvaara nirmit hain. araavali shreni dakshin mein Gujarat se lekar uttar mein Delhi tak kai avashisht pahaadiyon ke roop mein pai jaati hai. iske sabse ooainche, dakshin-pashchim chhor mein mount Abu (5,650 foot) sthit hai. uttar-poorv mein chhotaanaagapur pathaar hai, jahaaain raajamahal pahaadi praayadveepeeya pathaar ki uttar-poorvi seema banaati hai. kintu asam ka shilaung pathaar bhi praayadveepeeya pathaar ka hi bhaag hai jo ganga ke maidaan dvaara alag ho gaya hai.

dakshin ke pathaar ki ausat ooainchaai 1,500 se 3,00 foot tak hai. dhaal pashchim se poorv ki or hai. narmada aur taapti ko chhodkar baaki sabhi nadiyaaain poorv ki or Bengal ki khaadi mein girti hain.

samudratateeya maidaan

pathaar ke pashchimi tatha poorvi kinaaron par upajaaoo tateeya maidaan milte hain. pashchimi tateeya maidaan sankeern hain, iske uttari bhaag ko konkan tat aur dakshini bhaag ko maalaabaar tat kehte hain. poorvi tateeya maidaan apekshaakrut chauda hai aur uttar mein udeesa se dakshin mein kumaari antareep tak faila hua hai. mahaanadi, godaavari, Krishna tatha kaaveri nadiyaaain jahaaain delta banaati hain vahaaain yeh maidaan aur bhi adhik chauda ho gaya hai. maidaan ka uttari bhaag uttari sarkaar tat kahalaata hai.

dveepeeya bhaag

Bhaarat me dveepeeya bhaagon mein arab saagar mein lakshadveep aur Bengal ki khaadi mein andamaan nikobaar dweep samooh hain. lakshadveep pravaal bhitti janya dweep hain ya etaul hain vaheen andamaan nikobaar dweep samooh arakaan yoma ka samudra mein prakshipt hissa maane jaate hain aur vastut: samudra mein dobi hui parvat shreni hain. andamaan nikobaar dweep samooh par jvaalaamukhi kriya ke avashesh bhi dikhaai padte hain. iske pashchim mein bairan dweep Bhaarat ka ikalauta sakriya jvaalaamukhi hai.

jalavaayu

Bhaarat ki jalavaayu par yahaaain ke sthalaroopon ka spasht prabhaav drushtigochar hota hai, vishesh kar himaalaya ki mahaan parvat shreniyon aur thaar ke marusthal ka. himaalaya shreniyaaain aur hindukush milkar Bhaarat aur Pakistan ke kshetron ki uttar se aane waali thandhi kataabaitik pavanon se raksha karte hain. dekha jaaya to kark rekha Bhaarat ke lagbhag madhya se gujarati hai lekin yeh himaalaya ka hi prabhaav hai ki kark rekha ke uttar ka sindhu-ganga ka maidaani bhaag bhi ushn katibandheeya jalavaayu wala hai. doosari or thaar ka marusthal greeshm ritu mein tapt ho kar nimn vaayudaab kendra ke roop mein maanasooni havaaon ko aakrusht karta hai jisse varsha hoti hai.

"India Average Temperature Map": A map of India overlaid with five zones. A violet zone, with ambient temperatures averaging less than 20.0 degrees Celsius, envelops Himalayan and trans-Himalayan India, as well as the Khasi Hills on the Meghalaya Plateau. A transitionary blue zone of between 20.0 and 22.5 degrees, lies just south of the violet areas; another blue area lies in the extreme southwest of the country, focused on the high Western Ghats. Two contiguous green areas (averaging 22.5 to 25.0 degrees) envelop the blue regions, with the northern one snaking into the Vindhya Range of central India. The remaining yellow and red areas, designating average temperatures above 25.0 degrees Celsius, constitute by far the greater part of the country.
Bhaarat mein ausat taapamaan ka vitran:

█a█ < 20.0 °aC (< 68.0 °aF)
█a█ 20.0–22.5 °aC (68.0–72.5 °aF)
█a█ 22.5–25.0 °aC (72.5–77.0 °aF)
█a█ 25.0–27.5 °aC (77.0–81.5 °aF)
█a█ > 27.5 °aC (> 81.5 °aF)
"India Climatic Zone Map".
kopen ke vargeekaran ke anusaar Bhaarat ke jalavaayu pradesh:

█a█ alpaain E (ETh)
█a█ aardr uposhn jalavaayu C (Cwa)
█a█ ushnakatibandheeya nam aur shushk A (Aw)
█a█ ushnakatibandheeya nam A (Am)
█a█ ardhashushk B (BSh)
█a█ marusthaleeya B (BWh)

vastut: Bhaarat ke vistaar aur bhoo-aakrutik vividhta ka Bhaarat ki jalavaayu par itna prabhaav hai ki Bhaarat ki jalavaayu ko saamaanyeekrut naheen kiya ja sakta. kopen ke vargeekaran mein Bhaarat mein chhah prakaar ki jalavaayu ka niroopan hai kintu yahaaain yeh bhi dhyaatavya hai ki bhoo-aakruti ke prabhaav mein chhote aur sthaaneeya star par bhi jalavaayu mein bahut vividhta aur vishishtata milti hai. Bhaarat ki jalavaayu dakshin mein ushn katibandheeya hai aur himaalayi kshetron mein adhik ooainchaai ke kaaran alpaain (dhruveeya jaisi) ek or yeh purvottar Bhaarat mein ushn katibandheeya nam prakaar ki hai to pashchimi bhaagon mein shushk prakaar ki.

kopen ke vargeekaran ke anusaar Bhaarat mein nimnalikhit chhah prakaar ke jalavaayu pradesh paae jaate hain:


ritueain

paramparaagat roop se Bhaarat mein chhah ritueain maani jaati raheen hain parantu bhaarateeya mausamavijnyaaan vibhaag chaar rituon ka varnan karta hai jinhein ham unke paramparaagat naamon se tulanaatmak roop mein nimnavat likh sakte hain:

  • sheet ritu (Winters)- December se March tak, jismein December aur January sabse thandhe maheene hote hain; uttari Bhaarat mein ausat taapamaan 10 se 15 degree celcius hota hai.
  • greeshm ritu (Summers or Pre-monsoon) - April se June tak jismein May sabse garm maheena hota hai, ausat taapamaan 32 se 40 degree celcius hota hai.
  • varsha ritu (Monsoon or Rainy) - July se sitmbar tak, jismein saarvaadhik varsha August maheene mein hoti hai, vastut: monsoon ka aagaman aur pratyaavartan (lautana) donon kramik roop se hote hain aur alag alag sthaanon par inka samay alag alag hota hai. saamaanyat: 1 June ko Kerala tat par monsoon ke aagaman taareekh hoti hai iske theek baad yeh poorvottar Bhaarat mein pahuainchata hai aur kramash: poorv se pashchim tatha uttar se dakshin ki or gatisheel hota hai Allahabad mein monsoon ke pahuainchane ki tithi 18 June maani jaati hai aur Delhi mein 29 June.
  • sharad ritu (Post-monsoon ot Autumn)- uttari Bhaarat mein October aur November maah mein mausam saaf aur shaant rahata hai aur October mein monsoon lautana shuroo ho jaata hai jisse Tamil Nadu ke tat par lautate monsoon se varsha hoti hai.

jal sansaadhan

jal upalabdhata

kaaleenagar, vardavaan, pashchim Bengal mein baadh ka ek drushya

Bhaarat mein jal sansaadhan ki upalabdhata kshetreeya star par jeevan-shaili aur sanskruti ke saath judi hui hai. saath hi iske vitran mein paryaapt asamaanata bhi maujood hai. ek adhyayan ke anusaar Bhaarat mein 71% jal sansaadhan ki maatra desh ke 36% kshetrafal mein simti hai aur baaki 64% kshetrafal ke paas desh ke 29% jal sansaadhan hi upalabdh hain.[1] haalaaainki kul sankhyaaon ko dekhne par desh mein paani ki maaaing abhi poorti se kam dikhaai padti hai. 2008 mein kiye gaye ek adhyayan ke mutaabik desh mein kul jal upalabdhata 654 billion kyoobik meter thi aur tatkaaleen kul maaaing 634 billion kyoobik meter.[2](sarkaari aaainkade jal ki upalabdhata ko 1123 billion kyoobik meter darshaate hai lekin yeh over estimeted hai). saath hi kai adhyayanon mein yeh bhi spasht kiya gaya hai ki nikat bhavishya mein maaaing aur poorti ke beech antar chintaajanak roop le sakta hai[3] kshetreeya aadhaar par vitran ko bhi ismein shaamil kar liya jaae to samasya aur badhegi.

  • varsha jal-Bhaarat mein varsha-jal ki upalabdhata kaafi hai aur yeh yahaaain ke saamaanya jeevan ka ang bhi hai. Bhaarat mein ausat deerghakaalik varsha 1160 mileemeetar hai jo is aakaar ke kisi desh mein naheen paayi jaati. saath hi bhaarateeya krushi ka ek bada hissa seedhe varsha par nirbhar hai jo kareeb 8.6 karod hekteyar kshetrafal par hai aur yeh bhi vishv mein sabse adhik hai.[4]chooainki Bhaarat mein varsha saal ke baarahon maheene naheen hoti balki ek spasht varsha ritu mein hoti hai, alag-alag rituon mein jal ki upalabdhata alag lag hoti hai. yahi kaaran hai ki vaarshik varsha ke aadhaar par varsha bahul ilaakon mein bhi alpakaalik jal sankat dekhne ko milta hai. iske saath hi alpakaalik jal sankat kshetreeya vividhta ke maamale mein dekha jaaya to ham yeh bhi paate hain ki cheraapoonji jaise sarvaadhik varsha vaale sthaan ke aaspaas bhi chooainki mitti bahut der tak jal dhaaran naheen karti aur varsha ek vishisht ritu mein hoti hai, alpakaalik jal sankat khada ho jaata hai.[5] at: saamaanyat: jis poorvottar Bhaarat ko jalaadhikya ke kshetr ke roop mein dekha ja raha tha use bhi sahi arathon mein aisa naheen kaha ja sakta kyonki yeh jalaadhikya bhi ritukaalik hota hai.
  • nadi jal -Bhaarat mein 12 nadiyon ko pramukh nadiyaaain vargeekrut kiya gaya hai jinka kul jal-grahan kshetr 252.8 million hekteyar hai jismein ganga-brahmaputr-meghana sabse bruhad hai.

haalaaainki in nadiyon mein bhi jal ki maatra varsh bhar samaan naheen rahati. Bhaarat mein nadiyon ko jodne ki mahatvaakaankshi yojana bhi bani ja rahi hai jismein se kuchh ke to propojl bhi ban chuke hain.

  • bhoo jal - Bhaarat vishv ka sabse bada bhoogarbhik jal ka upabhog karne wala desh hai. vishv bank ke anumaan ke mutaabik Bhaarat kareeb 230 ghan kilometer bhoo-jal ka dohan prativrsh karta hai.[6]sinchaai ka lagbhag 60% aur ghareloo upayog ka lagbhag 80% jal bhoo jal hi hota hai.uttar pradesh jaise krushi pramukh aur vishaal raajya mein sinchaai ka 71.8 % nalakoopon dvaara hota hai (ismein kuon dvaara nikla jaane wala jal naheen shaamil hai). kendreeya bhoo jal board ke varsh 2004 ke anumaanon ke mutaabik Bhaarat mein punarbharaneeya bhoo jal ki maatra 433 billion kyoobik meter thi jismein 369.6 bi.si.M. sinchaai ke liye upalabdh tha.

jal sankat

poore Bhaarat ke aankade dekhne par hamein jal sankat abhi bhavishya ki cheej nazar aata hai lekin sthitiyaaain aisi naheen hai. kshetreeya roop se Bhaarat ke kai ilaake paani ki kami se joojh rahe hain. bade shaharon mein to yeh samasya aam baat ho chuki hai.

paani ki upalabdhata se aashay keval paani ki maatra se liya jaata hai jabaki ismein paani ki gunavatta ka bhi samaavesh kiya jaana chaahiye. aaj ke samay mein Bhaarat ki jyaadaatar nadiyaaain pradooshan ka shikaar hain aur bhoo jal bhi pradooshit ho raha hai. May-June 2014 mein Bhaarat sarkaar ne ek alag mantraalaya bana kar sabse pehle bhaarateeya nadi ganga ke 'shuddhikran' ki mahatvaakaankshi yojana shuroo ki hai.

anya jagahon ki tarah Bhaarat mein bhi bhoojal ka vitran sarvatr samaan naheen hai. Bhaarat ke pathaari bhaag hamesha se bhoojal ke maamale mein kamjor rahe hain. yahaaain bhoojal kuchh khaas bhoogarbhik sanrachanaaon mein paaya jaata hai jaise bhransh ghaatiyon aur daraaron ke sahaare. uttari Bhaarat ke jalodh maidaan hamesha se bhoojal mein sampann rahe hain lekin ab uttari pashchimi bhaagon mein sinchaai hetu teji se dohan ke kaaran inmein abhootapoorv kami darj ki gayi hai.[7] Bhaarat mein jalabharon aur bhoojal ki sthiti par chinta jaahir ki j rahi hai. jis tarah Bhaarat mein bhoojal ka dohan ho raha hai bhavishya mein sthitiyaaain kaafi khatarnaak hosakati hain. vartamaan samay mein 29% vikaas khand ya to bhoojal ke dayaneeya star par hain ya chintaneeya hain aur kuchh aankadon ke anusaar 2025 tak lagbhag 60% block chintaneeya sthitimein aa jaayeinge.[8]

dhyaatavya hai ki Bhaarat mein 60% sinchaai etu jal aur lagbhag 85% peya jal ka srot bhoojal hi hai,[9] aise mein bhoojal ka teji se girta star ek bahut badi chunauti ke roop mein ubhar raha hai.

pramukh nagar

Bhaarat mein nagareekaran ka praacheen itihaas sindhu ghaati sabhyata ke nagaron se shuroo hota hai. bauddh kaal mein bhi Bhaarat ke solah mahaajanapadon mein vibhkt hone ke varnan mein inki raajadhaaniyon ka pramukh nagaron ke roop mein ullekh hota hai. madhyakaal mein Delhi, daulataabaad, jaunapur, Hyderabad, Allahabad aadi nagaron ke basane ka vivran milta hai. dakshin Bhaarat ke kai nagar cher chol aur paandya raajaaon dvaara basaaye gaye jo kala sanskruti aur vyaapar ke samruddh kendra the. aupaniveshik kaal mein vyaapaar keliye bandaragaahon Calcutta, Madras, daman, deev, paandicheri ityaadi aur greeshmakaaleen aavaas ke roop mein Shimla, masoori, Darjiling, ooti, pachamadhi ityaadi paryatan nagaron ka vikaas hua. aajaadi ke baad audyogik kendron ke roop mein kai nagar base jaise Jamshedpur, durg, bhilaai, ityaadi.

Bhaarat mein nagaron ko nagareeya gaaainv, ksba, nagar aur mahanagar naamak shreniyon mein vibhaajit kiya jaata hai. janasankhya ke aadhaar par janaganana vibhaag varg-I se lekar varg-VI tak ki shreniyon mein nagaron ko rakhata hai. varg-I mein das lakh se adhik janasankhya vaale nagaron ko rakha jaata hai aur inhein mahanagar ya dasalaakhi nagar kehte hain.

Bhaarat ke dasalaakhi nagaron ki 2011 ki janasankhya ke aadhaar par kram se soochi[10]

inhein bhi deinkhe

sandarbh

  1. varma aur fansaalakar,2007
  2. Narsimhan, T N. 2008. A note on India's water budget and evapotranspiration. Journal of Earth System Science. Vol 117. No 3. PP 237- 240.
  3. Addams et al., 2009 Addams, L., G. Boccaletti, M. Kerlin, and M. Stuchtey. 2009. Charting Our Water Future: Economic Frameworks to Inform Decision-making. World Bank.
  4. Amarsinghe and Sharma, 2009
  5. bandyopaadhyaaya, 1998 Bandyopadhyay, J., B. Gujja, A. Nigam, and R. Talbot.1998. Fresh Water for India's Children and Nature. New Delhi: UNICEF-WWF
  6. World Bank. 2010 Deep Well and Prudence: Towards Pragmatic Action for Addressing Groundwater Overexploitation in India. Washington, DC: The World Bank
  7. Paul Wyrwoll, Australian National University, Australia India's groundwater crisis JULY 30, 2012 IN DEVELOPMENT, WATER SECURITY.
  8. dakkan heraald - India's ground water table to dry up in 15 years; abhigman tithi 05.07.2014.
  9. Paul Wyrwoll, Australian National University, Australia India's groundwater crisis JULY 30, 2012 IN DEVELOPMENT, WATER SECURITY.
  10. Bhaarat ki janaganana-2011