Bhaarat ka aarthik itihaas

Bhaarat ka aarthik vikaas sindhu ghaati sabhyata se aarambh maana jaata hai. sindhu ghaati sabhyata ki arthavyavastha mukhyat: vyaapaar par aadhaarit prateet hoti hai jo yaataayaat mein pragati ke aadhaar par samajhi ja sakti hai. lagbhag 600 i॰apoo॰ mahaajanapadon mein vishesh roop se chihnit sikkon ko dhaalana aarambh kar diya tha. is samay ko gahan vyaapaarik gatividhi evam nagareeya vikaas ke roop mein chihnit kiya jaata hai. 300 i॰apoo॰ se maurya kaal ne bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ka ekeekaran kiya. raajaneetik ekeekaran aur sainya suraksha ne krushi utpaadakata mein vruddhi ke saath, vyaapaar evam vaanijya se saamaanya aarthik pranaali ko badhaav mil.

agale 1500 varshon mein Bhaarat mein raashtrakut, hoyasala aur pashchimi ganga jaise pratishthit sabhyataaon ka vikaas hua. is avadhi ke dauraan Bhaarat ko praacheen evam 17veen sadi tak ke madhyayugeen vishv ki sabse badi arthavyavastha ke roop mein aankalit kiya jaata hai. ismein vishv ke ki kul sampati ka ek tihaai se ek chauthaai bhaag maraatha saamraajya ke paas tha, ismein Europeeya upaniveshavaad ke dauraan teji se giraavat aayi..

aarthik itihaasakaar angas maideesan ki pustak the world ikaunami: A mileniyl parspektiv (vishv arthavyavastha: ek hajaar varsh ka pariprekshya) ke anusaar Bhaarat vishv ka sabse dhani desh tha aur 17veen sadi tak duniya ki sabse badi arthavyastha tha.[1][2]

Bhaarat mein iske svatantr itihaas mein keindreeya niyojan ka anusaran kiya gaya hai jismein saarvajanik svaamitv, viniyman, laal feetaashaahi aur vyaapaar avarodh vistrut roop se shaamil hai.[3][4] 1991 ke aarthik sankat ke baad kendra sarkaar ne aarthik udaareekaran ki neeti aarambh kar di. Bhaarat aarthik poonjeevaad ko badhaava den lag gaya aur vishv ki teji se badhti aarthik arthavyavasthaaon mein se ek bankar ubhara.[3][5]

anukram

sindhu ghaati sabhyata

sindhu ghaati sabhyata vishv ka sabse pehla gyaat sthaayi aur mukhya roop se nagareeya aabaadi ka udaaharan hai. iska vikaas 3500 i॰apoo॰ se 1800 i॰apoo॰ tak hua jo unnat aur sampann aarthik pranaali ki or badha. yahaaain ke naagrikon ne krushi, paalatoo jaanavaar, taanbe, kaansa evam tin se tikshn upakaranon aur shastron ka nirmaan tatha anya nagaron ke saath iska vikraya karna aarambh kiya.[6] ghaati ke bade nagaron hadppa, lothal, mohan jodado aur raakheegadhi mein sadkein, abhivinyaas, jal nikaasi pranaali aur jalaapoorti ke saakshya, unki nagareeya niyojan ke gyaan ko uddhaghaatit karta hai.

praacheen aur madhyayugeen visheshataaeain

yadyapi praacheen Bhaarat mein mahattvapoorn nagareeya janasankhya paayi jaati hai lekin Bhaarat ki adhikttar janasankhyaaain gaaainvon mein nivaas karti thi jiski arthavyavastha vistrut roop se pruthak aur aatmanirbhar rahi hai. aabaadi ka mukhya vyavasaaya krushi tha aur kapda, khaadya prasanskaran tatha shilp jaise haath aadhaarit udyogon ke liye kachcha maal upalabdh karaane ke alaava khaadya aavashyakataaeain bhi krushi se poorn hoti thi. krushakon ke alaava anya vargon ke log naai, badhaii, chikitsak (aayurved chikitsak athva vaidya), sunaar, bunakar aadi kaarya karte the.[7]

dharm

aarthik gatividhiyon ko roop dene mein mukhyat: hindu dharm aur jain dharm prabhaavashaali bhumika nibhaate hain.

teerthasthal kasbe jaise Allahabad, banaaras, Nasik aur puri jo mukhyat: nadiyon ke taton par sthit hain tatha vyaapaar evam vaanijya ke kendra ke roop mein viksit huye. dhaarmik utsav, tyohaar aur teerth yaatra par jaane ki pratha ne teerth arthavyavastha ko utkarsh par pahuainchaaya.[8]

jain dharm mein arthavyavastha ko teerthakar mahaaveer aur unke siddhaanton evam darshan ne prabhaavit kiya. iske peechhe ka itihaas unke darshan se samajhaaya jaata hai. vo jain dharm ke failaane vaale antim aur 24vein teerthankar the. aarthik prasang mein unhonne 'anekaant (gair-nirepakshataavaad) ke siddhaant se samajhaaya.[9]

paarivaarik vyavasaaya


san 1750 se 1913 ke beech vishv ke pramukh deshon ka utpaadan pratishat[10][11]
1750 1800 1830 1860 1880 1900 1913
Europe
Europe 23.1 28.0 34.1 53.6 62.0 63.0 57.8
UK 1.9 4.3 9.5 19.9 22.9 18.5 13.6
Germany 2.9 3.5 3.5 4.9 8.5 13.2 14.8
fraans 4.0 4.2 5.2 7.9 7.8 6.8 6.1
Italy 2.4 2.5 2.3 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4
roos 5.0 5.6 5.6 7.0 7.6 8.8 8.2
nav-Europe
nav-Europe 0.1 0.8 2.4 7.2 14.7 23.6 32.0
sanyukt raajya America 0.1 0.8 2.4 7.2 14.7 23.6 32.0
ushnakatibandheeya
ushnakatibandheeya 76.8 71.2 63.3 39.2 23.3 13.4 10.2
Japan 3.8 3.5 2.8 2.6 2.4 2.4 2.7
cheen 32.8 33.3 29.8 19.7 12.5 6.2 3.6
Bhaarat 24.5 19.7 17.6 8.6 2.8 1.7 1.4

Bhaarat ki arthavyavastha ko mote taur par teen bhaagon me baanta ja sakta hai:

  • british kaal se pehle
  • british kaal me
  • aajaadi ke baad

british kaal ke poorv Bhaarat mein udyog-dhandhe

vastr udyog

vastr udyog mein sooti, ooni aur silk pramukh the. sooti vastr udyog bada vyaapak tha. is udyog mein bahut se log lage hue the. kapaas ka dhunana aur kaatana aamtaur par gharon mein hi hota tha, parantu kinheen kshetron mein is kaarya mein vishishtata praapt ho gayi thi. baareek se baareek soot kaata jaata tha. thevenaut ko Ahmedabad ke sameep kaareegaron ka ek samooh mila jiska koi nishchit ghar tha aur jo ek gaaainv se doosare gaaainv ko kaam ki talaash mein jaata tha. yeh binaulon se kapda nikaalne, rooi ko saaf karne aur dhunane ka kaarya karte the. Bhaarat ke graamon me hi naheen, bade bade nagaron mein julaahe parivaar rahate the jo vastranirmaan ka kaarya karte the. taiyaar kapde ko dhone ka kaarya dhobi karte the jo vastr-nirmaan ka kaarya karte the. taiyaar kapde ko dhone ka kaarya dhobi karte the. taiyaar kapde ko dhone ke liye pehle garm paani mein autaaya jaata tha. iske pashchaat use dhoya aur dhoop mein sukhaaya jaata tha. mote kapde ko dhote samay dhobi use patthar par peetate the. baareek kapadon ko peeta naheen jaata tha. use dhoop mein sukhaane ke liye faila diya jaata tha. kapda dhone ke liye vishesh prakaar ke paani ki aavashyakta padti thi. narmada nadi ka paani kapde ki dhulaai ke liye is nadi ke paani mein laaya jaata tha. narmada nadi ke tat par basa bhadaunch nagar kapde ki dhulaai ke liye prasiddh tha. is prakaar dhaaka ke sameepavarti kshetron mein bahut se dhobi rahate the, kyonki yahaaain ka paani kapde dhone ke bada uparyukt tha. kapde ko neel se daai kiya jaata tha. bhaarateeya kapadein ki videshi mein badi maaaing thi. vishv ke lagbhag har bhaag mein Bhaarat se kapda jaata tha. dhaaka ki malamal sansaar-prasiddh thi. iska dhaaga bahut baareek hota tha jo charkhe par haath se kaata jaata tha. malamal ka thaan ek aaingoothi ke beech se nikal sakta tha. Europeeya yaatriyon ne iski bhoori-bhoori prashansa ki hai. uchch koti si malamal vibhinn naamon ke pukaari jaati thi, jaise malamal khaas (baadshah ki malamal), sarkaarein aali (navaab ki malamal), aabe khaaain (bahata hua paani) ityaadi. bhadauch mein nirmit `bafta' vastr ki saare desh aur videshon mein badi maang thi. yaatri tevaraniyr ne `bafta' vibhinn rangon mein ranga jaata tha. raingane ke liye ise Agra aur Ahmedabad laaya jaata tha. `bafta' ki lambaai 15 gaj aur chaudaai 25 inch hoti thi. adhik chaudaai ka `bafta' 36 inch chauda hota tha. safed kapde ka jise aaingrej vyaapaari `keliko' kehte the, badi maatra mein nirmaan hota tha. iske atirikt badhiya aur keemati kapde ka bhi nirmaan hota tha. ismein sone aur chaaaindi ke taar pade hote the. soorat, Agra, banaaras aur Ahmedabad is prakaar ke vastr nirmaan ke pramukh kendra the.

printed kapde ki bhi badi maaaing thi. kapde par print ya to haath se brush ki sahaayata se kiya jaata tha, ya lakdi par bane chhaape dvaara, jis par block bana hota tha. kapda jis par brush se print kiya jaata tha, `kalamadaar' ya `kalamakaar' kapda kahalaata tha. doosra tareeka, lakdi par khodakar chhaapa bana liya jaata tha, use raing mein bhigokar kapde par laga diya jaata tha. english East India company ke vyaapaari is kapde ko `print' ya `chint' ke naam se pukaarate the lakdi ke chhaape ki apeksha haath se brush ki sahaayata se print karna kathin tha.

bachche aamtaur par badon ki `print' ke kaarya mein sahaayata karte the. 1670 E. mein fire koromandal tat ki varnan karte hue likha hai-- "peinting ka kaam bado ke saath-saath chhote bachchon dvaara bhi kiya jaata hai. ve kapde ko jameen par failaate hain aur anek prakaar se badon ki is kaarya mein sahaayata karte hain. "peinting ka kaarya aamtaur par lakdi ki bani mej par ya takhte par hota tha. varkashaap adhiktar khuli jagah mein hoti theen aur oopar shed pada hota tha. printed klaath ke liye kaaromandal tat bada prasiddh tha. yahaaain kapda anya sthaanon ki apeksha sasta, achha aur chamakadaar hota tha.

ooni vastr udyog ke kendra Kashmir, kaabool, Agra, Lahore aur Patna the. Kashmir ke shaal, kambal, pattoo aur pashmeena prasiddh the. fatehapur seekari mein ooni dariyaaain banti thi. ooni vastron ka prayog saamaanyat: dhani varg karta tha. keemat adhik hone ke kaaran ooni vastr ka prayog jan-saadhaaran ki saamaarthya se baahar tha. jan-saadhaaran ke liye saste aur khuradare kambalon ka nirmaan kiya jaata tha. english East India company ne ingalaid mein bani ooni kapde ke liye Bhaarat mein baajaar banaane ka prayatn kiya, parantu use ismein adhik safalta naheen mili.

silk udyog ke liye banaaras, Ahmedabad aur murshidaabaad pramukh the. Bengal se na keval badi maatra mein silk ka niryaat hota tha, balki silk ka kapda bhi banta tha. banaaras silk ki saadi aur silk par jari ke kaarya ke liye prasiddh tha. soorat mein silk ki dariyaan banti thi. silk ke kapde par jari ka kaam bhi surat mein hota tha.

desh-videsh mein bhaarateeya kapde ki badi maaaing thi. bhaarateeya vastr udyog sansaar ke vibhinn bhaagon ki kapde ki maaaing ki poorti karta tha. Europeeya vyaapaariyon ke kaaran bhaarateeya kapde ke niryaat ko bada badhaava mila. Europe bhaarateeya kapde ki khapat ka pramukh kendra ban gaya. kapde ki maaaing ki poorti sthaaneeya Bajaj karte the. ve bade vyaapaariyon se kapda khareedte the. kapde ko chhote vikreta feri vaale the jo na keval nagar ki galiyon mein kapda bechate the, balki gaaainv mein bhi kapde bechate the. gaaainv mein saaptaahik haat ya peinth lagti thi jahaaain Bajaj kapda bechate the. sthiti ko dekhte hue ve aam taur par nagad paisa lene ki maaaing naheen karte the. aur khareedaar kisaan fasal ke samay udhaar dhan chukaata tha. kabhi-kabhi julaahe apna kapda laakar baajaar mein bechate the. kaasim baajaar ke aas-paas rahane vaale julaahe apna kapda bechne ke liye nagar ke baajaar mein laate the.

aabhooshan udyog

desh mein aabhooshan pahanane ka aam rivaaj tha. aajkal ki tarah aabhooshan pahanana saamaajik pratishtha ka chinh tha. baadshah, shaahi parivaar evam saamant varg ratnajatil aabhooshanon ka prayog karta tha. bhaarateeya naari ki aabhooshan-priyta sansaaraprasiddh hai. aabhooshanon ke nirmaan mein nipun kaareegar lage hue the. aabhooshan udyog deshavyaapi tha. naari ke shareer ke vibhinn angon ke liye alag-alag aabhooshan the. mugalakaal mein vibhinn angon mein pahanane ke liye nimnalikhit aabhooshanon ka prachalan tha-

seesafool sir ka aabhooshan tha. maathe ke aabhooshan tha. maathe ke aabhooshan teeka ya maaaingateeka, jhoomar aur bindi the. maathe par bindi lagaane ka aam rivaaj tha aur bindi mein moti jade hote the. aabhooshan the. gale ke aabhooshan haar, chandrahaar, maala mohanamaala, maanikya maala, champaakali, hainsali, dulaari, tilaari, chausar, painchalara aur satalara the. dulaari do ladon, tilaari teen ladon, chausar chaar ladon, painchalara paaainch ladon aur satalara saat ladon ka aabhooshan tha. kamar ka aabhooshan tagadi ya karadhani tha. ismein ghuaingharoo lage hote the jo chalte samay bajate the. aaingoothi ya mooaindari aaingooli ka aabhooshan tha jiska bada prachalan tha. aarasi aaingoothe ka aabhooshan tha, ismein ek darpan laga hota tha. jismein muainh dekha ja sakta tha. paunchi, kangan, kada, choodi aur dastaband kalaai ke aabhooshan the. bhuja ke aabhooainshan baajooband ya bhujaband the. baajuband ka sanskrut naam bhujaband tha. pairon ke aabhooshan paajeb, kada the. pairon ki aainguliyon mein bichhue pahane jaate the. pairon ke aabhooshan aamtaur par chaaaindi ke bane hote the, jabki doosare aabhooshan sone ke bante the. gareeb log chaaaindi ke aabhooshan pahanate the.

bahumulya ratnon ka videshon se aayaat bhi hota tha aur dakshin Bhaarat ki khaanon se bhi heere nikaale jaate the. tevaraniyr heeron ka ek prasiddh vyaapaari tha. dakshin Bhaarat mein heeron ki ek Khan ka varnan karte hue tevaraniyr likhta hai ki ismein hajaaron ki sankhya mein majadoor kaam karte the. bhoomi ke ek bade plaat ko khoda jaata tha. aadmi ise khodate the, striyaanai aur bachche us mitti ko ek sthaan par le jaate the. jo chaaron or deevaaron se ghira hota tha. mitti ke ghadon mein paani laakar us mitti ko dhoya jaata tha. oopari mitti deevaar mein chhedon ke dvaara baha di jaati thi aur ret bach rahata tha. is prakaar jo tattv bachata tha, use lakdi dandon se peeta jaata tha aur ant se haath se heere chun liye jaate the.

majadooron ko bahut kam majadoori milti thi. tevaraniyr ke anusaar majadoori 3 pegoda vaarshik thi. heere chori na ho jaayein, iske liye 50 majadooron par nigraani rakhane ke liye 12 se 15 tak chaukeedaar hote the. tevaraniyr ek ghatna ka varnan karta hai jabki ek majadoor ne ek heere ko apni aaainkhon ke palak ke neeche chhupa liya tha. lakdi ka kaam

jahaaj, naavein, rath aur bailagaadiyaaain ityaadi banaane mein lakdi ka prayog hota tha. soorat mein paarasi log naavein aur jahaaj banaane ke kaarya mein lage hue the. Mysore mein sandal ki lakdi par sundar kaareegari ka kaarya hota tha. bhavan-nirmaan mein bhi lakdi ka prayog hota tha. maal dhone mein bailagaadiyon ka prayog hota tha, is kaaran badi sankhya mein inka nirmaan hota tha. paalaki banaane mein bhi lakdi ka prayog hota tha. dhanavaan vyakti aur striyaan paalaki mein savaari karte the. nadiyon mein naavon dvaara maal le jaaya jaata tha. isse prateet hota hai ki naavon ka badi sankhya mein nirmaan hota tha. finch ne Agra se Bengal tak 180 naavon ke bede ke saath yaatra ki thi. ye naavein chhoti aur badi donon prakaar ki thi. ganga par 400 se 500 tan kshamata vaale naavein chalti theen. soorat, Goa, beseen, dhaaka, chatagaaainv, masuleepattam, Agra, Lahore aur Allahabad ityaadi mein naavein aur jahaaj banaaye jaate the. kaashmeer lakdi ki sundar dijaayanadaar cheejein banaane ke liye prasiddh tha.

imaarati saamaan evam bhavan-nirmaan

bhavan nirmaan mein int, patthar, choona, lakdi aur mitti ka prayog hota tha. `aaine-akabari' mein bhavan nirmaan mein kaam aane waali vibhinn vastuon ke moolya diye hue hai. aain ke anusaar itein teen prakaar ki hoti thi--paki hui, adhapaki aur kachchi. inka moolya kramash: 30 daam, 24 daam aur 10 daam prati hajaar tha. laal patthar ka moolya 3 daam prati man tha. kushal kaareegar patthar ko taraashanane ka kaarya karte the. saadhaaran janta ke makaan mitti ke bane hote the aur un par chhappar pada hota tha. mitti ki bani in chhoti kothariyon mein parivaar ke sab sadasya rahate the. itna hi naheen, unke pashu gaaya, bachhada bhi usi mein rahate the. parantu dhanavaan vyakti shaanadaar makaanon mein rahate the. Agra, Delhi aur praanteeya raajadhaaniyon mein anek vishaal bhavan banaaye gaye jinka nirmaan kushal kaareegaron ne kiya aur jiske falasvaroop anek raajon, majadooron, pattharataraashon, badhi evam anya kaareegaron ko rojagaar mila.

mugal shaasak mahaan bhavan-nirmaata the. baabar ne bahut-si imaaratein banavaayein, kintu unamein se keval do, Panipat ka kaabool baag aur sanbhal ki jaama masjid aaj bhi maujood hai. baabar ke shabdon mein - "mere Agra, seekari, bayaana, dhaulapur, gvaaliyr tatha kol ke bhavanon ke nirmaan mein 1491 patthar kaatne vaale rojaana kaarya karte the."

humaayooain ka jeevan sangharshamaya raha, fir bhi usane Punjab ke hisaar jile mein fatehaabaad mein ek sundar masjid banavaayi. sherashaah ke bhavanon mein usaka sahasaraam ka makabara aur puraane kile mein bani `kilaae kuhana masjid' prasiddh hain. inmein jaama masjid aur buland darvaaja bade prasiddh hain. anya bhavan `beerabal ka mahal' sunahala makaan ya shaahajaadi ambar ka mahal, Turkey sultaana ka mahal aur deevaane khaas hain. sikndara mein Akbar ka makabara bhavan-nirmaan kala ka achha udaaharan hai. Akbar ne Agra aur Lahore mein kilon ka nirmaan karaaya. Agra ke kile mein pramukh bhavan deevaane aam, deevaane khaas aur jahaaaingeeri mahal hai. jahaaaingeer ki roochi bhavan-nirmaan ki apeksha chitrakala ki or adhik thi, parantu usaki kami ki poorti usaki priya begam noorajahaaain ne ki. noorajahaaain ne apne pita ki smruti mein `ittamaad-uddaula' ka makabara banavaaya. yeh sangamaramar ka bana hai aur dekhne mein bada sundar hai. noorajahaaain ne Lahore ke sameep shaahadare mein jahaaaingeer ka makabara banavaaya.

mugal baadashaahon mein shaahajahaaain sabse mahaan bhavan-nirmaata tha. uske prasiddh bhavan Delhi ka laal kila, jaama masjid aur Tajmahal hain. laal kile mein deevaane khaas sabse adhik sundar aur alankrut hai. yahaaain ek khude lekh mein iski sundarata ka varnan in shabdon mein kiya gaya hai--

gar firdaus bar rooye jameen ast.
hameen aston hameen aston, hameen ast.

yaani, yadi pruthvi par kaheen svarg hai to vah yahi hai, yahi hai aur yahi hai. shaahajahaaain ne Tajmahal apni priya begam arjamand baanoo ki smruti mein banavaaya. Tajmahal ko banaane aur iska naksha taiyaar karne ke liye desh-videsh ke kaareegaron ko bulaaya gaya. Tajmahal ke kai nakshe prastut kiye gaye aur baadshah ne ant mein ek nakshe par apni sveekruti pradaan ki. pehle Tajmahal ka chhota-sa model lakdi ka banaaya gaya. jise dekhkar kaareegaron ne taaj ka nirmaan kiya. Tajmahal ustaad isa ki dekharekh mein taiyaar kiya gaya jise 1000 Ru maasik vetan milta tha. iske nirmaan par 50 lakh Ru. kharch hua. aurangajeb ne laal kile mein apne prayog ke liye moti masjid banavaayi aur Lahore mein baadashaahi masjid ka nirmaan karaaya. aurangajeb ki mrutyu ke baad mugal nirmaan kala ka hraas ho gaya.

chamada udyog

chamada joote banaane, ghodon ki jeen, paani bharne ki mashak ityaadi vibhinn kaaryo mein prayog kiya jaata tha. Delhi chamada udyog ke liye prasiddh tha. chamada pashuon ke khaal se praapt kiya jaata tha. sthaaneeya aavashyakataaon ki poorti ke liye yeh udyog saare desh mein faila hua tha.

mitti ke bartan

praacheen kaal se hi mitti ke bartanon ka prayog hota aaya hai. kumhaar mitti ke bartan, paani peene ke liye matake aur vibhinn prakaar ke kalaatmak khilaune banaate the. yeh udyog saare desh mein faila hua tha. Jaipur, banaaras, Lucknow, Delhi, gvaaliyr is udyog ke mukhya kendra the.

haatheedaaaint ka kaam

haathi ke daaaint ki sundar kalaatmak vastuen banaayi jaati theen, jaise choodiyaaain, kangan, shataranj aur shataranj ke mohare. vibhinn prakaar ke khilaune haatheedaaaint se banaaye jaate the. Delhi aur multaan haathi daaaint ke kaam ke liye prasiddh the.

tel aur itr

tel kolhoo se per nikaala jaata tha. kisaanon ke ghareloo udyog se nikal kar yeh bhi ek vyaavasaayik udyog ban gaya tha. teli is kaarya ko karte the. kolhoo ko chalaane mein bail ka prayog kiya jaata tha. tel ko baajaar mein athva tel vyaapaariyon ko bech diya jaata tha. tel sarason, til, gola aadi ka nikaala jaata tha. itr ka bhi nirmaan kiya jaata tha. banaaras, Lahore aur kaimbe itr-nirmaan ke kendra the.

cheeni-udyog

cheeni, gud, raab, ganne ko kolhoo se per kar banaayi jaati thi. ganne ke ras ko lohe ya mitti ke matakon mein bharakar aag par garm kiya jaata tha. ganne ki khoi garm karne ke kaam aati thi. is prakaar gud aur boore ka nirmaan kiya jaata tha. aarambh mein yeh kisaan parivaar ka ghareloo udyog tha. baad mein is udyog ne vishishtata praapt kar li. desh mein gud aur cheeni ki badi khapat thi. ganne ki paidaavaar uttar Bhaarat ke vistrut bhoo-bhaag mein hoti thi. is prakaar yeh udyog deshavyaapi tha, fir bhi is udyog ke pramukh kendra Delhi, Agra bayaana, Patna, baraar aur Lahore the. angrej aur dal vyaapaari Bhaarat se cheeni ka niryaat karte the.

dhaatu udyog

loha

loha vibhinn kaaryo mein prayukt hota tha. lohe ka prayog pramukh roop se hathiyaar banaane ke liye hota tha. yeh hathiyaar aakraman aur surakshaatmak donon prakaar ke hote the. bandook, top, talavaar, bhaale, kavach lohe ke bante the. gaaainv mein lohaar hota tha jo graamavaasiyon ki sthaaneeya aavashyakataaon ki poorti karta tha. kheti ke aujaar mukhya roop se lohe se bane hote the. kisaanon ke atirikt anya logon, jaise lohaar, badhi, raaj, majadoor, darji, teli, halavaai, maali, kasaai, naai ko apne kaaryon ke liye jin aujaaron ki aavashyakta hoti thi, ve poorn roop se ya aanshik roop se lohe ke bane hote the. ghareloo bartan jaise kadhaai, karachhari, chimta aur tatha ityaadi lohe ke bane hote the. ghareloo upayog mein kaam aane wala chaakoo lohe ka bana hota tha. golakunda mein uchchakoti ka loha aur steel ka nirmaan hota tha. kaalinjar, gvaaliyr, kumaayooain, suket mandi (Lahore) mein lohe ki khaanein theen.

british kaal mein Bhaarat ki arthavyavastha

svatantrat Bhaarat ki arthavyavastha

svatantrata ke baad Bhaarat ka sakal ghareloo utpaad teji se badha hai

aajaadi ke baad Bhaarat ke tatkaleen pradhaan mantri javaaharalaal Nehru ne nirgut aandolan (naun-alaaind moovmeint) ko Bhaarat ki pramukh videsh neeti banaaya. is dauraan Bhaarat ne soviyt roos se dosti badhayi. soviyt roos me samaajavaad tha. yooain to Bhaarat ne samaaj vaad ko poori tarah se nahi apnaaya par Bhaarat ki aarthik neeti mein samaaj vaad ke lakshan saaf dekhe ja sakte the. Bhaarat mein jyaadaatar udyogon ko sarkaari niyantran ke antargat rakhe jaane ke liye kai tarah ke niyam banaae gaye. is tarah ki neeti ko kai arthashaastriyon ne license raaj aur inspector raaj ka naam diya. bijli, sadkein, paani, telephone, rel yaataayaat, havaai yaataayaat, hotel, in sabhi par sarkaari niyantran tha. ya to niji kshetr ko in udyogon mein poonji nivesh ki anumati naheen thi ya fir bahut hi niyantrit anumati thi. doosare kai udyogon mein (jaise khilaune banaana, reetel, vagairah) badi niji companyon ko poonji nivesh ki anumati naheen thi. bankon ko bhi sarkaari niyantran mein rakha jaata tha.

1951 se 1979 tak bhaarateeya aarthik vikaas dar 3.1 pratishat thi. par kaipita vikaas dar 1.0 % thi. vishv mein ise 'hindu growth rate' ke naam se jaana jaata tha. bhaarateeya udyogon ka vikaas dar 5.4 pratishat tha. krushi vikaas dar 3.0 pratishat tha. kai kaaranon se Bhaarat ki aarthik vikaas bahut kam tha. mukhya kaaran the-

  • krushi udyog me sansthaagat kamiyaaain
  • desh mein kam takaneeki vikaas
  • Bhaarat ki arthavyavastha ka vishv ke doosare vikaasasheel deshon se ekeekrut (intigreted) na hona
  • 1965, 1966, 1971 aur 1972 pade hue chaar sookhe
  • videshi poonji nivesh par sarkaari rok
  • kam saaksharata dar
  • kam padhi-likhi bhaari janasankhya

Bhaarat mein san 1985 se bhugataan santulan (bailains auf pemeint) ki samasya shuroo hui. 1991 me chandrashekhar sarkaar ke shaasan ke dauraan Bhaarat me bailains auf pemeint ki samasya ne vikraal roop dhaaran kiya aur Bhaarat ki pehle se charmaraayi hui arthvyavastha ghutno par aa gayi. Bhaarat me videshi mudra ka bhandaar keval teen hafte ke aayaato ke baraabar rah gaya. yeh ek bahut hi gambheer samasya thi.

1990 ke baad

narasinh Rao ke netrutv waali bhaarateeya sarkaar ne Bhaarat me bade paimaane me aarthik sudhaar karne ka faisala kiya. udaareekaran kahlaane vaale in sudhaaro ke aarkitekt the Manmohan Singh. manmohan sinh ne aane vaale samay me Bhaarat ki arthneeti ko poori tarah se badalne ki shuruaat ki. unke kiye hue aarthik sudhaar meinli teen kshreniyo me aate hai

  • udaareekaran (libralaaijeshan)
  • vaishveekaran (globalaaijeshan)
  • nijeekaran (praaivetaaijeshan)

1996 se 1998 tak pi Chidambaram Bhaarat ke vitt mantri hue aur unhone Manmohan Singh ki neetiyo ko aage badhaaya.

1998 se 2004 tak desh me bhaarteeya janta party ki sarkaar ne aur bhi zyaada udaareekaran aur nijeekaran kiya.

iske baad 2004 me aadhunik Bhaarat ki arthneeti ke rachayita manmohan sinh Bhaarat ke pradhaanmantri bane aur pi Chidambaram vitt mantri.

in sabhi saalo me Bhaarat ne kafi tej tarakki ki. arthvyavastha me aamool-chool parivartan hue aur Bhaarat ne vishv arthvyavastha me apna sthaan banaana shuroo kiya.

bhavishya

aane vaale dashakon mein vishv ki arthavyavastha mein bhaari parivartan hone ke sanket hain. vishv arthavyavastha mein Bhaarat ka hissa vartamaan 5% se badhkar san 2040 mein 20.8% ho jaane ka anumaan hai.

Matthew Joseph (kanisht salaahakaar, ICRIER) dvaara 2014 se 2040 tak vishvaarthavyavastha ka anumaan
2011 2014 2020 2030 2040
Germany 4.2 3.8 3.4 2.8 2.3
yooesae 20.4 19.2 17.6 15.3 13.9
Japan 6.2 5.6 4.7 3.7 2.9
cheen 11.3 16.3 22.2 30.9 37.4
Bhaarat 4.9 6.3 8.5 14.3 20.8

inhein bhi dekhein

sandarbh

  1. "The World Economy (GDP) : Historical Statistics by Professor Angus Maddison [vishv arthavyavastha (jeedeebi): professor angs maideesan dvaara aitihaasik aaainkade]" (angreji mein). world ikaunami. http://www.theworldeconomy.org/MaddisonTables/MaddisontableB-18.pdf. abhigman tithi: 9 April 2015.
  2. maideesan, angas (2006) (angreji mein). The World Economy - Volume 1: A Millennial Perspective and Volume 2: Historical Statistics. aarthik sahayog tatha vikaas sangathan dvaara oiseedi prakaashan. pp. 656. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9789264022621. http://www.oecdbookshop.org/oecd/display.asp?K=5L9ZBQKL5RLW&lang=EN&sort=sort_date%2Fd&stem=true&sf1=Title&st1=world+economy&sf3=SubjectCode&sp1=not&st4=E4+or+E5+or+P5&sf4=SubVersionCode&ds=world+economy%3B+All+Subjects%3B+&m=3&dc=26&plang=en.
  3. a aa "Economic survey of India 2007: Policy Brief [Bhaarat ka aarthik sarvekshan 2007: sankshipt neeti]" (angreji mein). oiseedi. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/17/52/39452196.pdf.
  4. "Industry passing through phase of transition [udyog sankraman ke daur se gujar raha hai]" (angreji mein). the tribyoon. http://www.tribuneindia.com/50yrs/kapur.htm.
  5. ranajeet vee॰ pandit (2005). "Why believe in India [Bhaarat mein kyon vishvaas]" (angreji mein). maikinse. http://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Why_believe_in_India_1663.
  6. maarshal, John (1996) (angreji mein). Mohenjo-Daro and the Indus Civilization: Being an Official Account of Archaeological Excavations at Mohenjo-Daro Carried Out by the Government of India Between the Years 1922 and 1927 [mohan jodado aur sindhu sabhyata: Bhaarat sarakar dvaara 1922 aur 1927 ke madhya mohan jodado ki puraatatv khudaai mein aadhikaarik khaata hona paaya gaya.]. pa॰ 481. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9788120611795.
  7. Chopra, praan naath (2003) (angreji mein). A Comprehensive History Of Ancient India (3 Vol. Set) [praacheen Bhaarat ka vyaapak itihaas]. starling. pa॰ 73. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9788120725034.
  8. aarya, samarendr Narayan (2004) (angreji mein). History of Pilgrimage in Ancient India: Ad 300-1200 [praacheen Bhaarat mein teerthayaatra ka itihaas: 300 i॰ se 1200 ॰ tak]. munsheeraam manoharalaal pablishrs private limited. pa॰ 3,74.
  9. Anekant: Views And Issues [anekaant: vichaar aur mudde] (pehla san॰). laadanoon, Bhaarat: jain vishv bhaarati vishvavidyaalaya, laadanoon, Bhaarat. 2001. pa॰ 46. http://www.herenow4u.net/index.php?id=70494.
  10. Calculated from turner and others, eds., Earth Transformed, Table 4.32
  11. http://seit.unsw.adfa.edu.au/staff/sites/hrp/personal/Production1750-1913.pdf

baahari kadiyaaain