Bhaarat-cheen yuddh


Bhaarat - cheen yuddh
sheet yuddh ka bhaag
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Bhaarat - cheen ke beech hua yuddh
tithi 20 October r[1] – 21 November 1962
sthaan dakshini ksinjing (aksaai cheen) and arunaachal pradesh (dakshin Tibet, uttar poorv frontier agency)
parinaam cheeni sena ki jeet
antararaashtreeya star par cheen ki chhavi dhoomil
kshetreeya
badlaav
aksaai chin cheen ke niyantran mein aaya
yoddha
भारत
Bhaarat
चीनी जनवादी गणराज्य
cheen
senaanaayak
भारत bruj mohan kaul
भारत javaaharalaal neharu
भारत vi. ke. Krishna Menon
भारत praan naath thaapar
चीनी जनवादी गणराज्य jahaaaing guohuaa
चीनी जनवादी गणराज्य maao jedong
चीनी जनवादी गणराज्य lioo bocheing
चीनी जनवादी गणराज्य lin bion
चीनी जनवादी गणराज्य jhou enalaai
shakti/kshamata
10,000–12,000 80,000[2][3]
mrutyu evam haani
1,383 mrutyu[4]
1,047 ghaayal[4]
1,696 laapata[4]
3,968 bandi[4]
722 mrutyu.[4]
1,697 ghaayal[4][5]

Bhaarat-cheen yuddh jo Bhaarat cheen seema vivaad ke roop mein bhi jaana jaata hai, cheen aur Bhaarat ke beech 1962 mein hua ek yuddh tha. vivaadit himaalaya seema yuddh ke liye ek mukhya bahaana tha, lekin anya muddon ne bhi bhoomika nibhaai. cheen mein 1959 ke tibbati vidroh ke baad jab Bhaarat ne dalaai laama ko sharan di to Bhaarat cheen seema par hinsak ghatnaaon ki ek shrrunkhala shuroo ho gayi. Bhaarat ne forward neeti ke tahat maikamohan rekha se lagi seema par apni sainik chaukiyaaain rakhi jo 1959 mein cheeni Premier jhou enalaai ke dvaara ghoshit vaastavik niyantran rekha ke poorvi bhaag ke uttar mein thi.

cheeni sena ne 20 October 1962 ko Laddakh mein aur maikamohan rekha ke paar ek saath hamle shuroo kiye. cheeni sena donon morche mein bhaarateeya balon par unnat saabit hui aur pashchimi kshetr mein chushool mein rejaang-la evam poorv mein tavaang par kabja kar liya. jab cheen ne 20 November 1962 ko yuddh viraam aur saath hi vivaadit kshetr se apni vaapasi ki ghoshana ki tab yuddh khatm ho gaya.

Bhaarat cheen yuddh kathor paristhitiyon mein hui ladaai ke liye ullekhaneeya hai. is yuddh mein jyaadaatar ladaai 4250 meter (14,000 feet) se adhik oonchaai par ladi gayi. is prakaar ki paristhiti ne donon pakshon ke liye rasad aur anya lojistik samasyaaeain prastut ki. Bhaarat cheen yuddh cheeni aur bhaarateeya donon paksh dvaara nausena ya vaayu sena ka upayog naheen karne ke liye bhi vikhyaat hai.

anukram

sthaan

cheen aur Bhaarat ke beech ek lambi seema hai jo Nepal aur bhootaan ke dvaara teen anubhaago mein faila hua hai. yeh seema himaalaya parvaton se lagi hui hai jo barma evam tatkaaleen pashchimi Pakistan (aadhunik Pakistan) tak faili hai. is seema par kai vivaadit kshetr avasthit hain. pashchimi chhor mein aksaai chin kshetr hai jo Switzerland ke aakaar ka hai. yeh kshetr cheeni svaayatt kshetr jhinjiyaang aur Tibet (jise cheen ne 1965 mein ek svaayatt kshetr ghoshit kiya) ke beech sthit hai. poorvi seema par barma aur bhootaan ke beech vartamaan bhaarateeya raajya arunaachal pradesh (puraana naam- North East frontier agency) sthit hai. 1962 ke sangharsh mein in donon kshetron mein cheeni sainik aa gaye the.

jyaadaatar ladaai oonchaai waali jagah par hui thi. aksaai chin kshetr samudra tal se lagbhag 5,000 meter ki oonchaai par sthit saalt flat ka ek vishaal registaan hai aur arunaachal pradesh ek pahaadi kshetr hai jiski kai chotiyaaain 7000 meter se adhik ooainchi hai. sainya siddhaant ke mutaabik aam taur par ek hamlaavar ko safal hone ke liye paidal sainikon ke 3:1 ke anupaat ki sankhyaatmak shreshthata ki aavashyakta hoti hai. pahaadi yuddh mein yeh anupaat kaafi jyaada hona chaahiye kyonki ilaake ki bhaugolik rachana dusare paksh ko bachaav mein madad karti hai. cheen ilaake ka laabh uthaane mein saksham tha aur cheeni sena ka uchchatam choti kshetron par kabja tha. donon pakshon ko oonchaai aur thand ki sthiti se sainya aur anya lojistik kaaryon mein kathinaaiyon ka saamana karna pada aur donon ke kai sainik jama dene waali thand se mar gaye.

parinaam

cheen dvaara adhikrut bhaarateeya bhoomi

cheen

cheen ke sarkaari sainya itihaas ke anusaar, is yuddh se cheen ne apne pashchimi sector ki seema ki raksha ki neeti ke lakshyon ko haasil kiya, kyonki cheen ne aksaai chin ka vaastavik niyantran banaae rakha. yuddh ke baad Bhaarat ne forward neeti ko tyaag diya aur vaastavik niyantran rekha vaastavik seemaaon mein parivrtit ho gayi.

James kelvin ke anusaar, bhale hi cheen ne ek sainya vijay pa li parantu usane apni antararaashtreeya chhavi ke maamale mein kho di. pashchimi deshon, khaaskar America, ko pehle se hi cheeni najariye, iraadon aur kaaryon par shak tha. in deshon ne cheen ke lakshyon ko vishv vijay ke roop mein dekha aur spasht roop se yeh maana ki seema yuddh mein cheen hamlaavar ke roop mein tha. cheen ki October 1964 mein pratham parmaanu hathiyaar pareekshan karne aur 1965 ke Bhaarat Pakistan yuddh mein Pakistan ko samarthan karne se kamyuniston ke lakshya tatha uddeshyon evam poore Pakistan mein cheeni prabhaav ke ameriki rai ki pushti ho jaati hai.

Bhaarat

yuddh ke baad bhaarateeya sena mein vyaapak badlaav aaye aur bhavishya mein isi tarah ke sangharsh ke liye taiyaar rahane ki jarurat mahasoos ki gayi. yuddh se bhaarateeya pradhaanamantri javaaharalaal Nehru par dabaav aaya jinhein Bhaarat par cheeni hamle ki aashanka mein asafal rahane ke liye jimmedaar ke roop mein dekha gaya. bhaarateeyon mein deshbhakti ki bhaari lahar uthani shuroo ho gayi aur yuddh mein shaheed hue bhaarateeya sainikon ke liye kai smaarak banaaye gaye. yakeenan, mukhya sabak jo Bhaarat ne yuddh se seekha hai vah hai apne hi desh ko majaboot banaane ki jaroorat aur cheen ke saath Nehru ki "bhaaichaare" waali videsh neeti se ek badlaav ki. Bhaarat par cheeni aakraman ki aashanka ko bhaaainpane ki akshamata ke kaaran, pradhaanamantri Nehru ko cheen ke saath shaantivaadi sambandhon ko badhaava ke liye sarkaari adhikaariyon se kathor aalochna ka saamana karna pada. bhaarateeya raashtrapati Radhakrishnan ne kaha ki Nehru ki sarkaar aparishkrut aur taiyaari ke baare mein laaparavaah thi. Nehru ne sveekaar kiya ki bhaarateeya apni samajh ki duniya mein rah rahe the. bhaarateeya netaaon ne aakramanakaariyon ko vaapas khadedne par poora dhyaan keindrit karne ki bajaay raksha mantraalaya se Krishna Menon ko hataane par kaafi prayaas bitaaya. bhaarateeya sena Krishna Menon ke "krupaapaatr ko achhi niyukti" ki neetiyon ki vajah se vibhaajit ho gayi thi aur kul milaakar 1962 ka yuddh bhaarateeyon dvaara ek sainya paraajaya aur ek raajaneetik aapada ke sanyojan ke roop mein dekha gaya. upalabdh vikalpon par gaur na karke balki ameriki salaah ke tahat Bhaarat ne vaayu sena ka upayog cheeni sainiko ko vaapas khadedne mein naheen kiya. CIA (ameriki guptachar sanstha) ne baad mein kaha ki us samay Tibet mein na to cheeni sainiko ke paas mein paryaapt maatra mein indhan the aur na hi kaafi lamba runway tha jisse ve vaayu sena prabhaavi roop se upayog karne mein asamarth the. adhikaaainsh bhaarateeya cheen aur uske sainiko ko sandeh ki drushti se dekhne lage. kai bhaarateeya yuddh ko cheen ke saath ek lambe samay se shaanti sthaapit karne mein Bhaarat ke prayaas mein ek vishvaasaghaat ke roop mein dekhne lage. Nehru dvaara "hindi-cheeni bhaai, bhaai" (jiska arth hai "bhaarateeya aur cheeni bhaai hain") shabd ke upayog par bhi savaal shuroo ho gaye. is yuddh ne Nehru ki in aashaaon ko khatm kar diya ki Bhaarat aur cheen ek majaboot Asiaee dhruv bana sakte hain jo sheet yuddh gut ki mahaashaktiyon ke badhte prabhaav ki pratikriya hogi.

sena ke poorn roop se taiyaar naheen hone ka saara dosh raksha mantri Menon par aa gaya, jinhonne apne sarkaari pad se isteefa de diya taaki nae mantri Bhaarat ke sainya aadhunikeekaran ko badhaava de sake. svadeshi sroton aur aatmanirbharata ke maadhyam se hathiyaaron ki aapoorti ki Bhaarat ki neeti ko is yuddh ne pukhta kiya. bhaarateeya sainya kamjori ko mahasoos karke Pakistan ne Jammu aur Kashmir mein ghuspaith shuroo kar di jiski pariniti antat: 1965 mein Bhaarat ke saath doosra yuddh se hua. haalaanki, Bhaarat ne yuddh mein Bhaarat ki apoorn taiyaari ke kaaranon ke liye heindarasan-brooks-bhagat report ka gathan kiya tha. parinaam anirnaayak tha, kyonki jeet ke faisale par vibhinn srot vibhaajit the. kuchh sootron ka tark hai ki choonki Bhaarat ne Pakistan se adhik kshetr par kabja kar liya tha, Bhaarat spasht roop se jeeta tha. lekin, doosaron ka tark tha ki Bhaarat ko mahatvapoorn nuksaan uthaana pada tha aur isliye, yuddh ka parinaam anirnaayak tha. do saal baad, 1967 mein, chol ghatna ke roop mein cheeni aur bhaarateeya sainikon ke beech ek chhoti seema jhadap hui. is ghatna mein aath cheeni sainikon aur 4 bhaarateeya sainikon ki jaan gayi.

heindarasan-brooks-bhagat report

haar ke kaaranon ko jaanane ke liye Bhaarat sarkaar ne yuddh ke tatkaal baad le. general heindarasan bruks aur Indian military ekedami ke tatkaaleen kamaanadeint Brigadier pi S bhagat ke netrutv mein ek samiti banaai thi. donon sainya adhikaariyo dvaara saunpi gayi report ko Bhaarat sarkaar abhi bhi ise gupt report maanati hai. donon adhikaariyon ne apni report mein haar ke liye pradhaanamantri Jawahar laal Nehru ko jimmedaar thaharaaya tha.

sandarbh

  1. Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary of the English language: Chronology of Major Dates in History, page 1686. Dilithium Press Ltd., 1989
  2. H.A.S.C. by United States. Congress. House Committee on Armed Services — 1999, p. 62
  3. War at the Top of the World: The Struggle for Afghanistan, Kashmir, and Tibet by Eric S. Margolis, p. 234.
  4. a aa i E u oo The US Army [1] says Indian wounded were 1,047 and attributes it to Indian Defence Ministry's 1965 report, but this report also included a lower estimate of killed.
  5. Mark A. Ryan; David Michael Finkelstein; Michael A. McDevitt (2003). Chinese warfighting: The PLA experience since 1949. M.E. Sharpe. pp. 188–. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 9780765610874. http://books.google.com/books?id=PsoDGLNmU30C&pg=PA188. abhigman tithi: 14 April 2011.

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