Bengal ki khaadi

Bengal ki khaadi
Bay of Bengal map hindi.png
Bengal ki khaadi ka maanachitr
sthaan dakshin Asia
nirdeshaank 15°a00′a00″aN 88°a00′a00″aE / 15°aN 88°aE / 15; 88Erioll world.svgnirdeshaank: 15°a00′a00″aN 88°a00′a00″aE / 15°aN 88°aE / 15; 88
prakaar khaadi
praathamik srot hind mahaasaagar
tatavarti kshetr desh Bhaarat, Bangladesh, thaailaind, myaanmaar, indoneshiya, Malaysia, Sri Lanka[1][2]
adhiktam lambaai 2090 ki.mi.
adhiktam chaudaai 1610 ki.mi
satahi kshetr 2,172,000 varg ki.mi
ausat gaharaai 2,600 mi.
adhiktam gaharaai 4,694 mi.
Bengal ki khaadi, vishaakhaapattanam, Bhaarat

Bengal ki khaadi vishv ki sabse badi khaadi hai[3] aur hind mahaasaagar ka poorvottar bhaag hai. yeh mote roop mein tribhujaakaar khaadi hai jo pashchimi or se adhikaanshat: Bhaarat evam shesh Sri Lanka, uttar se Bangladesh evam poorvi or se barma (myaanmaar) tatha andamaan evam nikobaar dveepasamooh se ghiri hai. Bengal ki khaadi ka kshetrafal 2,172,000 kimee² hai. praacheen hindu granthon ke ansuaar ise mahodadhi kaha jaata tha.[4]

Bengal ki khaadi 2,172,000 kimee² ke kshetrafl mein vistrut hai, jismein sabse badi nadi ganga tatha usaki sahaayak padma evam hugali, brahmaputr evam usaki sahaayak nadi jamuna evam meghana ke alaava anya nadiyaaain jaise iraavati, godaavari, mahaanadi, Krishna, kaaveri aadi nadiyaan saagar se sangam karti hain. ismein sthit mukhya bandaragaahon mein chennai, chatagaaainv, Kolkata, mongala, paaraadeep, tooteekorin, vishaakhaapattanam evam yaanagaun hain.

anukram

paridhi

Bangladesh ka kauksabaajaar saagaratat

antararaashtreeya jal sarvekshan sangathan ne Bengal ki khaadi ki paridhi is prakaar bataayi hain::[5]

poorv mein barma sthit kep negraais (16°a03'u.) se aarambh hoti ek rekha jo andamaan evam nikobaar dveepasamooh ke bade dveepon se is prakaar niklati hai, ki dveepon ke beech ke sabhi jalasthaan rekha ke poorv mein aayein evam Bengal ki khaadi se baahar gine jaayein, little andamaan (10°a48'u. 92°a24'poo.) sthit ek bindu tak jaati ho se seemit hokar andamaan saagar ki dakshin-pashchimi seema ke saath [oedjaung raaja (5°a32′aN 95°a12′aE / 5.533°aN 95.2°aE / 5.533; 95.2) naamak sumaatra ke ek sthaan se poelo braas (Breuëah) tak seemit ho tatha doosari or nikobaar dveepasamooh ke pashchimi dveepon se hote hue little andamaan dweep sthit saindi pvaaint tak, is prakaar ki sabhi sankare jalasthaan barma-saagar se jude rahein] jaati hai.
dakshin ki or Ram setu (Bhaarat evam seelon [Sri Lanka]) ke beech evam seelon ke dakshintam bindu dondra head se lekar poelo braas (5°a44′aN 95°a04′aE / 5.733°aN 95.067°aE / 5.733; 95.067) ki uttari seema tak.

naamakaran

gopaalapur saagaratat par Bengal ki khaadi

praacheen hindu granthon evam maanyata anusaar Bengal ki khaadi naamak jalaraashi ko mahodadhi[4][6] naam se jaana jaata tha. iske alaava anya madhyakaaleen maanachitron mein ise saainas gainjetiks ya gainjetiks saainas, arthaat "ganga ki khaadi" naam se bhi dikhaaya gaya hai.[7] 10veen shataabdi mein chol raajavansh ke netruttv mein nirmit granthon mein ise chol sarovar naam bhi diya gaya hai. kaalaantar mein ise Bengal kshetr ke naam par Bengal ki khaadi naam mila.[8]

nadiyaaain

bhaarateeya upamahaadveep ki bahut si prasiddh evam badi nadiyaaain pashchim se poorvavat bahti hain aur Bengal ki khaadi mein saagar-sangam paati hain. ganga inmein se uttaratam nadi hai. iski pramukh dhaara Bhaarat se Bangladesh mein pravesh kar padma nadi naam se nikalkar vaheen meghana nadi se mil jaati hai. iske alaava brahmaputr poorv se pashchimi or bahakar Bhaarat ke asam se Bangladesh mein pravesh karti hai aur dakshinaavarti hokar jamuna nadi kahalaati hai. jamuna padma se milti hai aur padma meghana nadi se milti hai. iske baad ye antat: Bengal ki khaadi mein girti hain. vahaan ganga, brahmaputr evam meghana vishv ka sabse bada delta sundaraban banaati hain jo aanshik roop se Bhaarat ke pashchim Bengal evam Bangladesh (poorv naam poorvi Bengal) mein aata hai. is muhaane par maingrov ke ghane jang kshetr hain. brahmaputr 2,948 kimi (1,832 meal) lambi vishv ki 28veen badi nadi hai. iska udgam Tibet mein hai. ganga nadi ki ek anya dhaara Bhaarat mein pashchim Bengal mein hi alag hokar hugali naan se Kolkata shahar se hokar Bengal ki khaadi ke bhaarateeya bhaag mein hi girti hai.

Bengal ke dakshin mein, mahaanadi, godaavari, Krishna nadi evam kaaveri nadiyaaain bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein pashchim se poorvaabhimukh bahne waali aur Bengal ki khaadi mein girne waali pramukh nadiyaan hain. inke alaava kai chhoti nadiyaam seedhe hi is khaadi mein bhi girti hain, jinmein se laghutam nadi 64 kimi (40 meal) lambi koum nadi hai.

barma ki iraavati nadi bhi is khaadi ke ek bhaag, andamaan saagar mein hi girti hai jiske muhaane par ek samay ghane maingrov jungle hua karte the.


jahaajapattan evam bandargaah

vishaakhaapattanam shahar, Bhaarat ke banhaal ki khaadi sthit pramukh bandaragaahon mein se ek hai.

vishv ke sabse bade bandaragaahon mein se kuchheka— chatagaanv Bangladesh mein, tatha chennai bandargaah Bhaarat mein— isi khaadi mein sthit hain. inke alaava anya bade bandargaah nagaron mein mongala, Calcutta (pashchim Bengal evam Bhaarat ki poorv rajdhani) tatha yangoon, barma ka sabse bada shahar evam poorv rajdhani, aate hain. anya bhaarateeya bandaragaahon mein kaakeenaada, paundeecheri, paaraadeep evam vishaakhaapattanam bhi hain.

dweep

is khaadi kshetr mein bahut se dweep evam dveepasamooh hain, jinmein pramukh hain Bhaarat ke andamaan dveepasamooh, nikobaar dveepasamooh evam meragui dweep. barmaai tat ke poorvottar mein chedooba evam anya dveepasamooh daladali jvaalaamukhi shreni mein aate hain jo kabhi kabhaar sakriya bhi ho jaate hain. andamaan dveepasamooh mein great andamaan dveepashrunkhala pramukh hai, vaheen richeej dveepasamooh laghu dveepon ki shrunkhala hai. andamaan evam nikobaar dveepasamooh ke kul 572 gyaat dveepon mein se maatr 37 dveepon evam laghudveepon, arthaat keval 6.5% par hi aabaadi hain.[9]

saagaratat

Bengal ki khaadi ke uttari chhor par sthit sundaraban vishv ka sabse bada delta kshetr hai. yahaan maingrov ke ghane jungle hain, jo vishv mein sabse bade ekakhandeeya jvaareeya hailofaaitik maingrov van hain.[10]
kauks baajaar, vishv mein sabse badi saagaratat shrunkhala.[11]
कुआकाटा में सूर्योदय
kuaakaata mein sooryodaya
कुआकाटा में सूर्यास्त
kuaakaata mein sooryaast
Bangladesh ka kuaakaata saagaratat, Bengal ki khaadi ka ek aisa tat, jahaan se sooryodaya evam sooryaast, donon ek hi sthaan se dekhe ja sakte hain. Bhaarat mein kanyaakumaari saagaratat bhi ek aisa hi sthaan hai.
saagar tat sthaan
kauks baajaar Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh
kuaakaata Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh
seint maartins dweep Flag of Bangladesh.svg Bangladesh
bakkhaali Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
deegha Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
mandaramani Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
chaandeepur Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
puri Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
raamakrushn mission tat, vishaakhaapattanam Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
soorya jheel Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
mareena beech, chennai Flag of India.svg Bhaarat
thaandavi Flag of Myanmar.svg barma
arugraam Flag of Sri Lanka.svg Sri Lanka

saagar vigyaan

Bengal ki khaadi ek kshaareeya jal ka saagar hai. yeh hind mahaasaagar ka bhaag hai.

plate tektoniks

Bengal ki khaadi ki talahati █a█ bhaarateeya plate, laal mein darshit hai █a█ indo-Australiaee plate, dal naarangi mein darshit hai.

pruthvi ka sthalamandal kuchh bhaagon mein toota hua hai jinhein vivrtanik plets kehte hain. Bengal ki khaadi ke neeche jo plate hai use bhaarateeya plate kehte hain. yeh plate hind-Australiaee plate ka bhaag hai aur manthar gati se poorvottar disha mein badh rahi hai. yeh plate barma laghu-plate se sunda gart par milti hai. nikobaar dveepasamooh evam andamaan dveepasamooh is barma laghu-plate ka hi bhaag hain. bhaarateeya plate sunda gart mein barma plate ke neeche ki or ghusati ja rahi hai. yahaan donon plets ke ek doosare par dabaav ke parinaamasvaroop taapamaan evam dabaav mein bdhottari hoti hai. yeh badhottri kai jvaalaamukhi utpann karti hai jaise myaanmaar ke jvaalaamukhi aur ek anya jvaalaamukhi chaap, sunda chaap. 2004 ke sumaatr-andamaan bhookamp evam Asiaee soonaami isi kshetr mein utpann dabaav ke kaaran bane ek panadubbi bhookamp ke flasvaroop chali viraat soonaami ka parinaam the.[12]

saagareeya bhoogarbhashaastr

seelon dweep se koromandal tatarekha se lagi-lagi ek 50 meter chaudi patti khaadi ke sheersh se fir dakshinaavartt andamaan nikobaar dveepasamooh ko gherati jaati hai. ye 100 saagar-thaah rekhaaon se ghiri hai, lagbhag 50 mi. gahre. iske pare fir 500-saagar-thaah seema hai. ganga ke muhaane ke saamane haalaanki in thaahon ke beech bade antaraal hain. iska kaaran delta ka prabhaav hai.

ek 14 ki.mi chauda no-graaund svaich Bengal ki khaadi ke neeche sthit samudri ghaati hai. is ghaati ke adhiktam gahre ankit binduon ki gaharaayi 1340 mi. hai.[13] panadubbi ghaati Bengal fain ka hi ek bhaag hai. yeh fain vishv ka sabse bada panadubbi fain hai.[14][15]

saagareeya jeevavijnyaaan, pashu evam paadap

Bengal ki khaadi mein paurpita paurpita blue batan (haaydrojoaa: Anthoathecata), thotalaakonda saagaratat, vishaakhaapattanam

Bengal ki khaadi jaiv-vividhta se paripoorn hai, jiske kuchh ansh hain pravaal bhitti, jvaaranadamukh, machhali ke andepaalan evam machhali paalan kshetr evam maingrov. Bengal ki khaadi vishv ke 64 sabse bade saagareeya paaristhitik kshetron mein se ek hai.

kereeliya jerdoniyaai Bengal ki khaadi ka ek samudri saanp hota hai. ek shankh shel (Conus bengalensis) jise glori of Bengal arthaat Bengal ki shobha kaha jaata hai, isko yahaan ke saagarataton par yatr-tatr dekha ja sakta hai. iski sundarata dekhte hi banti hai.[16] oliv ridle naamak samudri kachhuaa viluptapraaya prajaatiyon mein aata hai, isko gaheeramaatha saagareeya udyaan, gaheeramaatha tat, Orissa mein panapane laayak vaataavaran upalabdh karaaya gaya hai. iske alaava yahaan mairlin, bairaakuda, skipjaik toona, (Katsuwonus pelamis), yalofin toona, hind-prashaant hampabaik daulfin (Sousa chinensis), evam braaids vhel (Balaenoptera edeni) yahaan ke kuchh anya vishisht jeevon mein se hain. be of Bengal haugafish (Bodianus neilli) ek prakaar ki vraas meen hai jo pankil laigoon raakh ya uthale tateeya raakh mein vaas karti hai. inke alaava yahaam kai prakaar ke daulfin jhund bhi dikhaai dete hain, chaahe bautal noj daulfin (Tursiops truncatus), painatraupikl dhabbedaar daulfin (Stenella attenuata) ya spinner daulfin (Stenella longirostris) hon. toona evam daulfin praay: ek hi jalakshetr mein milti hain. tat ke chhichhle evam ushn jal mein, iraavati daulfin (Orcaella brevirostris) bhi mil sakti hain.[17][18] dablyooseees ke shodhakartaaon ke anusaar Bangladesh ke sundaraban ilaake aur Bengal ki khaadi ke lage jal kshetr mein jahaan kam khaara paani hai, vahaan hatyaari vhel machhaliyon ke naam se kukhyaat arakaas prajaati se sambandhit kareeb 6,000 iraavadi daulfinon ko dekha gaya tha.[19]

great nikobaar baayosfiyr sanrakshit kshetr mein bahut se jeevon ko sanrakshan milta hai jinmein se kuchh vishesh hain: khaare jal ka magar (Crocodylus porosus), jaaint ledarabaik samudri kachhuaa (Dermochelys coriacea), evam malaayan sandook kachhuaa (Cuora amboinensis kamaroma).

ek anya vishisht evam vishvaprasiddh baagh prajaati jo viluptapraaya hai, royal Bengal tiger, ko sundaraban raashtreeya udyaan mein sanrakshan mila hua hai. yeh udyaan ganga-saagar-sangam muhaane par maingrov ke ghane jangalon mein sthit hai.[20][21]

raasaayanik saagareeyashaastr

Bengal ki khaadi ke tateeya kshetr khanijon se bharpoor hain. Sri Lanka, serendib, ya ratn – dweep kahalaata hai. vahaan ke ratnon mein se kuchh pramukh hai: amethist, feeroja, maanik, neelam, pukharaaj aur raktamani, aadi. inke alaava gaarnet va anya ratnon ki Bhaarat ke Orissa evam Andhra pradesh raajyon mein kaafi paidaaish hai.[22]

bhautik saagaravijnyaaan – Bengal ki khaadi ki jalavaayu

January se October maah tak dhaara uttar disha mein dakshinaavarti chalti hain, jinhein poorv bhaarateeya dhaaraaen ya East indiyn kareints kaha jaata hai. Bengal ki khaadi mein maunasoon uttar-pashchim disha mein badhti hai aur May maah ke antarraashtreeya tak andamaan aur nikobaar dveepasamooh se takaraati hai. iske baad Bhaarat ki mukhya bhoomi ke uttar-poorvi tat par June maah ke antarraashtreeya tak pahunchati hai.

varsh ke shesh bhaag mein, vaamaavarti dhaaraaen dakshin-pashchimi disha mein chalti hain, jinhein poorv bhaarateeya sheetakaaleen jet (East indiyn vintar jet) kaha jaata hai. September evam December mein rituen kaafi sakriya ho jaati hain aur ise varshaakaal (maunasoon) kaha jaata hai. is ritu mein khaadi mein bahut se chakravaat bante hain jo poorvi Bhaarat ko prabhaavit karte hain. inse chalne vaale aandhi-toofaan se nibatne hetu kai prayaas kiye jaate hain.[23]

ushnakatibandheeya toofaan aur chakravaat

mukhya lekh: Bengal ki khaadi mein ushnakatibandheeya chakravaat

ek seedr chakravaat Bangladesh ke nikat apne charam par

Bengal ki khaadi ke oopar aisa toofaan jismein gol ghoomti hui havaaen 74 meal (119 ki.mi) prati ghanta ki gati se chal rahi hon, use chakravaat kaha jaata hai; aur yadi ye atalaantik ke oopar chal raha ho to use hariken kaha jaata hai.[24] 1970 mein aaye bhola chakravaat se 1-5 lakh Bangladesh nivaasi maare gaye the.

  • 2013, chakravaat mahaasen
  • 2012, chakravaat neelam
  • 2011, bahut gambhir chakravaati toofaan thaane
  • 2010, ati gambhir chakravaati toofaan giri
  • 2008, ati gambhir chakravaati toofaan naragis
  • 2007, ati gambhir chakravaati toofaan saaidr
  • 2006, ati gambhir chakravaati toofaan maala
  • 1999, super chakravaati toofaan 05bi
  • 1996, konaseema chakravaat
  • 1991, mahaachakravaati toofaan 02B
  • 1989, November taayafoon gay
  • 1985, May ushnakatibandheeya toofaan ek (1 bi)
  • 1982, April chakravaat ek (1 bi)
  • 1982, May ushnakatibandheeya toofaan do (2 bi)
  • 1982, October ushnakatibandheeya toofaan teen (3 bi)
  • 1981, December chakravaat teen (3 bi)
  • 1980, October ushnakatibandheeya toofaan ek (1 bi)
  • 1980, December agyaat toofaan chaar (4 bi)
  • 1980, December ushnakatibandheeya toofaan paanch (5 b)
  • 1977, Andhra pradesh ke chakravaat (6B)
  • 1971, chakravaat Orissa
  • 1970, November bhola chakravaat
  • 1864 Calcutta chakravaat: 40 feet ki toofaani sarj utpann ki. ismein dabaav ankan bairomeetar ke 28.025 inch pahuncha aur parinaamasvaroop 50,000 log mrut tatha 30,000 log baad ki mahaamaariyon mein maare gaye the.[25]
  • 1876 bekaraganj chakravaat: 10 se 30-40 feet toofaan sarj, 1 lakh mrut evam anya 1 lakh baad ki mahaamaariyon se mrut[25]
  • 1885 ka fauls point chakravaat: 22 feet toofaan sarj; dabaav bairomeetar par 27.135 inch paara.[25]

aitihaasik sthal

  • praacheen bauddh dharohar sthal paavurallaakonda, thotalaakonda evam baavikonda Bhaarat ke Orissa raajya ke vishaakhaapattanam nagar mein khaadi tat par sthit hain.
  • shri vaishaakheshvar mandir ke avashesh Bengal ki khaadi ke neeche hain. Andhra vishvavidyaalaya ke saagareeya puraatattv kendra ke pravakta ke anusaar ye mandir avashesh tateeya baitari ke saamane hi kaheen sthit honge.[26][27]
  • mahaabalipuram ke tat mandir parisar ka nirmaan 8veen shataabdi mein hua tha. mithkon ke anusaar yahaan chh: aur aise hi mandir hua karte the.
  • inke alaava ek anya sanrakshit aitihaasik sthal hai vivekaanandaar illam. iska nirmaan 1842 mein aais King fredarik tyoodar ne barf ko bhandaar karne evam varsh bhar bechne ke liye kiya tha. yahaan svaami vivekaanand ke kai prasiddh vyaakhyaan kaisal karnen mein hue the. is sthal par ek pradarshani svaami ji evam unki dharoharon ko samarpit hai.
  • odeesha ke prasiddh konaark soorya mandir ka bhi nirmaan isi khaadi ke tat ke nikat hua hai. yeh mandir hindu Bhagwan soorya Narayan ko samarpit hai aur isak nirmaan 1200 E. ke madhya mein hua tha. yeh kaale grenaait patthar se bana hua hai.
  • dhanushakodi mein pamban dweep par sthit hindu dharm ke chaar dhaamon mein se ek mahaateerth raameshvaram raamanaathasvmi mandir bhi isi khaadi ke hind mahaasaagar se sangam ke niktasth sthit hai.[28]
  • Bengal ki khaadi ke hind mahaasaagar evam arab saagar sangam (triveni sangam) par hi hindu teerth kanyaakumaari sthit hai. yeh sthaan tamil naadu mein aata hai.
  • jarman rosait antarikshayaan ne Bengal ki khaadi ke theek oopar hi pruthvi ke vaataavaran mein vaapas pravesh kiya tha. jarman antariksh agency (DLR) ne iski pushti ki thi.[29]

arth-vyavastha

Sri Lanka ka arugam saagaratat prativrsh hajaaron sailaaniyon ka aakarshan kendra banta hai.

Bengal ki khaadi mein vyaapaar karne vaale pehle udyogon mein company of marchents of landan the jinhein kaalaantar mein East India company kaha gaya. gopaalapur, Orissa pramukh vyaapaar kendra bana tha. inke alaava khaadi tat par sakriya rahi anya vyaapaarik companyon mein english East India company evam fraanseesi East India company theen.[30]

BIMSTEC arthaat be of Bengal inishiyetiv faur malteesektoral teknikl end ikaunimik koopareshan (yaani bahukshetreeya takaneeki aur aarthik sahayog hetu Bengal ki khaadi mein pahal) ke sahayog dvaara Bengal ki khaadi ke niktavarti raashtron jaise Bhaarat, Bangladesh, barma, bhootaan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, myaanmaar evam thaailaind mein mukt antarraashtreeya vyaapaar sambhav hua hai.

ek nayi setusamudram jahaajaraani nahar pariyojana prastaavit hai jiske dvaara mannaar ki khaadi ko Bengal ki khaadi se Pak jaladamaroomadhya se hote hue joda jaayega. is pariyojana ke poora hone se Bhaarat mein poorv se pashchim ka vyaapaarik samudri aavaagaman bina Sri Lanka ki lambi parikrama ke sulabh ho jaayega. abhi is jaladamaroomadhya mein chhichhla saagar hai aur chattaanein hain jinke kaaran yahaan se jahaajon ka aavaagaman sambhav naheen hota hai.

bangaal ki khaadi ki tatarekha ke sameepi kshetron mein machhuaaron ki dhoni aur kaitaamaraan naavein ghoomti rahati hain. yahaan machhuaare saagareeya machhaliyon ki 26 se 44 prajaatiyon ko pakad paate hain.[31] Bengal ki khaadi se ek varsh mein kul pakadi gayi machhaliyon ki ausat maatra 20 lakh tan tak pahunchati hai.[32] vishv ke kul machhuaaron ka lagbhag 31% isi khaadi par nirbhar hai aur yaheen rahata hai.[33]

Bengal ki khaadi ke saamarik mahatva

Bengal ki khaadi madhya poorv se filipeens saagar tak ke kshetr ke beechonbeech sthit hai. vaimaanik saamarik mahattv ko dekhein to bhi yeh kshetr ke pramukh vishv vaayu maargon ke beech mein sthit hai. yeh do vruhat aarthik khandon saark aur aasiyaan ke beech aati hai. iske uttar mein cheen ka dakshini bhoomibddh kshetr hone ke saath saath Bhaarat aur Bangladesh ke pramukh bandargaah bhi bane hain. in donon hi raashtron mein aarthik utthaan hota ja raha hai, haalaanki ye jantantra hain. gahre saagar mein aatankvaad ki rokathaam karne ke uddeshya se Bhaarat, cheen aur Bangladesh ne Malaysia, Thailand aur Indonesia se nausainik sahayog ke samjhaute kiye hue hain.[34]

sanyukt raajya ke jahaaj MALABAR 07 nausainik abhyaas karte hue. is abhyaas mein Japan aur Australia ki nausenaaon ke ऍjis kroojrs evam Singapore aur Bhaarat ke sainya sahaayak jahaajon ne bhi bhaag liya tha.

Bhaarat ke liye Bengal ki khaadi saamarik drushti se ati mahattvapoorn hai, kyonki usaka prabhaav kshetr khaadi ke praakrutik vistaar mein hi aata hai. doosare mukhya bhoomi se doorasth andamaan aur nikobaar dveepasamooh isi khaadi dvaara Bhaarat se jude hain. teesare Bhaarat ke kai pramukh mahattvapoorn bandargaah jaise Kolkata chennai, vishaakhaapattanam aur tooteekorin Bengal ki khaadi mein hi sthit hai.[35]

haal hi mein cheen ne is kshetr mein prabhaav daalne ki drushti se myaanmaar evam Bangladesh se gathajod samjhaute ke bhi prayaas aarambh kiye hain.[36] yaheen sanyukt raajya ne bhi Bhaarat, Bangladesh, Malaysia, Singapore aur Thailand ke sang vibhinn bade abhyaas bhi kiye hain.[37][38] Bengal ki khaadi ka ab tak ka sabse bada yuddhaabhyaas maalaabaar 2007, varsh 2007 mein hua tha. ismein sanyukt raajya, Singapore, Japan aur Australia se saamarik jalapot aaye the. is abhyaas mein Bhaarat bhi pratibhaagi tha. kshetr mein praakrutik gas ke bade bhandaar ki sambhaavana par bhi Bhaarat ki nazar hai. [34] yahaam ke tel evam gas bhandaaron par adhikaar ke maamale ko lekar Bhaarat evam myaamaar ke Bangladesh se sambandhon mein kuchh khataas bhi aa chuki hai.

Bangladesh aur myaanmaar ke beech saagareeya seema ko lekar 2008 evam 2009 mein sainya tanaav bhi badhe the. ab Bangladesh antarraashtreeya saagar vidhi nyaayaalaya ke maadhyam se Bhaarat aur myaanmaar se saagareeya jalaseema ke vivaad sulajhaane ke prayaas mein kaaryarat hai.[39]

paryaavaraneeya khatre

pradooshan

Asiaee bhoora baadal (asian brown klaaud), adhikaansh dakshini Asia aur hind mahaasaagar ke oopar prativrsh January aur March ke madhya chhaane waali ek vaayu pradooshan ki part hai, jo mukhyat: Bengal ki khaadi ke oopar kendrit rahati hai. yeh part vaahanon ke dhooen evam audyogik pradooshit vaashp tatha ayn pradooshan sroton ka milaajula roop hoti hai.[40]

seemaapaar ke mudde jo Bengal ki khaadi ki saagareeya paaristhitiki ko prabhaavit karte hain

seemaapaar ka mudda vah paryaavaran sambandhi samasya hota hai, jismein ya to samasya ka kaaran ya fir usaka prabhaav kisi raashtreeya seema ke paar tak pahunch jaata hai. ya fir is samasya ka vaishvik paryaavaran mein yogadaan ho jaata hai. aisi samasya ka kshetreeya samaadhaan dhoondhana vaishvik paryaavaran laabh maana jaata hai. Bengal ki khaadi se sambandhit aath raashtron dvra teen pradhaan seemaapaar samasyaaen (ya dhyaan dene yogya kshetr) gine hain jinka prabhaav khaadi kshetr ke svaasthya par pad raha hai. Bengal ki khaadi vruhat saagareeya pristhitiki pariyojana (arthaat be of Bengal laarj maireen ikosistam project/ BOBLME) ke udyog se, in aath raashtron ne (2012) in muddon aur unke kaaranon tatha nivaaran par pratyikriyaaen ekatrit ki hain, jin par aadhaarit bhavishya ke yojana kriyaanvayan kaaryakram baneinge tatha laagoo kiye jaayeinge.

matsyapaalan ka atyadhik upabhog

banghaal ki khaadi ka matsya utpaadan 60 lakh tan prativrsh hai, jo vishv ke kul utpaadan ke 7% se bhi adhik hai. matsyapaalan evam machhuaaron se sambandhit pradhaan saanjhi seemaapaar muddon mein aate hain: samagr matsya utpaadan mein badhti kami; prajaati sanrachanaaon mein hote ja rahe parivartan, pakadi ja rahi matsya maatra mein chhoti machhaliyon ka bada anupaat (jiske kaaran yuva hone se poorv hi achhi prajaati ki matsya maari jaati hain) aur saagareeya jaivavividhta mein parivartan, visheshakar luptapraaya evam bhedya prajaatiyon ki haani se. in muddon ke seemaapaar hone ka kaaran hai: kai matsya prajaatiyaan BOBLME raashtron ke jal mein saanjhi hain, iske alaava machhaliyon ya unke laarva ke ek jal-seema se doosare mein sthaanaantaragaman. machhuaare raashtreeya adhikaar-kshetron va seemaaon ka ullanghan karte hi rahate hain, chaahe ya anachaahe, samvaidhaanik ya avaidh roop se, jinka pramukh kaaran hai ek kshetr meinmachhuaaron ki va khapat ki adhikta jo machhuaaron ko adhik machhali pakadne ke liye baahari va doosare niktavarti kshetr mein jaane ko majaboor karti hai. lagbhag sabhi raashtron mein machhali pakadne ke vyavasaaya ki ye yeh samasya chhote ya bade roop se aamne aati hi hai. Bengal ki khaadi bade roop se luptapraaya va khatre waali prajaatiyon ke lupt hone kli vaishvik samasya mein bada yogadaan deti hai.

iske pramukh kaaranon mein aate hain, machhali pakadne hetu khule kshetr (saagar mein poori seema chihnit karta sambhav naheen hai), sarkaar ka adhik machhali utpaadan par jor, machhuaaron ko milne waali chhooton va sabsidiyreej mein kami aur naavon va naavikon dvaara adhik khapat ke prayaas, badhti hui machhali ki khapat, aprabhaavi fishri prabandhan evam avaidh evam dhvansaatmak matsya-udyog.

mahattvapoorn paryaavaason ka patan

Bengal ki khaadi uchch shreni ki jaivavividhta ka kshetr hai, jahaan badi sankhya mein jeevon ki khatre waali tatha luptapraaya prajaatiyaan basati hain. paryaavaason se sambandhit seemaapaar ke pramukh muddon mein: maingrov paryaavaason ki kshati evam kshaya, koral reefs ka patan, saagareeya ghaason ki haani evam kshati. in muddon ke seemaapaar hone ke mukhya kaaran is prakaar se hain: sabhi BOBLME raashtron mein sabhi teen mahattvapoorn paryaavaas kshetr sthit hain. iske alaava in sabhi raashtron mein bhinn-bhinn kaaranon se hone vaale bhoomi evam tateeya vikaas samaan hote hain. in paryaavaason ke utpaadon ke vyaapaar sabhi raashtron mein samaan hain. in sabhi raashtron ki jalavaayu mein badlaav ke prabhaav saanjhe hote hain. in muddon ke pramukh kaaranon mein: tateeya kshtron mein khaadya suraksha nimn star ki hai, tat vikaas yojanaaon ki bhaari kami, tateeya paryaavaason se praapt utpaadon ke vyaapaar mein tej badhottri, tatiya vikaas evam audyogikran, aprabhaavi saagareeya sanrakshit kshetr evam pravartan mein kami; jal-bahaav ke aade aane vaale vikaas, paryaavaason ke liye haanikaarak krushi abhyaas evam teji se badhta paryatan udyog.

pradooshan evam jal gunavatta

pradooshan aur jal gunavatta sanbandghi pradhaan seemaapaar ke muddon mein: mal-nikaas (seevar) janit rogajanak (paithojanak) evam anya kaarbanik mal-avashesh; thos apashisht/samudri kooda; tel-pradooshan; nirantar upasthit kaarbanik pradooshak (POP) evam upasthit vishaakt padaarth (PTSs); avasaad kan evam bhaari dhaatu avashesh. in muddon ki seemaapaar hone ke sthiti hai: bina ya aanshik shuddhikrut kiya seevej nirvahan ek sabhi ki saanjhi samasya hai. ganga, brahmaputr aur meghana nadiyon dvaara laaye gaye kaarbanik apashisht evam avashesh seemaaen paar kar hi jaate hain aur bade star par haaipauksiya ka kaaran bante hain. plastic evam parityakt machhali pakadne ke giyr raashtreeya seemaaon se pare jal ke raaste pahunch jaate hain. nadiyon dvaara uchch-poshak evam khanij apashisht bhi seemaaon ke bandhan se pare rahate hain. bhinn raashtron ke kaanoonon evam nauvahan mal nirvahan niyamon mein bhinnata aur uske pravartan mein kami ke kaaran bhi avashesh aur apashisht seemaaen paar kar jaate hain. isi kaaran taarabaul lambi dooriyaam tay kar jaate hain.POPs/PTSs evam paara, saath hi kaarban-paare ke yaugik bhi lambi dooriyaan tay kar jaate hain. avasaadan ke kaaran aur bhaari dhaatuon ke sandooshan se seemaapaar bhi pradooshan failata rahata hai. in muddon ke pramukh kaaran hai: badhti tateeya janasankhya ghanatv aur shahareekaran; prati vyakti utpann adhik kachare vruddhi, jiske parinaamasvaroop uchch khapat, apashisht prabandhan karne ke liye aavantit aparyaapt dhan, BOBLME deshon mein udyog hetu niktavarti deshon se palaayan aur chhote udyogon ke prasaar.

itihaas

andamaan dveepasamooh mein se ek, Ross dweep; jahaan dviteeya vishv yuddh ke samay british Bhaarat ka pramukh nausainik base raha tha, Bengal ki khaadi mein hi sthit hai.
mahaadveepeeya baha ke kaaran, bhaarateeya takhta maidaagaaskar se vibhkt hokar yooreshiyaai takhte se takaraaya, jiske parinaamasvaroop himaalaya parvat aur Bengal ki khaadi ka nirmaan hua.

uttari sarkaar vansh ne Bengal ki khaadi ke pashchimi tateeya ilaake par apna aadhiptya jamaaya aur kaalaantar mein vahi Bhaarat ki Madras state bana. raajaraaj chol pratham kaaleen chol raajavansh (9veen – 12veen shataabdi) ne 1014 E. mein Bengal ki khaadi ki pashchimi tatarekha par apna adhikaar kiya aur isi kaaran tatkaaleen Bengal ki khaadi chol-saagar bhi kahalaayi.[27] kaakaatiya raajavansh ne khaadi ke godaavari aur Krishna nadiyon ke beech ke tateeya doaab kshetr par adhikaar kiya tha. pratham shataabdi isavi ke madhya mein kushaanon ne uttar Bhaarat par aakrman kar apne raajya ka vistaar Bengal ki khaadi tak kiya. chandragupt maurya ne apne raajya ka vistaar uttar Bhaarat mein Bengal ki khaadi tak kiya tha. Bengal mein vartamaan daayamand haarbar ke niktavarti Hajipur par purtagaali samudri luteron ka kaafi samay tak adhikaar raha. 16veen shataabdi mein purtagaaliyon ne Bengal ki khaadi ke uttar mein chittaagaung mein apni vyaapaarik post, porto graande aur saatagaanv mein porto pekvino ki sthaapana ki.[41]

british penal upanivesh

port bleyar mein bani selular jail jo "kaala paani" ke naam se prasiddh thi, angrejon ne 1896 mein bhaarateeya svaadheenata sangraam ke kaidiyon ko aajeevan bandi banaane hetu banavaayi thi. yeh bhi andamaan dveepasamooh mein sthit hai.

saagareeya puraataattvik sameeksha

saagareeya puraatattvashaastr ya maireen aarkyolauji praacheen logon ke avashesh padaarathon evam vastuon ke adhyayan ko kehte hain. iski ek vishesh shaakha doobe jahaajon ki puraataattviki ke antargatt toote evam doobe puraatan jahaajon ke avasheshon ka adhyayanakiya jaata hai. paashaan va dhaatvik langar, haathi daant, darayaai ghode ke daant, cheeni mitti ke bartan, durlabh kaath mastool evam seese ke latthe aadi kai vastuen aisi hoti hain, jo kaal ke saath kharaab naheen hoti hain aur baad mein puraatattvashastriyon ke adhyayan ke liye prerana banti hain, jisse unke baare mein gyaan liya ja sake tatha unase unke samay ka gyaan kiya ja sake. koral reefs, soonaamiyon, chakravaaton, maingrov ki daladalon, yuddhon evam tedhe-medhe samudri maargon ka mila-jula yogadaan un jahaajon ke tootane ya doobne mein raha tha.[42]

prasiddh jahaaj evam toot ya doob

  • 1778 se 1783 Amreeki kraanti/svaadheenata yuddh ke parinaam Bengal ki khaadi tak drushtigochar hue.[43]
  • 1850 mein Amreeki klipr briged- igal ko Bengal ki khaadi mein hi dooba maana jaata hai.[44]
  • Amreeki baapatist edoniraim jadasan, joo. ki mrutyu 12 April, 1850 mein hui, jisko Bengal ki khaadi mein hi dafnaaya gaya tha.
  • 1855 mein the baark "inkredibl" jahaaj Bengal ki khaadi mein ek jalamagn chattaan se takaraakar doob gaya tha.[45]
  • 1865 mein, ek samudri aandhi se star of indiya (yootarp) ka mastool toot kar dhvast ho gaya, jab vah ek chakravaat se nikal raha tha.
  • 1875 veleda naamak 76 mi. (250 feet) lamba aur 15 mi. (50 feet) chauda yaan tha, jo kisi bachaav dal ka sadasya tha doob gaya.[46]
  • 1942 mein dviteeya abhiyaani bede ke Japani kroojr yoora ne malaayan sena ki or se Bengal ki khaadi ke vyaapaari jahaajon par hamla bol diya tha.
  • 3 December, 1971 ko Pakistani nausena ne daava kiya tha ki bhaarateeya nausena ke yuddhapot aaienaes rajput ne unki ek panadubbi peeenaes gaaji ko vishaakhaapattanam mein dubo diya tha.

sandarbh

  1. http://www.worldatlas.com/aatlas/infopage/baybengal.htm
  2. http://www.banglapedia.org/httpdocs/HT/B_0361.HTM
  3. "Bay of Bengal". Wildlife Conservation Society. http://www.wcs.org/where-we-work/oceans/bay-of-bengal.aspx. abhigman tithi: 1 December 2012.
  4. a aa kuttan (2009). the great fil'osfrs of indiya. otharahaaus. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 978-1434377807. http://books.google.co.in/books?id=nERVRxj22W0C&pg=PA243&lpg=PA243&dq=mahodadhi+bay+of+bengal+-fort+-hotel&source=bl&ots=ZrIiu1tlse&sig=rSvesIq2m3DFn8HRbZqWCoNr8lk&hl=en&sa=X&ei=OqMUUoqPMsa3rgep1ICQCA&ved=0CDgQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=mahodadhi%20bay%20of%20bengal%20-fort%20-hotel&f=false. sandarbh truti: Invalid <ref> tag; name "Kuttan" defined multiple times with different content
  5. "limits of oshnas end seej, truteeya sanskaran". antararaashtreeya jal sarvekshan sangathan. 1953. http://www.iho-ohi.net/iho_pubs/standard/S-23/S23_1953.pdf. abhigman tithi: 7 fravari 2010.
  6. "dhanushakodi" (angreji mein). indiatourism4u.in. http://www.indiatourism4u.in/tourism/960/Tamil-Nadu/Dhanushkodi/. abhigman tithi: 21 August 2013.
  7. 1794, Orbis Veteribus Notus by Jean Baptiste Bourguignon d'Anville
  8. Bengal ki khaadi ka maanachitr.(angreji) abhigman tithi: 22 January, 2007
  9. rajat choorn ki tarah aabha liye chamakati baaloo ki lambi tatarekhaaen. (angreji) The long stretch of sand glistening like silver dust. abhigman tithi: 23 January, 2007
  10. paasha, mustafa kamaal; siddeeki, niyaaj Ahmad (2003). "sundarabanas". In islaam, siraaj-ul. baanglaapeediya: Bangladesh ka raashtreeya vishvakosh. dhaaka: Bangladesh ki eshiyaatik society. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 984-32-0576-6. http://banglapedia.net/HT/S_0602.HTM.
  11. "World's longest beach hidden in Bangladesh". The Sydney Morning Herald. 31 January 2007. http://www.smh.com.au/news/travel/the-worlds-longest-beach/2007/01/31/1169919381993.html.
  12. Tsunami. abhigman tithi: 21 January, 2007
  13. Morphological features in the Bay of Bengal abhigman tithi: 21 January, 2007
  14. Curray, Joseph R.; Frans J. Emmel, David G. Moore (December 2002). "The Bengal Fan: morphology, geometry, stratigraphy, history and processes". Marine and Petroleum Geology (Elsevier Science Ltd) 19 (10): 1191–1223. doi:10.1016/S0264-8172(03)00035-7.
  15. France-Lanord, Christian; Volkhard Spiess, Peter Molnar, Joseph R. Curray (March 2000). "Summary on the Bengal Fan: An introduction to a drilling proposal". Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. http://www.whoi.edu/pclift/BengalSummary.pdf.
  16. Phillip Colla Natural History Photography abhigman tithi: 21 January 2007
  17. Naturalist: On the swatch of no ground: Mashida R Haider goes to the Bay of Bengal and comes back full of the marine life there abhigman tithi: 21 January, 2007
  18. CMS: Stenella attenuata, Pantropical spotted dolphin abhigman tithi: 21 January, 2007
  19. Bengal ki khaadi mein dikheen durlabh daulfin|4 April, 2009.|indo-asian news service. abhigman tithi: 26 August, 2013
  20. 17 Bay of Bengal abhigman tithi: 21 January, 2007
  21. Zipcode Zoo Bodianus neilli (Bay of Bengal Hogfish) abhigman tithi: 21 January, 2007
  22. http://www.aringthing.com/promise_rings.htm
  23. bhautik saagar vigyaan ki vivranika (Glossary of Physical Oceanography Ba-Bm). abhigman tithi: 21 January, 2007
  24. prakruti ke bal- praakrutik aapadaaen, tvarit tathya (naishanal jyaugaraafik) (angreji) Forces of Nature—aNatural Disaster Fast Facts. abhigman tithi: 22 January, 2007
  25. a aa i Hurricanes: their nature and history: particularly those of the West Indies, 6th Edition, Ivan Ray Tannehill, 1945, pp. 38-40
  26. Morien Institute - underwater discoveries news archive - January - June, 2006 shri veinkateshvar stil laaij andar vautar ("Sri Vaisakheswara still lies underwater"). abhigman tithi: 22 January, 2007
  27. a aa Bengal ki khaadi| indiya vautar portal. 28 December, 2010. abhigman tithi:26 August, 2013
  28. raamaayan. abhigman ththi: 21 January, 2007.(angreji)
  29. - Officials said Rosat re-entered the atmosphere at 0150 GMT on Sunday 23/10/2011.
  30. Nabataea: Trade on the Bay of Bengal URL accessed 21 January 2007
  31. Globally Important Agricultural Heritage Systems (GIAHS) URL accessed 21 January 2007
  32. LME 34 Bay of Bengal. abhigman tithi: 21 January, 2007
  33. the be of Bengal: new be dauning The Bay of Bengal: New bay dawning
  34. a aa http://www.atimes.com/atimes/South_Asia/GA25Df05.html
  35. http://www.rediff.com/news/2006/dec/26claude.htm
  36. [1]
  37. [2]
  38. [3]
  39. [4]
  40. io naichyural haijaards: smaug over be of Bengal. abhigman tithi: 21 January, 2007
  41. the paurchyugeej in Bengal. history of yugolim (hoogali), meliyaapor... (angreji) The Portuguese in Bengal. History of Ugolim (Hoogli), Meliapore .... abhigman tithi: 21 January, 2007
  42. maireen aarkyolauji in indiya. abhigman tithi: 22 January, 2007
  43. Shipwrecks 1816-1818 |abhigman tithi:23 January, 2007
  44. The Maritime Heritage Project: Gold Rush Ships, Passengers, Captains |abhigman tithi:23 January, 2007
  45. Shipping Notes from the 1800s - P.E.I. |abhigman tithi:23 January, 2007
  46. Diving-News.com » Wrecks |abhigman tithi:23 January, 2007

baahari kadiyaaain

Wiktionary-logo-en.png
Bengal ki khaadi ko vikshanari,
ek mukt shabdakosh mein dekhein.