Belgium

Kingdom of Belgium
Koninkrijk België (dach)
Royaume de Belgique (French)
Köanigreich Belgien (jarman)
dhvaj Coat of arms
raashtravaakya: (Dutch)
L'union fait la force (French)
Einigkeit macht stark (German)
"Strength through Unity" (lit. "Unity makes Strength")
raashtragaan: The "Brabançaonne"
  बेल्जियम  की स्थिति (dark green)– Europe  (light green & dark grey)– the European Union  (light green)  —  [Legend]
Belgium ki sthiti (dark green)

Europe (light green & dark grey)
– the European Union (light green) — [Legend]

rajdhani Brussels
50°a51′aN 4°a21′aE / 50.85°aN 4.35°aE / 50.85; 4.35
sabse bada metropolitan area Brussels Capital Region
raajabhaasha(eain) Dutch, French, German
nivaasi Belgian
sarkaar Parliamentary democracy and Constitutional monarchy
- King Philippe
- Prime Minister Charles Michel
Independence
- Declared from the Netherlands 4 October 1830
- Recognized 19 April 1839
kshetrafal
- kul 30,528 varg kilometer (139th)
11,787 varg meal
- jal (%) 6.4
janasankhya
- 2008 janaganana 10,665,867[1]
(76th [2005])
- 2001 janaganana 10,296,350
- ghanatv 344.32/varg kimi (2006) (29th [2005])
892/varg meal
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2008 praakkalan
- kul $389.793 billion$[2]
- prati vyakti $36,415$[2]
sakal ghareloo utpaad (saanketik) 2008 praakkalan
- kul $506.183 billion$[2]
- prati vyakti $47,289$[2]
gini (2000) 33
madhyam · 33rd
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2013) Straight Line Steady.svg 0.881[3]
bahut uchch · 21vaaain
mudra Euro (€)1 (EU)
samay mandal CET (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+1)
- greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) CEST (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+2)
doorabhaash koot 32
Internet teeeladi .be
1. Before 1999: Belgian franc.
2. The .eu domain is also used, as it is shared with other European Union member states.

Kingdom of Belgium /ˈaabɛaaldʒaaəaam/ uttar-pashchimi Europe mein ek desh hai. yeh Europeeya sangh ka sansthaapak sadasya hai aur uske mukhyaalaya ka mejbaan hai, saath hi, anya pramukh antararaashtreeya sangathanon ka, jismein NATO bhi shaamil hai.[4] 10.7 meeliyn ki janasankhya vaale Belgium ka kshetrafal 30,528 varg kilometer (11,787 varg meal) hai.

jarmanik aur laitin Europe ke madhya apni saanskrutik seema ko vistrut kiye hue Belgium, do mukhya bhaashaai samoohon, flemish aur French-bhaashi, mukhyat: valoons sahit jarman bhaashiyon ke ek chhote samooh ka aavaas hai. Belgium ke do sabse bade kshetr hain, uttar mein 59% janasankhya sahit fleindars ka dach bhaashi kshetr aur vaaloniya ka French bhaashi dakshini kshetr, jahaaain 31% log base hain. brusels-rajdhani kshetr, jo aadhikaarik taur par dvibhaashi hai, mukhyat: flemish kshetr ke antargat ek French bhaashi enklev hai aur yahaaain 10% janasankhya basi hai.[5] poorvi vaaloniya mein ek chhota jarman bhaashi samudaaya maujood hai.[6] Belgium ki bhaashaai vividhta aur sambandhit raajaneetik tatha saanskrutik sangharsh, raajaneetik itihaas aur ek jatil shaasan pranaali mein pratibinbit hota hai.[7][8]

Belgium naam, gaul ke uttari bhaag mein ek roman praant, gailiya beljika se liya gaya hai, jo keltik aur jarman logon ke ek mishran belji ka nivaas sthaan tha.[9][10] aitihaasik roop se, Belgium, Netherland aur lakjmabarg, nichle desh ke roop mein jaane jaate the, jo raajyon ke maujooda benelaks samooh ki tulana mein apekshaakrut kuchh bade kshetr ko aavrut kiya karte the. madhya yug ki samaapti se lekar 17 veen sadi tak, yeh vaanijya aur sanskruti ka ek samruddh kendra tha. 16veen shataabdi se lekar 1830 mein Belgium ki kraanti tak, Europeeya shaktiyon ke beech Belgium ke kshetr mein kai ladaaiyaaain ladi gain, jisse ise Europe ke yuddh maidaan[11] ka tamaga mila - ek chhavi jise donon vishv yuddh ne aur pusht kiya. apni svatantrata par, Belgium ne utsukata ke saath audyogik kraanti[12][13] mein bhaag liya aur unneesaveen sadi ke ant mein, Africa mein kai upaniveshon par adhikaar jamaaya.[14] 20veen sadi ke uttaraardh ko flemings aur frainkofon ke beech saaainpradaayik sangharsh ki vruddhi ke liye jaana jaata hai, jise ek taraf to saanskrutik matabhed ne bhadkaaya, to doosari taraf flenadars aur vaaloniya ke visham aarthik vikaas ne. ab bhi sakriya in sangharshon ne poorv mein ek ekaatmak raajya Belgium ko sangheeya raajya banaane ke dooragaami sudhaaron ko prerit kiya.

anukram

itihaas

satrah praant (naarangi, bhoora aur peela kshetr) aur bishoparik of league (hara)

pehli shataabdi E.poo. mein, sthaaneeya kabeelon ko haraane ke baad roman ne gailiya beljika ka praant banaaya. 5veen shataabdi ke dauraan jarmanik freinkish janajaatiyon dvaara kramik aapravaas ne is kshetr ko merovingiyn raajaaon ke shaasan ke adheen kar diya. 8veen sadi ke dauraan shakti ke kramik badlaav ne frainks raajya ko kerolingiyn saamraajya ke roop mein viksit hone ko prerit kiya. 843 mein vardan sandhi ne is kshetr ko madhya aur pashchimi fraansiya mein vibhaajit kiya, yaani kamobesh svatantr jaageeron ke ek set mein, jo madhyayug ke dauraan ya to France ke raaja ke ya pavitra roman samraat ke jaageeradaar the. inmein se kai jaageeron ko 14veen aur 15veen sadi ke baragandiyn Netherland mein ekeekrut kar liya gaya. samraat Charles V ne 1540 ke dashak mein satrah praanton ke vyaktigat sangh ko vistrut kiya aur ise 1549 ke raajakeeya adhyaadesh dvaara ek vyaktigat sangh se adhik banaate hue apna prabhaav prince-bishparik of league par failaaya.[15]

assi saal ke yuddh (1568-1648) ne nichle deshon ko uttari sanyukt praanton mein vibhaajit kiya (laitin mein beljika fodaraata, "fedareted needaralainds") aur dakshini needaralainds (beljika rejiya, "royal needaralainds"). uttaravarti par kramik roop se Spain aur ostriyaai haibsabarg ne shaasan kiya aur ismein adhikaansh aadhunik Belgium shaamil tha. 17veen aur 18veen shataabdiyon ke dauraan, yeh adhikaansh freinko-Spanish aur freinko-ostriyaai yuddhon ki sthal tha.[16] fraanseesi kraantikaari yuddh mein 1794 ke abhiyaanon ke parinaamasvaroop, nichle deshon par - un pradeshon sahit, jo kabhi naamamaatr bhi haibsabarg shaasan ke adheen naheen rahe. jaise prince bishoparik of league - is kshetr mein ostriyaai shaasan ko samaapt karte hue French fast ripblik dvaara kabja kar liye gaye. United Kingdom of the Netherland ke roop mein nichle deshon ka pun: ekeekaran, 1815 mein pratham French saamraajya ke vightan par hua.

1830 ki Belgium kraanti ki kadiyaaain (1834) egide Charles gustaav vepars dvaara, myusin of ainsheeent Arts, brusels.

1830 Belgium kraanti ke parinaamasvaroop ek asthaayi sarkaar aur ek raashtreeya Congress ke adheen, ek svatantr, Catholic aur nishpaksh Belgium ki sthaapana hui. 1831 mein raaja ke roop mein liyopold I ke aarohan ke baad se, Belgium ek samvaidhaanik raajashaahi aur sansadeeya lokatantr raha hai. haalaanki mataadhikaar ko shuroo mein roka gaya, lekin purushon ke liye saarvabhaumik mataadhikaar 1893 mein shuroo kiya gaya (1919 tak ekaadhik matadaan ke saath) aur mahilaaon ke liye 1949 mein. 19veen sadi ke mukhya raajaneetik dal the, Catholic party aur libral party aur Belgium lebar party sadi ke ant mein ubharane lagi. mool roop se French, kuleen aur poonjeepati varg dvaara apnaai gayi ekamaatr aadhikaarak bhaasha thi. uttarottar isne apna samagr mahatva kho diya, choonki dach bhi achhi tarah se pahachaani jaane lagi. yeh pehchaan 1898 mein aadhikaarik ban gayi aur 1967 mein samvidhaan ka ek dach sanskaran kaanooni roop se sveekaar kar liya gaya.[17]

1885 ke barlin sammelan ne kaango free state ka niyantran raaja liyopold II ko unke niji adhikaar ke roop mein saunp diya. lagbhag 1900 se vahaaain par liyopold II ke adheen kongoleej janta ke saath ugr aur vahashi vyavahaar ke prati antarraashtreeya chinta badhti ja rahi thi, jiske liye kaango mukhya roop se haathi daant aur rabar utpaadan se raajasv ka srot tha. 1908 mein is khalabali ne Belgium raajya ko upanivesh sarkaar ki jimmedaari sambhaalne ke liye prerit kiya aur uske baad se ise beljiyn kaango kaha gaya.[18]

1914 mein shleefen yojana ke hisse ke roop mein Germany ne Belgium par aakraman kiya aur pratham vishv yuddh ke pashchimi morche ki adhikaansh ladaai desh ke pashchimi bhaagon mein hui. Belgium ne yuddh ke dauraan runaada-urundi ke jarman upaniveshon (aadhunik ravaanda aur burundi) par adhikaar kar liya aur 1924 mein unhein league of nations dvaara Belgium ko saunpa gaya. pratham vishv yuddh ke baad, prashiya ke yupen aur maalamedi jile par Belgium dvaara 1925 mein kabja kar liya gaya, jiske kaaran ek jarman bhaashi alpasankhyak samudaaya ki upasthiti falit hui. 1940 mein Germany ne blitjakreeg aakraman ke dauraan is desh par fir se hamla kiya aur aur is par tab tak kabja banaae rakha, jab tak ki mitr-raashtron dvaara 1945 mein ise mukt naheen kara liya gaya. 1960 mein kaango sankat[19] ke dauraan beljiyn kaango ko svatantrata praapt hui, do saal baad runaada-urundi ne anugaman kiya.

dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad, Belgium ek sansthaapak sadasya ke roop mein NATO mein shaamil ho gaya aur Netherland aur lakjmabarg ke saath deshon ke benelaks samooh ka gathan kiya. Belgium 1951 mein Europeeya koyala aur steel samudaaya ke chhah sansthaapak sadasyon mein se ek ban gaya aur 1957 mein sthaapit, Europeeya parmaanu oorja samudaaya aur Europeeya aarthik samudaaya ka sadasya bana. uttaravarti ab Europeeya sangh hai, jiske liye Belgium pramukh prashaasan aur sansthaaon ka mejbaan hai, jismein shaamil hai yooropiyn commission, Europeeya sangh ki parishad aur asaadhaaran tatha Europeeya sansad ke samiti satr.

sarkaar aur raajaneeti

inhein bhi dekhein: Belgian federal parliament, Belgian federal government, evam Political parties in Belgium

Belgium ek samvaidhaanik, lokapriya raajashaahi aur ek sansadeeya lokatantr hai.

pradhaanamantri haraman vaan rompe

sangheeya dvisdaneeya sansad, ek senate aur chamber of ripresenatetiv se nirmit hai. sinet, 40 pratyaksh nirvaachit raajaneetijnyao aur 21 pratinidhiyon se bana hai, jinki niyukti 3 saamudaayik sansad, 10 sahayojit sinetar aur aadhikaarik taur par sinetar ke roop mein raaja ki santaanon dvaara hoti hai, jo vyavahaar mein apna vote naheen daalte hain. cheinbar ke 150 pratinidhi, 11 chunaavi jilon se ek aanupaatik matadaan pranaali ke tahat chune jaate hain. Belgium un kuchh deshon mein se ek hai, jahaaain anivaarya matadaan prachalit hai aur is tarah yeh duniya mein matadaata matadaan ke uchchatam dar ko dhaarit karne vaalon mein se ek hai.[20]

raaja (vartamaan mein albart dviteeya) raajya ka mukhiya hai, haalaanki uske visheshaadhikaar seemit hain. vah ek pradhaanamantri sahit mantriyon ki niyukti karta hai, jinke paas sangheeya sarkaar banaane ke liye pratinidhi mandal ka vishvaas maujood hai. dach aur French bhaashi mantriyon ki sankhya samvidhaan dvaara nirdhaarit sankhya ke baraabar hai.[21] nyaayik pranaali naagrik kaanoon par aadhaarit hai aur iski utpatti nepoliyn code se hui hai. court of kesesan antim faisale ki adaalat hai, jiske ek star neeche hai court of appeal.

Belgium ki raajaneetik sansthaaen jatil hain; adhikaansh raajaneetik satta, mukhya saanskrutik samudaaya ka pratinidhitv karne ki aavashyakta ke ird-gird aayojit hai. lagbhag 1970 ke baad mahatvapoorn raashtreeya Belgium raajaneetik dal alag-alag ghatakon mein vibhaajit ho gaye, jo mukhya roop se in samudaayon ke raajaneetik aur bhaashaayi hiton ka pratinidhitv karta hai. har samudaaya mein pramukh paartiyaan, raajaneetik kendra ke najdeek rahane ke baavajood, teen mukhya samoohon se sambandhit hain: dakshinpanthi udaaravaadi, saamaajik roop se roodhivaadi krishchiyn democrat aur vaamapanthiyon ka gathan karte samaajavaadi. iske alaava, pichhli sadi ke madhya ke baad kai pramukh paartiyaan, mukhya roop se, bhaashaai, raashtravaadi, ya paryaavaran vishyon ke ird-gird astitv mein aain aur haal hi mein kuchh vishisht udaar prakruti ke chhote dal bhi bane hain.

1958 se krishchiyn democrat gathabandhan ki sarkaaron ka silsila 1999 mein pratham daaioksin sankat, ek pramukh khaadya sandooshan ghotaale ke baad toot gaya.[22][23] chhah dalon se ek 'indradhanush gathabandhan' ubhara: flemish aur French bhaashi udaaravaadi, social democrat, greens.[24] baad mein, 2003 ke chunaav mein green dvaara apni adhikaansh seaton ko haar jaane ke baad, udaaravaadiyon aur social democrat ke ek 'baingani gathabandhan' ka nirmaan hua.[25] 1999 se 2007 tak pradhaanamantri gaai varhofstaat ke netrutv waali sarkaar ne ek santulit bajat, kuchh kar-sudhaar, shram baajaar sudhaar, nirdhaarit parmaanu nirstreekaran aur adhik kade yuddh aparaadh aur adhik lacheele amaadak dava upayog abhiyojan ki anumati dete hue vidhi ko ukasaaya. ichhaamrutyu par pratibandh ko kam kiya aur sam-laingik vivaah ko vaidh kiya gaya. sarkaar ne Africa mein sakriya kootaneeti[26] ko badhaava diya aur Iraq par aakraman ka virodh kiya.[27] June 2007 ke chunaavon mein varhofstaat ke gathabandhan ne kharaab pradarshan kiya. desh ne ek varsh se zyaada, raajaneetik sankat ka anubhav kiya.[28] yeh sankat aisa tha ki kai paryavekshakon ne Belgium ke sambhaavit vibhaajan ki atkalein lagaain. 21 December 2007 se 20 March 2008 tak varhofstaat III sarkaar asthaayi roop se kaaryarat thi. flemish aur [[frainkofon krishchiyn democrat, flemish aur frainkofon udaaravaadi|frainkofon krishchiyn democrat, flemish aur frainkofon udaaravaadi]] ke saath frainkofon social democrat ka yeh gathabandhan 20 March 2008 tak ek antarim sarkaar tha. us din flemish krishchiyn democrat ves letarme, June 2007 ke sangheeya chunaav ke asli vijeta ke netrutv waali ek nai sarkaar ko raaja ne shapath dilaai. choonki samvaidhaanik sudhaaron mein koi pragati naheen hui, 15 July 2008 ko letarme ne raaja ko cabinet ke isteefe ki ghoshana ki.[29] December 2008 mein BNP paribaas ko fortees beche jaane ki ghatna ke ird-gird mandaraate sankat ke baad, unhonne ek baar fir raaja ko apne isteefe ki peshakash ki.[30] aise haalaat mein, unka isteefa sveekaar kar liya gaya aur flemish krishchiyn democrat haraman vaan rompe ko pradhaanamantri ke roop mein 30 December 2008 ko shapath dilaai gayi.[31]

reporters without bordars ne apne 2007 ke vishv press svatantrata soochakaank, par Belgium ko (Finland aur sveedan ke saath) 169 deshon mein 5vein sthaan par rakha.[32]

samudaaya aur kshetr

inhein bhi dekhein: Language legislation in Belgium evam Municipalities with language facilities
samudaaya:[74] flemish aur French samudaaya/dvibhaashi bhaasha kshetr [75][76]
kshetr:[77][78][79]

ek chalan jiska sambandh baragandiyn aur haibsabargiyn court se hai,[33] 19veen sadi mein shaasi uchch varg ki shreni mein aane ke liye French mein baat karna zaroori tha aur jo keval dach mein vaartaalaap karte the, ve prabhaavi roop se doosari shreni ke naagrik the. us sadi ke uttaraardh mein aur 20veen sadi mein jaari rahate hue, is paristhiti ka mukaabala karne ke liye flemish aandolan viksit hone lage. valoons aur adhikaansh brusalars ne apni pehli bhaasha ke roop mein French ko apnaaya, flemings ne aisa karne se inkaar kar diya aur dach ko flenadars ki raajabhaasha ke roop mein adhiropit karne mein uttarottar safal hote gaye. dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad, Belgium ki raajaneeti uske do mukhya bhaasha samudaayon ki svaayattata se dabi rahi. antarsaamudaayik tanaav badhte gaye aur samvidhaan mein sangharsh teevrata ko kam karne ke liye sanshodhan kiya gaya.

1962-63 mein paribhaashit chaar bhaasha kshetron ke aadhaar par (dach, dvibhaashi, French aur jarman bhaasha ke kshetr) desh ke samvidhaan ke 1970, 1980, 1988 aur 1993 mein lagaataar sanshodhan ne raajaneetik shakti ko alag-alag teen staron par vibhaajit karte hue ek anokhe sangheeya raajya ki sthaapana ki.[34][35]

  1. brusels aadhaarit sangheeya sarkaar.
  2. tribhaasha samudaaya:
    • flemish samudaaya (dach bhaashi);
    • fraanseesi (yaani, French bhaashi) samudaaya;
    • jarman bhaashi samudaaya.
  3. teen kshetr:
    • flemish kshetr, paanch praanton mein upavibhaajit;
    • valoon kshetr, paanch praanton mein upavibhaajit
    • brusels-rajdhani kshetr.

samvaidhaanik bhaasha kshetr apne nagar paalikaaon mein raajabhaashaaon ko, saath hi, vishisht maamalon ke liye adhikaar praapt sansthaaon ki bhaugolik seema ko bhi nirdhaarit karte hain. haalaanki isse saat sansadon aur sarkaaron ke liye anumati milegi, par jab 1980 mein samudaaya aur kshetr banaae gaye, to flemish raajaneetijnyaon ne donon ke vilay ka faisala kiya. is prakaar flemings ke paas sirf sansad ka ekal sansthaagat nikaaya hai aur sarkaar ke paas sangheeya aur vishisht myunisipl maamalon ko chhodkar sabhi ke liye adhikaar hain.[36] kshetr aur samudaaya ki atichhaadit seemaaon ne do ullekhaneeya visheshataaon ka nirmaan kiya hai: brusels rajdhani kshetr ka raajya kshetr (jo anya kshetron ke kareeb ek dashak baad astitv mein aaya) flemish aur French, donon samudaayon mein shaamil hai aur jarman bhaashi samudaaya ka kshetr poori tarah se valoon kshetr ke bheetar sthit hai. nikaayon ke beech vivaadon ko Belgium ke samvaidhaanik nyaayaalaya dvaara hal kiya jaata hai. yeh sanrachana, ek samjhaute ke taur par hai, taaki vibhinn sanskrutiyaaain ek saath shaantipoorn tareeke se rah sakein.[12]

sangheeya raajya ki satta mein shaamil hain, nyaaya, raksha, sangheeya police, saamaajik suraksha, parmaanu oorja, maudrik neeti aur saarvajanik rin aur saarvajanik vitt ke anya pahaloo. raajya ke svaamitv waali companiyon mein Belgium daak samooh aur Belgium rel shaamil hai. sangheeya sarkaar, Europeeya sangh aur NATO ke prati Belgium tatha sanghaatmak sansthaanon ke daayitvon ke liye jimmedaar hai. yeh saarvajanik svaasthya, gruh mantraalaya aur videsh maamalon ke vistrut hisse ko niyantrit karti hai.[37] sangheeya sarkaar dvaara niyantrit-rinarahit-bajat-raashtreeya vitteeya aay ka 50% hota hai. sangheeya sarkaar naagrik sevakon ke ca.12% ko niyukt karti hai.[38]

samudaaya keval bhaasha nirdhaarit bhaugolik seemaaon ke bheetar apne adhikaar ka prayog karte hain, moolat: ek saamudaayik bhaasha ke vyaktiyon ki or unmukh: sanskruti (shravya-drushya media sahit), shiksha aur praasangik bhaasha ka prayog. niji maamalon ke vistaar mein shaamil hain, joki seedhe bhaasha se naheen jude hain, svaasthya neeti (upachaaraatmak aur nivaarak dava) aur vyaktiyon ke liye sahaayata (yuvaaon ka sanrakshan, saamaajik kalyaan, parivaar sahaayata, aapravaasi sahaayata seva, aadi).[39]

kshetron mein praanteeya satta hai, jise mote taur par unke raajya kshetr ke saath joda ja sakta hai. inmein shaamil hain, arthavyavastha, rojgaar, krushi, jal neeti, aavaas, lok nirmaan, oorja, parivhan, paryaavaran, shahar aur graameen yojana, prakruti sanrakshan, rin aur videshi vyaapaar. ve praanton, nagar paalikaaon aur antarsaamudaayik upayogita companiyon ki nigraani karte hain.[39]

kai kshetron mein, vibhinn star mein pratyek ki kisi vishisht par apni pakad hoti hai. udaaharan ke liye, shiksha ke maamale mein samudaayon ki svaayattata mein na to anivaarya pahaloo ke baare mein nirnaya shaamil hai aur na hi yogyata baantane ke liye nyoonatam arhata ko sthaapit karne ki anumati hai, jo sangheeya maamala hi hai.[37] sarkaar ke pratyek star ko usaki shaktiyon se sambandhit vaigyaanik anusandhaan aur antarraashtreeya sambandhon mein shaamil kiya ja sakta hai.[40][40] kshetron aur samudaaya sarkaaron ki sandhi karne ki shaktiyaaain vishv ke sabhi sanghon ki sangheeya ikaaiyon ki tulana mein sabse adhik vistrut hain.[41][42][43]

bhoogol, jalavaayu aur paryaavaran

vaiser nadi ke kinaare poldars

Belgium ki seema France (620 km), Germany (167 km), lakjmabarg (148 km) aur Netherland 450 km ke saath saajha hoti hai. satahi jal kshetr sahit iska kul kshetrafal, 33,990 varg kilometer hai; akele bhoomi kshetr 30,528 ki॰mee॰2 hai. Belgium ke teen pramukh bhaugolik kshetr hain: uttar-pashchim mein tateeya maidaan aur kendreeya pathaar, donon aangl-Belgium besin ke hain; dakshin-poorv mein aardeins uchchabhoomi, harseeniyn orojenik belt ka hissa hai. peris besin, Belgium ke sudoor dakshini chhor par, Belgium loren ke ek chhote chauthaai kshetr tak pahuainchata hai.[44]

tateeya maidaan mukhya roop se ret ke teelon aur poldaron se nirmit hai. aage andar hai chikna, dheere-dheere ooncha hota bhoodrushya, jo kai jalamaarg dvaara sinchit hota hai, jahaaain hain upajaaoo ghaatiyaaain aur kaimpaain (kempen) ke poorvottar reteele maidaan. aardeins ke ghane vanaachhaadit pahaad aur pathaar adhik oobad-khaabad aur pathareele hain, jahaaain gufaaen aur chhote darre hain, jo nimn krushi kshamata ke saath Belgium ka adhikaansh vanya jeevan samete hue hain. France mein pashchim ki or badhein, to yeh kshetr poorv mein uchch feins pathaar dvaara Germany mein aaifel se juda hai, jis par signal de botranj desh ke sabse oonche sthala694 meter (2,277 fut) ka nirmaan karta hai.[45][46]

aaradeins mein jangali paridrushya

jalavaayu samudri samasheetoshn hai aur sabhi mausamon mein paryaapt varsha hoti hai, (kopen jalavaayu vargeekaran: Cfb). ausat taapamaan January mein sabse kama3 °ase (37.4 °afai) rahata hai aur July mein sabse adhik18 °ase (64.4 °afai). prati maah ausat varsha February ya April mein 54 mileemeetar (2.1 inch) se lekar July mein 78 mimi (3.1 inch) ke beech hoti hai.[47] varsh 2000 se 2006 tak ka ausat, nyoonatam dainik taapamaan ko7 °ase (44.6 °afai) darshaata hai aur adhiktama14 °ase (57.2 °afai) tatha maasik varsha 74 mimi (2.9 inch); ye kramash: 1°C aur pichhli sadi ke saamaanya moolyon se kareeb 10 mileemeetar oopar hai.[48]

paadapavikaasabhoogol ke aadhaar par Belgium, borial Kingdom ke andar sarkamaborial kshetr ke kendreeya Europeeya praanton aur atalaantik yooropiyn ke beech saajha hota hai.[49] WWF ke mutaabik Belgium ka raajyakshetr atalaantik mishrit vanon ke paaristhitik-kshetr ke adheen hai.[50]

apni uchch janasankhya ghanatv, pashchimi Europe ke kendra mein usaki avasthiti aur aparyaapt raajaneetik prayaas ke kaaran, Belgium gambhir paryaavaraneeya samasyaaon ka saamana karta hai. 2003 ki ek report ne sujhaav diya ki Belgium ka praakrutik jal (nadiyaaain aur bhoojal) 122 deshon ke adhyayan mein nyoonatam jal gunavatta yukt hai.[51] 2006 mein pilot paryaavaran pradarshan soochakaank mein, Belgium ne samagr paryaavaran pradarshan mein 75.9% praapt kiye aur Europeeya sangh ke sadasya deshon mein nimnatam sthaan par tha, haalaanki yeh 133 deshon mein sirf 39vein par tha.[52]

arth-vyavastha

Ougréae mein meyuj nadi ke agal-bagal ispaat nirmaan, league ke paas

Belgium ek majboot vaishvik arthavyavastha hai[53] aur iski buniyaadi parivhan suvidhaaen Europe ke saath ekeekrut hain. ek uchch audyogik paarikshetr ke kendra mein iski avasthiti ne ise 2007 ke duniya ke 15vein sabse bade vyaapaarik desh banane mein madad ki.[54][55] iski arth-vyavastha ki visheshataaon mein shaamil hai, uchch utpaadak kaarya bal, uchch GNP (sakal raashtreeya utpaad) aur prati vyakti uchch niryaat.[56] Belgium ke mukhya aayaat hain, khaadya utpaad, machinery, kachche heere, petrolium aur petrolium utpaad, rasaayan, kapde aur saamaan aur vastr. iske mukhya niryaat hain, motor vaahan, khaadya utpaad, loha aur ispaat, taraashe heere, vastr, plastic, petrolium utpaad aur aloh dhaatuen. Belgium ki arth-vyavastha gabheer roop se seva unmukh hai aur dohari prakruti darshaati hai: ek gatisheel flemish arth-vyavastha aur ek valoon arth-vyavastha, jo pichhdi hai.[12][57] Europeeya sangh ke sansthaapak sadasyon mein se ek, Belgium drudhta se ek khuli arth-vyavastha aur sadasya arth-vyavasthaaon ke ekeekaran ke liye Europeeya sangh ke sansthaanon ki shaktiyon ke vistaar karne ka samarthan karta hai. 1922 se Belgium aur lakjmabarg, seemaashulk aur mudra sangh ke antargat ekal vyaapaar baajaar rahe. hain: the Belgium-lakjmabarg ikonomik union.

Belgium pehla Europeeya mahaadveepeeya desh tha, jo 1800 ki shurooaat mein audyogik kraanti se gujra.[58] league aur chaaraleroi ne teji se khanan aur ispaat nirmaan ka vikaas kiya, silaun industrial, jo 20veen shataabdi ke madhya tak sanbar meyus ghaati mein fala-foola aur 1830 se 1910 ke beech Belgium ko vishv ke sheersh teen sabse audyogeekrut deshon mein khada kar diya.[59] haalaanki, 1840 ke dashak tak flenadars ka vastr udyog gambhir sankat mein tha aur 1846-50 mein yeh kshetr akaal se gujra.

dviteeya vishv yuddh ke baad, gent aur entavarp, raasaayanik aur petrolium udyogon ke teevr vikaas ke saakshi bane. 1973 aur 1979 ke tel sankat ne arthavyavastha ko mandi mein dhakel diya; yeh vishesh roop se vaaloniya mein lambe samay tak jaari raha, jahaaain ispaat udyog kam pratispardhi rah gaya tha aur gambhir giraavat se gujr raha tha.[60] 1980 aur 90 ke dashak mein desh ka aarthik kendra uttar ki or khiskata raha aur ab yeh ghani aabaadi vaale flemish daayamand kshetr mein kendrit hai.[61]

1980 ke dashak ke ant tak, Belgium ki vruhat aarthik neetiyon ke falasvaroop, GDP ka 120% ka sanchayi sarkaari karj ho gaya. yatha 2006 bajat santulit tha aur saarvajanik rin GDP ke 90.30% ke baraabar tha.[62] 2005 aur 2006 mein vaastavik sakal ghareloo utpaad dar, jo kramash: 1.5% aur 3.0% thi, Euro kshetr ke ausat se thoda oopar the. 2005 mein berojgaari ki 8.4% ki dar aur 2006 mein 8.2% ki dar, kshetr ke ausat ke kreeb thi.[63]

1832 se 2002 tak, Belgium ki mudra Belgium Frank thi. Belgium ne 2002 mein ise Euro se badal diya, jiske tahat Euro sikkon ka pehla set 1999 mein dhaala gaya. jabki maanak beljiyn Euro sikke, jo sanchalan ke liye nirdhaarit hain raaja albart dviteeya ka chitr liye hue hain, aisa smaarak sikkon ke liye naheen hua, jahaaain dijaain svatantr roop se chune gaye hain.

janasaankhyiki

Belgium ke pramukh kshetr aur sthaan

2007 ki shurooaat mein Belgium ki lagbhag 92% janasankhya raashtreeya naagrik thi aur lagbhag 6% anya Europeeya sangh ke sadasya deshon se naagrik the. prachalit videshi naagrikon mein the, itaalavi (171,918), fraanseesi (125,061), dach (116,970), morakkan (80,579), speni (42,765), Turkey (39,419) aur jarman (37,621).[64][65]

shahareekaran

brusels, Belgium ki rajdhani aur desh mein sabse bada mahaanagareeya kshetr.

Belgium ki lagbhag poori aabaadi shahari hai- 2004 mein 97%.[66] Belgium ka janasankhya ghanatv 342 prati varg kilometer hai (886 prati varg meal)- Europe mein sarvaadhik mein se ek, needaralainds aur monaako jaise kuchh laghu raajyon ke baad. sabse ghani aabaadi wala kshetr flemish daayamand hai - entavarp- loven - brusels - gent ke sankulan dvaara sankshepit. aardeins ka sabse kam ghanatv hai. yatha 2006, flemish kshetr ki aabaadi, iske sarvaadhik aabaadi vaale shahar entavarp (457,749), gent (230,951) aur bruges (117,251) sahit, lagbhag 6,078,600 thi; vaaloniya ki aabaadi, iska sabse adhik aabaadi vaale chaaraleroi (201,373), league (185,574) aur naamur (107,178) sahit 3,413,978 thi. brusels mein rajdhani kshetr ki 19 nagar paalikaaon mein 1,018,804 rahate hain, jinmein se do mein 1,00,000 nivaasiyon se adhik hain.[1]

bhaashaaeain

raajabhaashaaen :[175][176] [177]

Belgium ki teen raajabhaashaaen, jo sabse zyaada bolne vaalon se lekar sabse kam bolne vaalon ke kramaanusaar dach, French aur jarman hain. kai gair-aadhikaarik, alpasankhyak bhaashaaeain bhi boli jaati hain.

choonki koi janaganana maujood naheen hai, Belgium ki teen raajabhaashaaon ya unki boliyon ke upayog athva vitran ke baare mein koi aadhikaarik saankhyikeeya aankade upalabdh naheen hain. baharahaal, vibhinn maanadandon se jaise maata-pita ki bhaasha, shiksha ki bhaasha, ya videshi paidaaish vaalon ki doosari bhaasha ki sthiti se aankadon ke sanket upalabdh ho sakte hain. anumaanit roop se Belgium janasankhya ka kareeb 59%[67] dach (bolachaal ki bhaasha mein aksar "flemish" ke roop mein ullikhit) aur 40% French bolata hai. dach bolne vaalon ki kul sankhya hai 6.23 meeliyn, jo flenadars ke uttari kshetr mein kendrit hain, jabki French bolne vaale 33.2 meeliyn vaaloniya mein aur anumaanit roop se 0.87 meeliyn ya 85%, aadhikaarik taur par dvibhaashi brusels-rajdhani kshetr ke hain.[68][69] vaaloon kshetr ke poorv mein jarman bhaashi samudaaya 73,000 logon se bana hai; kareeb 10,000 jarman aur 60,000 beljiyn naagrik jarman bhaashi hain. lagbhag 23,000 aur jarman bhaashi aadhikaarik samudaaya ke nikat nagar paalikaaon mein rahate hain.[6][70]

brasels mein dvibhaasheeya sanket.

Belgium mein boli jaane waali dach aur beljiyn French, donon mein kramash: Netherland aur France mein boli jaane waali kismon se shabdaavali aur shabdaarth baareekiyon mein maamooli bhinnata hai. kai flemish log abhi bhi apne sthaaneeya parivesh mein dach ki boliyaan bolte hain. vaaloon, jo kabhi vaaloniya ki mukhya kshetreeya bhaasha hua karti thi, ab yada-kada hi, jyaadaatar bujurg logon dvaara boli aur samajhi jaati hai. vaaloniya ki boliyaan, pikaard waali sahit,[71] saarvajanik jeevan mein prayog naheen ki jaati hain.

shiksha

inhein bhi dekhein: Education in Belgium

beljiyn ke liye chhah se lekar athaarah tak shiksha anivaarya hai, lekin kai 23 saal ki umr tak adhyayan jaari rakhate hain. 2002 mein, 18-21 umr vaale maadhyamikottar shiksha mein naamaankit logon ke saath Belgium, OECD deshon mein 42% sahit teesare sarvaadhik anupaat par tha.[72] haalaanki vayask aabaadi ka anumaanit 98% saakshar hai, kaaryaatmak nirksharata ko lekar chinta badh rahi hai.[71][73] OECD dvaara samanvit, antarraashtreeya vidyaarthi moolyaankan kaaryakram, vartamaan mein Belgium ki shiksha ko duniya mein sarvashreshth ke hisaab se 19vein sthaan par rakhata hai, jo ki mahatvapoorn roop se OECD ausat se adhik hai.[74]

19veen shataabdi ke udaaravaadi aur Catholic dalon ki vishishtataaon se yakt Belgium ke raajanaitik paridrushya ki dohari sanrachana ko pratibinbit karte hue, shiksha pranaali ko ek dharmanirpeksh aur ek dhaarmik varg ke beech pruthak kiya gaya hai. schooli shiksha ki dharmanirpeksh shaakha ka niyantran samudaayon, praanton, ya nagar paalikaaon dvaara kiya jaata hai, jabki dhaarmik ka, mukhya roop se Catholic shaakha shiksha ka prabandhan dhaarmik adhikaariyon dvaara hota hai, yadyapi yeh samudaayon dvaara subsidy praapt aur unki nigraani hoti hai.[75]

dharm

inhein bhi dekhein: Religion in Belgium
brusels mein seint Michael aur gudula kathedral

desh ki aajaadi ke baad se, drudh svatantravichaar aandolanon se pratibhaarit roman Catholic dharm ki Belgium ki raajaneeti mein ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika rahi hai.[76] lekin mukhya taur par Belgium ek dharmanirpeksh desh hai, jahaaain laaisist samvidhaan dhaarmik svatantrata pradaan karta hai aur sarkaar aam taur par vyavahaar mein is adhikaar ka sammaan karti hai. albart I aur baudoin ke shaasanakaal ke dauraan, raajashaahi ki pratishtha Catholic mat mein gahre vishvaasi ki rahi.

prateekaatmak aur vaastavik roop mein, roman Catholic church ek laabhaprad sthiti mein bana hua hai. Belgium ki 'maanyata praapt dharm'[77] ki avadhaarana ne islaam ke liye yahoodi aur protesteint dharmon ke saath vyavahaar viksit karne ke liye maarg prashast kiya hai. jabki anya alpasankhyak dharmon, jaise hindu dharm ke paas abhi tak aisi sthiti naheen hai, bauddh dharm ne 2007 mein kaanooni maanyata ki or pehla kadam uthaaya.[75][78][79] 2001 sarve end stadi of rilijn[80] ke mutaabik janasankhya ka 47% khud ko Catholic church se sambandhit ke roop mein pahachaanata hai, jabki 3.5% par islaam, doosra sabse bada dharm hai. 2006 ki ek jaanch mein flenadars mein, jo vaaloniya se adhik dhaarmik kshetr ke roop mein jaana jaata hai, pata chala ki 55% log apne ko dhaarmik maanate hain aur 36% ka vishvaas tha ki Bhagwan ne duniya banaai gayi.[81]

2005 ke sabse haal ke yoorobairomeetar chunaav ke anusaar[82], Belgium ke 43% naagrikon ne uttar diya ki "unka maanana hai ki Bhagwan hota hai", jabki 29% ka uttar tha ki "unka maanana hai ki aatma jaisi ya jeevan shakti jaisi kuchh to hai" aur 27% ne kaha ki "ve naheen maanate ki kisi bhi tarah ki koi aatma, Bhagwan, ya jeevan shakti hoti hai".

aisa anumaan hai ki Belgium ki janasankhya ka 3% se 4% musalmaan (98% sunni) (350000-400000 log) hai.[83][84] Belgium ke musalmaanon mein adhikaansh entavarp, brasels aur chaaraleroi jaise bade shaharon mein rahate hain. Belgium mein aapravaasiyon ka sabse bada samooh morakkan ka hai, jinki sankhya 264,974 hai. turk teesara sabse bada samooh aur doosari sabse badi muslim jaateeya samooh hai, jinki sankhya 159,336 hai.[85] yahaaain hindooon ki ek chhoti aabaadi bhi hai.[krupaya uddharan jodein] iske alaava kareeb 10,000 sikkh bhi Belgium mein maujood hain.[86]

vigyaan aur praudyogiki

geraaradas marketar

vigyaan aur praudyogiki ke vikaas mein yogadaan desh ke sampoorn itihaas mein dikhaai deta hai. solahaveen sadi mein praarambhik aadhunik pashchimi Europe ke utkarsh ke sabse prabhaavashaali vaigyaaniko mein shaamil the maanachitrakaar geraardas marketar, shareerarachana-vigyaani ainadriaas veselias, aushadhi-gyaani rembart dodoens aur ganitjnya simon stevin.

teji se viksit aur ghani Belgium railway pranaali ne la brujois eight niveles jaisi pramukh companiyon (ab bambaaradiar traansaporteshan ka BN vibhaag) ko vishisht praudyogikiyon aur aarthik drushti se mahatvapoorn atyant gahan koyala khanan ke vikaas ke liye prerit kiya, kyonki pratham audyogik kraanti ke dauraan khanan injeeniyron ke liye atyadhik pratishthit vishesh adhyayan ki jaroorat thi.

unneesaveen sadi ke ant aur beesaveen sadi ne, vyaavahaarik vigyaan aur shuddh vigyaan ke kshetr mein Belgium ki mahatvapoorn unnati dekhi. 1860 ke dashak mein, rasaayanajnya arnest solve aur engineer jenob grem (Éaacole Industrielle de Lièage) ne kramash: solve prakriya aur grem daainemo ko apna naam diya tha. 1907-1909 mein liyo bekalaind dvaara bekalaait viksit ki gayi. jaurajes lemetre (loven ka Catholic vishvavidyaalaya) ko 1927 mein brahmaand ki utpatti ke big bang siddhaant ko pesh karne ka shreya diya jaata hai. teen shareer-kriya vigyaan ya chikitsa mein Nobel puraskaar beljiyn ko praapt hue hain: 1919 mein jools bordet (Université Libre de Bruxelles), 1938 mein kornel hemans (gent vishvavidyaalaya) aur 1974 mein albart klaad (Université Libre de Bruxelles) ke saath mein krischiyn de doov (Université Catholique de Louvain). 1977 mein ilya prigogin (Université Libre de Bruxelles) ko rasaayan vigyaan mein Nobel puraskaar se sammaanit kiya gaya.[87]

sanskruti

saanskrutik jeevan aajkal har bhaasha samudaaya mein kendrit hai aur vibhinn prakaar ke bandhanon ne ek saajha saanskrutik maahaul ko dhundhala kar diya hai.[12][88][89] 1970 ke dashak ke baad se, desh mein royal militri academy ko chhodkar ek bhi dvibhaashi vishvavidyaalaya naheen hai, koi aam media naheen hai[90] aur koi aisa bada saanskrutik ya vaigyaanik sangathan naheen hai, jismein donon pramukh samudaayon ka pratinidhitv ho. beljiyn ko kabhi ek saath baandhane waali taakatein - roman Catholic aur dach ka aarthik aur raajaneetik virodh - ab majaboot naheen rah gaye hain.[91] iske raajaneetik aur bhaashaai vibhaajan ke baavajood, jo sadiyon se badalta gaya hai, vartamaan Belgium se sambandhit is kshetr ne pramukh kalaatmak aandolanon ke utkarsh ko dekha hai, jiska Europeeya kala aur sanskruti par kaafi prabhaav pada hai.

lalit kala

pagadeedhaari ek vyakti ki tasveer (aayal on board, c. 1433) jain vain aaik dvaara), national gailari, London mein.

chitrakala aur vaastukala ke liye yogadaan vishesh roop se samruddh raha hai. mojn kala, arli needaralaindeesh,[92] flemish punarjaagaran aur bairak peinting[93] aur romanesk, gothik, punarjaagaran aur bairak vaastukala[94] ke pramukh udaaharan, kala ke itihaas mein meal ke patthar rahe. hain. jahaaain nichle deshon mein 15veen sadi ki kala mein jain vain aaik aur rojiar van der veden ke dhaarmik chitron ka prabhutv raha, vaheen 16veen sadi shailiyon ke ek vyaapak panel dvaara paribhaashit hui, jaise Peter brauyal ki laindaskep peinting aur laambart lombaard ki praacheen vastuon ki prastuti.[95] haalaanki Peter paul roobeins aur enthani vain dik ki bairak shaili dakshini Netherland mein aaranbhik 17veen sadi mein fali-fooli,[96] lekin uske baad dheere-dheere iska patan hota gaya.[97][98] unneesaveen aur beesaveen sadi ke dauraan, kai maulik romantic abhivyanjanaavaadi aur atiythaarthavaadi beljiyn chitrakaar ubhare, jinmein shaamil the James ensar, konstaint permek, paul delavauks aur rene megrit. kala ke kshetr mein agragaami CoBrA aandolan 1950 mein ubhara, jabki moortikaar paanaamareinko samakaaleen kala mein ek mahatvapoorn vyakti bane rahe. .[99][100] bahuaayaami kalaakaar jain febar aur chitrakaar Luke taimans samakaaleen kala paridrushya par antarraashtreeya khyaati praapt anya vyakti hain. vaastukala mein Belgium ka yogadaan unneesaveen aur beesaveen sadi mein bhi jaari raha, jismein Victor horta aur henari vain de velde ke kaarya bhi shaamil hain, jo Art novyoo shaili ke pramukh praneta the.[101][102]

freinko flemish school ka gaayan, nichle deshon ke dakshini hisse mein viksit hua aur punarjaagaran sanskruti ke liye ek mahatvapoorn yogadaan tha.[103] unneesaveen aur beesaveen sadi ne pramukh vaayalin vaadakon ka udaya dekha, jaise henari vyuksatemps, yoojeen saae aur aarthar grumiaaks, jabki adolf saiks ne 1846 mein saiksofon ka aavishkaar kiya. sangeetakaar seejr Frank league mein 1822 mein paida hue the. Belgium mein samakaaleen sangeet ki bhi khyaati hai. jaij sangeetakaar toots thiyelamans aur gaayak jaiks brel ne vaishvik khyaati praapt ki. rock/paup sangeet mein, teleks, frant 242, K's chauyas, hoovarafonik, jaip maama, solavaiks aur dEUS suvikhyaat hain.[104]

Belgium mein kai vikhyaat lekhak paida hue hain, jinmein shaamil hain kavi emil farahaaren aur upanyaasakaar heindrik kaunasheins, jorjes seemenan, sujen lilaar aur ameli nothom. 1911 mein kavi aur naatakakaar mauris metaralink ne saahitya mein Nobel puraskaar jeeta. herg dvaara the edaveinchars of tintin, sarvaadhik mashahoor freinko-Belgium komiks hai, lekin kai anya pramukh lekhakon ne jinmein shaamil hain peyo (the smarfs), aandre freinkvin, edagar pi. jaikabs aur vili veindarasteen, Belgium kaartoon strip udyog ko America aur Japan ke samaanaantar la khada kiya.

Belgium cinema ne kai, magar mukhya roop se flemish upanyaason ko parade par jeevant kiya hai.[105] Belgium ke anya nirdeshakon mein shaamil hain aandre delavauks, satijn koninks, luck aur jeen piyre daaraden; prasiddh abhinetaaon mein shaamil hain jain dekleyar aur mairi gilen; aur safal filmon mein shaamil hain main baaits daug aur the aljaaimar afeyar .[106] 1980 ke dashak mein, entavarp ki royal academy of faain Arts ne mahatvapoorn fashion nirmaataaon ko paida kiya, jinhein entavarp six ke naam se jaana jaata hai.[107]

lok-saahitya

the gaails of binch, veshabhoosha mein, mom maask pahane

Belgium ke saanskrutik jeevan mein lokakathaaon ki ek mahatvapoorn bhoomika hai: is desh mein shobha yaatraaon, kaafilon, paredon, 'omenagaangs' aur 'dukaases', 'karmes' aur anya sthaaneeya tyauhaaron ki apekshaakrut ek uchch sankhya pai jaati hai, jiske peechhe lagbhag hamesha maulik roop se dhaarmik ya pauraanik prushthabhoomi hoti hai. apne prasiddh gaails ke saath binch kaarnivl aur ath, brusels, dendaramond, mekalen aur mons ke 'juloos ke daitya aur dregan' UNESCO dvaara maanavata ke maukhik aur amoort viraasat ki shreshth krutiyon ke roop mein maanyata praapt hain.[108] anya udaaharan hain, aalst ka kaarnivl; bruges mein pavitra rakt ka abhi bhi atyant dhaarmik juloos, haasel mein virga jes baseeleeka aur mekalen mein haansavik; league mein 15 August ka tyohaar; aur naamoor mein valoon tyohaar. 1832 mein praarambh aur 1960 ke dashak mein punarjeevit jeintse feesaten, ek aadhunik parampara ban gaya hai. ek pramukh gair sarkaari avakaash hai seint nikolas diwas, jo bachchon ke liye aur league mein, chhaatron ke liye ek utsav hai.[109]

khel

association football aur cycling Belgium mein sabse lokapriya khel hain. tour di France mein paanch jeet aur cycling mein kai anya record ke saath, Belgium ke Eddy merks sarvakaalik cycle chaalak ke roop mein #1 raink par hain.[110] unka ghanta gati ka record (1972 mein sthaapit) baarah saal tak bana raha. jeen-maari faaf, Belgium ke poorv goalkeeper, football ke itihaas mein mahaanatam mein se ek maane jaate hain.[111] Belgium vartamaan mein Netherland ke saath 2018 vishv cup ki mejabaani ke liye boli laga raha hai.[112] donon deshon ne pehle 2000 mein UEFA Europeeya football championship ki mejabaani ki thi. Belgium ne 1972 mein Europeeya football championship ki mejabaani bhi ki.

kim klistars aur Justin henin, donon mahila tennis sangh mein varsh ki khilaadi theen, choonki unhein number ek mahila tennis khilaadi ka darja mila tha. spa-freinkarachaimps motor resing sarkit formula van vishv championship Belgium graan pre ki mejabaani karta hai. Belgium ke driver, jaiki iks ne aath grand priks aur chhah 24 aavars of le maans jeeti hai aur faurmoola van vishv championship mein do baar ve dviteeya sthaan par rahe. hain. Belgium ki motokraus mein bhi ek majaboot pratishtha hai; vishv champion Roger di kostar, yol Robert, jorjes job, erik gebors, yoel smets aur stefan everts shaamil hain.

Belgium mein saalaana aayojit hone vaale khel kaaryakramon mein shaamil hai memoriyl vaan daim ethaletiks pratiyogita, Belgium grand priks faurmoola van aur kai classic cycle daud, jaise ki ronde van vlaanaderen aur league-bastonn-league. 1920 greeshmakaaleen olanpik entavarp, Belgium mein aayojit hue the.

brusels ke vefals, jo aam taur par Belgium ke baahar Belgium vefals ke roop mein gyaat. vefal ke vibhinn prakaar Belgium mein lokapriya hain.

Pak shaili

kai uchch raink vaale beljiyn restaurant, mishelin guide jaise sabse prabhaavashaali gaistronomik guide mein paae ja sakte hain.[113] Belgium, vefals aur French fraaij ke liye prasiddh hai. apne naam ke vipreet, French fraaij ki utpatti bhi Belgium mein hui hai. "French fraaij" naam vaastav mein jis tarah se aaloo kaata jaata hai, uske varnan ko sandarbhit karta hai. "French" karne ka arth hai lamba tukada karna. raashtreeya pakavaan hain "salaad ke saath stek aur fraaij" aur musels vith fraaij.[114][115][116]

Belgium ke chaukalet aur pralaain ke brand jaise kailabaut, kot di'or, nauyahauus, liyonaaidas, geliyn, gailer end godiva vishv prasiddh aur vyaapak roop se bikne waali hain.

Belgium biyr ki 500 kismon se adhik ka utpaadan karta hai. aibe of vestaletaran ki traipist biyr ko lagaataar duniya ki sarvashreshth biyr ki shreni mein rakha gaya hai.[117] duniya mein sabse badi maatra mein sharaab banaanevaala loven mein sthit ainahauyajr bush inabev hai.[118]

yeh bhi dekhein

  • Belgium ki rooparekha
  • Belgium ke soochakaank se sambandhit lekh

luaa truti package.lua mein pankti 80 par: module 'Module:Portal/images/b' not found. saaaincha:Belgium topics

sandarbh

paad tippaniyaaain

  1. a aa "Structuur van de bevolking—aBelgië / Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest / Vlaams Gewest / Waals Gewest / De 25 bevolkingsrijkste gemeenten (2000–2006)" (Dutch mein) (asp). Belgian Federal Government Service (ministry) of Economy—aDirectorate-general Statistics Belgium. © 1998/2007. http://statbel.fgov.be/figures/d21_nl.asp#2. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-23.
  2. a aa i E "Belgium". International Monetary Fund. http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2009/02/weodata/weorept.aspx?sy=2006&ey=2009&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=124&s=NGDPD%2CNGDPDPC%2CPPPGDP%2CPPPPC%2CLP&grp=0&a=&pr.x=64&pr.y=12. abhigman tithi: 2009-10-01.
  3. "Human Development Report 2011". United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/en/media/HDR_2011_EN_Table1.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2 November 2011.
  4. paadatippani: Belgium kai antarraashtreeya sangathanon ka sadasya hai ya unase sambaddh hai, jinmein shaamil hain, ACCT, AfDB, AsDB, Australia Group, Benelux, BIS, CCC, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, G-10, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Intelsat, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, MONUC (observers), NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, UN, UNCTAD, UNECE, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNMIK, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WADB (non-regional), WEU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTrO, ZC.
  5. Leclerc, Jacques, , membre associé du TLFQ (2007-01-18). "Belgique • België • Belgien—aRéagion de Bruxelles-Capitale • Brussels Hoofdstedelijk Gewest" (French mein). L'améaanagement linguistique dans le monde. Host: Tréasor de la langue françaaaise au Quéabec (TLFQ), Université Laval, Quebec. http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/axl/EtatsNsouverains/bruxelles-capitale.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-18. "C'est une réagion officiellement bilingue formant au centre du pays une enclave dans la province du Brabant flamand (Vlaams Brabant)"
    * "About Belgium". Belgian Federal Public Service (ministry) / Embassy of Belgium in the Republic of Korea. http://www.belgium.or.kr/page60.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-21. "the Brussels-Capital Region is an enclave of 162 km2 within the Flemish region."
    * "Flanders (administrative region)". Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. Microsoft. 2007. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwPxLurr. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-21. "The capital of Belgium, Brussels, is an enclave within Flanders."
    * McMillan, Eric (October 1999). "The FIT Invasions of Mons" (PDF). Capital translator, Newsletter of the NCATA, Vol. 21, No. 7, p. 1. National Capital Area Chapter of the American Translators Association (NCATA). Archived from the original on 2006-09-23. http://web.archive.org/web/20060923043746/http://www.ncata.org/doc/Oct99.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-21. "The country is divided into three increasingly autonomous regions: Dutch-speaking Flanders in the north; mostly French-speaking Brussels in the center as an enclave within Flanders and French-speaking Wallonia in the south, including the German-speaking Cantons de l'Est)."
    * Van de Walle, Steven, lecturer at University of Birmingham Institute of Local Government Studies, School of Public Policy. "Language Facilities in the Brussels Periphery" (PDF). KULeuven—Leuvens Universitair Dienstencentrum voor Informatica en Telematica. Archived from the original on 2009-10-31. http://www.webcitation.org/5kwPxLurr. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-21. "Brussels is a kind of enclave within Flanders—ait has no direct link with Wallonia."
  6. a aa "The German-speaking Community". The German-speaking Community. http://www.dglive.be/EN/Desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-1263/2264_read-27181/. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-05. mool version in German language (pehle hi) 71,500 nivaasiyon ke bajaay 73,000 ka ullekh karta hai.
  7. Morris, Chris (2005-05-13). "Language dispute divides Belgium". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4545433.stm. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-08.
  8. Petermann, Simon, Professor at the University of Lièage, Wallonia, Belgium—aat colloquium IXe Sommet de la francophonie—aInitiatives 2001—aEthique et nouvelles technologies, session 6 Cultures et langues, la place des minoritéaas, Bayreuth (2001-09-25). "Langues majoritaires, langues minoritaires, dialectes et NTIC" (French mein). http://www.initiatives.refer.org/Initiatives-2001/_notes/sess604.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-04.
  9. Bunson, Matthew (1994). Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire (Hardcover 352pp san॰). Facts on File, New York. pp. 169. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ [[Special:BookSources/0 8160 2135 X [Paperback 512pp, ISBN 0-8160-3182-7; Revised edition (2002), Hardcover 636pp, ISBN 0-8160-4562-3]|0 8160 2135 X [Paperback 512pp, ISBN 0-8160-3182-7; Revised edition (2002), Hardcover 636pp, ISBN 0-8160-4562-3]]].
  10. paadatippani: belgi ki utpatti aur us par keltik aur/ya jarmanik prabhaav vivaadit bana hua hai. atirikt pathan uda. Witt, Constanze Maria (May 1997). "Ethnic and Cultural Identity". Barbarians on the Greek Periphery?—aOrigins of Celtic Art. Institute for Advanced Technology in the Humanities, University of Virginia. http://www3.iath.virginia.edu/Barbarians/Essays/ethnic_main.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-06.
  11. Haß, Torsten, Head of the Fachhochschule (University of Applied Sciences) of Kehl Library, Kehl, Germany (2003-02-17). "Rezention zu (Review of) Cook, Bernard: Belgium. A History ISBN 0-8204-5824-4" (German mein). FH-Zeitung (journal of the Fachhochschule). http://www.fh-kehl.de/zeitung/rezensionen/2003/cook,belgium.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-24. "die Bezeichnung Belgiens als „athe cockpit of Europe” (James Howell, 1640), die damals noch auf eine kriegerische Hahnenkampf-Arena hindeutete" [mrut kadiyaaain]-sameekshak, Haß, 1640 mein James hovel ko angreji mein chinh ka shreya dete hain. hovel ka mool vaakyaansh "the cockpit of kristanadam" baad mein sanshodhit kiya gaya, jaisa dikhaaya gaya:
    Carmont, John. "The Hydra No.1 New Series (November 1917)—aArras And Captain Satan". War Poets Collection. Napier University's Business School. http://www.napier.ac.uk/warpoets/Hydraissues/Hyn01/hyn01a03.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-24. - aur Belgium ke liye gadha:
    Wood, James (1907). "Nuttall Encyclopaedia of General Knowledge—aCockpit of Europe". http://www.fromoldbooks.org/Wood-NuttallEncyclopaedia/c/cockpitofeurope.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-24. "Cockpit of Europe, Belgium, as the scene of so many battles between the Powers of Europe." (nutaal vishvakosh bhi dekhein)
  12. a aa i E Fitzmaurice, John, at the Secretariat-General of the European Commission, taught at the Université Libre de Bruxelles (1996). "New Order? International models of peace and reconciliation—aDiversity and civil society". Democratic Dialogue Northern Ireland's first think tank, Belfast, Northern Ireland, UK. http://cain.ulst.ac.uk/dd/report9/report9d.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-12.
  13. "Belgium country profile". EUbusiness, Richmond, UK. 2006-08-27. http://www.eubusiness.com/Belgium/belgium-country-profile/. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-12.
  14. Karl, Farah (text); Stoneking, James (course) (1999). "Chapter 27. The Age of Imperialism (Section 2. The Partition of Africa)" (PDF). World History II. Appomattox Regional Governor's School (History Department), Petersburg, VA, USA. Archived from the original on 2006-10-02. http://web.archive.org/web/20061002203712/http://www.args.k12.va.us/academics/history/Stoneking/chapters/world2/world27.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-16. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  15. Edmundson, George (1922). "Chapter II: Habsburg Rule in the Netherlands". History of Holland. The University Press, Cambridge. Republished: Authorama. http://www.authorama.com/history-of-holland-4.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-09.
  16. paadatippani: atirikt pathan: 17veen aur 18veen sadiyon mein France
  17. Kris Deschouwer (January 2004). "Ethnic structure, inequality and governance of the public sector in Belgium" (PDF). United Nations Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD). http://www.unrisd.org/UNRISD/website/document.nsf/ab82a6805797760f80256b4f005da1ab/ec506a59176be044c1256e9e003077c3/$FILE/Deschou.pdf$. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-22.
  18. Meredith, Mark (2005-06-06). The State of Africa (Hardcover 608pp san॰). Free Press. pp. 95–96(?). aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-7432-3221-6.
  19. The Congolese Civil War 1960–1964
  20. Franklin, Mark N., Trinity College, Connecticut (2001). "The Dynamics of Electoral Participation—aTable 10.1 Average turnout in free elections to the lower house in 40 countries, 1961–1999" (PDF). pp. 32. http://citeseer.ist.psu.edu/cache/papers/cs/25027/http:zSzzSzwww2.trincoll.eduzSz~mfranklizSzParticipation.pdf/franklin01dynamics.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-29.
  21. "Belgium—aConstitution—aTitle III Powers, Chapter II The Senate, Article 72 [King's Descendants] ; and Title III, Chapter III King and Federal Government, Section I The King ; and Section II The Federal Government, Article 99 [Composition of Government]". International Constitutional Law. Institut füaar öaaffentliches Recht, University of Berne, Switzerland. 1994-02-17. Archived from the original on 2007-04-24. http://archive.is/IhBNd. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-20. ya fir donon:
    * "Title III on power, Chapter II on the Senate, Art. 72". The Constitution of Belgium. The Federal Parliament of Belgium. 1997-01-21. http://www.fed-parl.be/gwuk0004.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-20. aur
    * "Title III on Power, Chapter III on the King and the Federal Government, Section I on the King and Section II on the Federal Government, Art. 99". The Constitution of Belgium. The Federal Parliament of Belgium. 1997-01-21. http://www.fed-parl.be/gwuk0006.htm#E11E6. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-20.
  22. Tyler, Richard (1999-06-08). "Dioxin contamination scandal hits Belgium: Effects spread through European Union and beyond". World Socialist Web Site (WSWS). International Committee of the Fourth International (ICFI). http://www.wsws.org/articles/1999/jun1999/belg-j08.shtml. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-25. - daaioksin sankat ke avsar par: α
  23. School of Food Biosciences, University of Reading, UK (1999-06-16). Food Law News—aEU : CONTAMINANTS—aCommission Press Release (IP/99/399) Preliminary results of EU-inspection to Belgium. press release. http://www.foodlaw.rdg.ac.uk/news/eu-99-40.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-29.
  24. "Belgium's "rainbow" coalition sworn in". BBC News. 1999-07-12. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/392004.stm. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-20.
  25. "La Chambre des repréaasentants—aComposition (Composition of the Chamber of Representatives)" (French mein) (PDF). The Chamber of Representatives of Belgium. 2006-03-09. Archived from the original on 2005-09-05. http://web.archive.org/web/20050905204905/http://www.lachambre.be/kvvcr/pdf_sections/pri/fiche/10F.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-25.
  26. "Rwanda". tiscali.reference. Tiscali UK. http://www.tiscali.co.uk/reference/encyclopaedia/hutchinson/m0019846.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-27. -lekh Belgium ki haal hi mein afreeki neetiyon ka ek udaaharan dikhaata hai.
  27. "Belgian demand halts NATO progress". CNN News. 2003-02-16. Archived from the original on 2005-01-16. http://web.archive.org/web/20050116083744/http://www.cnn.com/2003/WORLD/meast/02/16/sprj.irq.nato.belgium.ap/. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-16.
  28. "Time-line Belgium". BBC-News. 2009-01-05. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/europe/country_profiles/1002141.stm. abhigman tithi: 2009-07-16. "2007 September - Belgium without a government for 100 days."
  29. BBC news, july 15th, 2008
  30. [1] Belgium ke pradhaanamantri dvaara banking samjhaute par isteefe ki peshakash
  31. Belgian king asks Van Rompuy to form government raayatar
  32. Reporters Without Frontiers, 2007
  33. Johannes Kramer (1984) (German mein). Zweisprachigkeit in den Benelux-läaandern. Buske Verlag. pa॰ 69. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 3871185973. "Zur prestige Sprache wurde in den Spanischen Niederlanden ganz eindeutig das Franzöasische. Die Vertreter Spaniens beherrschte normalerweise das Franzöasische, nicht aber das Niedderläandische; ein beachtlicher Teil der am Hofe täaatigen Adligen stammte aus Wallonien, das sich ja eher auf fie spanische Seite geschlagen hatte als Flandern und Brabant. In dieser Situation war es selbstverstäaandlich, dass die fläaamischen Adligen, die im Laufe der Zeit immer mehr ebenfalls zu Hofbeamten wurden, sich des Franzöasischen bedienen mussten, wenn sie als gleichwertig anerkannt werden wollten. [Transl.: The prestigious language in the Spanish Netherlands was clearly French. The Spain's representatatives usually mastered French but not Dutch; a notable part of the nobles at the court came from Wallonia, which had taken party for the Spanish side to a higher extent than Flanders and Brabant. It was therefore evident within this context that the Flemish nobility, of which a progessively larger number became servants of the court, had to use French, if it wanted to get acknowledged as well.]"
  34. Willemyns, Roland, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Germanic Languages (2002). "The Dutch-French Language Border in Belgium" (PDF). Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development Vol. 23 (Nos. 1&2): 36–49. doi:10.1080/01434630208666453. http://www.multilingual-matters.net/jmmd/023/0036/jmmd0230036.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-22.
  35. paad-tippani: raajya ki pratyek nagar paalika chaar bhaasha kshetron mein se ek ka hissa hai (dach mein taalgebieden, jarman mein Sprachgebiete) kabhi-kabhi bhaashaai kshetr ke naam se gyaat (French mein réagions linguistiques) samvidhaan ke teen kaanooni sanskaran dekhein:
    * "Titel I: Het federale België, zijn samenstelling en zijn grondgebied" (Dutch mein). De Belgische Grondwet. Belgian Senate. 2007-05-15 last update of web page. http://www.senate.be/doc/const_nl.html#t1. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-31. "Art. 4 België omvat vier taalgebieden"
    * "Titel I: Das föaaderale Belgien, seine Zusammensetzung und sein Staatsgebiet" (German mein). Die Verfassung Belgiens. Belgian Senate. 2007-05-15 last update of web page. http://www.senate.be/deutsch/const_de.html#t1. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-31. "Art. 4 Belgien umfaßaat vier Sprachgebiete"
    * "Titre Ier: De la Belgique féadéarale, de ses composantes et de son territoire" (French mein). La Constitution Belge. Belgian Senate. 2007-05-15 last update of web page. http://www.senate.be/doc/const_fr.html#t1. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-31. "Art. 4 La Belgique comprend quatre réagions linguistiques"
    angreji anuvaad, haal hi mein anaveeneekrut aur bina vaidh moolya ke:
    * "Title I: On Federal Belgium, its components and its territory". the Constitution. Belgian Senate. 1997-01-21 last update of main 'the Constitution' page on web site. http://www.fed-parl.be/gwuk0001.htm#E12E1. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-31. "Art. 4 Belgium has four linguistic regions"
  36. paad-tippaniyaan: samvidhaan ne saat sansthaaon ki sthaapana ki, jinmein se pratyek ke paas apni ek sansad, sarkaar aur prashaasan ho sakte hain. daraasal aise keval chhah nikaaya hain, kyonki flemish kshetr ka flemish samudaaya mein vilay ho gaya hai. yeh ekal flemish nikaaya, is prakaar brusels ke dvibhaashi kshetr mein aur dach bhaasha kshetr mein saamudaayik maamalon mein adhikaar ka prayog karta hai, jabki uttaravarti mein keval kshetreeya maamalon mein hi.
  37. a aa "The Federal Government's Powers". .be Portal. Belgian Federal Government. http://www.belgium.be/eportal/application?origin=navigationBanner.jsp&event=bea.portal.framework.internal.refresh&pageid=indexPage&navId=6188. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-23. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  38. Charles-Éaatienne Lagasse (2003). Les nouvelles institutions politiques de la Belgique et de l'Europe. Namur: Erasme. pa॰ 289. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 2-87127-783-4. "In 2002, 58.92% of the fiscal income was going to the budget of the federal government, but more than one third was used to pay the interests of the public debt. Without including this post, the share of the federal government budget would be only 48.40% of the fiscal income. There are 87,8% of the civil servants who are working for the Regions or the Communities and 12,2% for the Federal State."
  39. a aa "The Communities". .be Portal. Belgian Federal Government. http://www.belgium.be/eportal/application?origin=navigationBanner.jsp&event=bea.portal.framework.internal.refresh&pageid=indexPage&navId=2686. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-23. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  40. a aa "The Regions". .be Portal. Belgian Federal Government. http://www.belgium.be/eportal/application?origin=navigationBanner.jsp&event=bea.portal.framework.internal.refresh&pageid=indexPage&navId=2690. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-23. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  41. Charles-Éaatienne Lagasse (May 17–18, 2004). "Federalism in Russia, Canada and Belgium: experience of comparative research" (French mein). Kazan Institute of Federalism. http://www.kazanfed.ru/en/actions/konfer8/6/. "La Belgique constitue ainsi le seul exemple clair du transfert d'une partie de la compéatence « affaires éaatrangèaares » à des entitéaas féaadéaaréaaes. (Transl.: Belgian is the only example of a transfer of a part of the power "foreign policy" to federating units"
  42. C.E. Lagasse (French mein). Les nouvelles institutions de la Belgique et de l'Europe. pa॰ 603. "[Le féaadéaaralisme belge] repose sur une combinaison unique d'éaaquipollence, d'exclusivité et de prolongement international des compéaatences. (Transl.: [Belgian federalism] is based on a unique combination of equipollent and exclusiv powers prolonged ont the international scene.)"
  43. Philippe Suinen (October 2000). "Une Premièare mondiale" (French mein). Le Monde Diplomatique. http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2000/10/SUINEN/14406.html. "Dans l'organisation de ces autonomies, la Belgique a réaalisé une « premièaare » mondiale: afin d'éaaviter la remise en cause, par le biais de la dimension internationale, de compéaatences exclusives transféaaréaaes aux entitéaas féaadéaaréaaes, les communautéaas et réagions se sont vu reconnaîaatre une capacité et des pouvoirs internationaux. (Transl.: Belgian was the first country who gave the treaty-making policy to the Federating units)"
  44. "Belgium—aThe land—aRelief". britainika vishvakosh online. britainika vishvakosh, Chicago, IL, USA. © 2007. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9109741/Belgium#24981.toc. abhigman tithi: 2007-07-03.
  45. "Geography of Belgium". 123independenceday.com. http://www.123independenceday.com/belgium/geography.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-10.
  46. "Life—aNature" (PDF 3.8 MB). Office for Official Publications of the European Communities. 2005. http://kp.org.pl/n2k/pdf/15.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-10.
  47. "Climate averages—aBrussels". EuroWEATHER/EuroMETEO, Nautica Editrice Srl, Rome, Italy. http://www.euroweather.net/english/climate/city_EBBR/id_GT/meteo_brussels%20belgium. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-27.
  48. "Kerncijfers 2006—aStatistisch overzicht van België" (Dutch mein) (PDF 1.8 MB). Belgian Federal Government Service (ministry) of Economy—aDirectorate-general Statistics Belgium. pp. 9–10. Archived from the original on 2007-06-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20070614025224/http://statbel.fgov.be/pub/d0/p007y2006_nl.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-08.
  49. takhtaajan, armen, 1986. floristik reejans of world (ti.J. krovello aur A. kronkist dvaara anoodit). kaileeforniya vishvavidyaalaya press, Berkeley.
  50. Atlantic mixed forests (PA0402), vishv vanya-jeev kosh, 2001.
  51. Pearce, Fred (2003-03-05). "Sewage-laden Belgian water worst in world". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn3458. abhigman tithi: 2006-05-09.
  52. Pilot 2006 Environmental Performance Index - yel paryaavaran kaanoon aur neeti kendra aur Columbia vishvavidyaalaya antarraashtreeya pruthvi vigyaan soochana network kendra
  53. Belgium 2009 ke vaishveekaran ke soochakaank KOF mein pratham sthaanETH Züarich, san. "KOF Index of Globalization". http://globalization.kof.ethz.ch/. abhigman tithi: 2009-02-02.
  54. "Rank Order - Exports". CIA - The 2008 world factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2078rank.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-10-05. "15[th]: Belgium $322,200,000,000 (2007 est.)"
  55. "Rank Order - Imports". CIA - The 2008 world factbook. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2087rank.html. abhigman tithi: 2008-10-05. "15[th]: Belgium $323,200,000,000 (2007 est.)"
  56. "Belgian economy". Belgium. Belgian Federal Public Service (ministry) of Foreign Affairs, Foreign Trade and Development Cooperation. http://www.diplomatie.be/en/belgium/belgiumdetail.asp?TEXTID=49019. abhigman tithi: 2009-06-12. "Belgium is the world leader in terms of export per capita and can justifiably call itself the 'world's largest exporter'."
  57. "Wallonia in 'decline' thanks to politicians". Expatica Communications BV. 2005-03-09. http://www.expatica.com/actual/article.asp?subchannel_id=48&story_id=17824. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-16.
  58. "Industrial History Belgium". European Route of Industrial Heritage. http://en.erih.net/index.php?pageId=114. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-08.
  59. Jean-Pierre Rioux (1989) (French mein). La réavolution industrielle. Paris: Seuil. pa॰ 105. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 2-02-000651-0.
  60. "Background Note: Belgium". US Department of State, Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs. April 2007. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2874.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-08.
  61. Vanhaverbeke, Wim. "Het belang van de Vlaamse Ruit vanuit economisch perspectief The importance of the Flemish Diamond from an economical perspective" (Dutch mein). Netherlands Institute of Business Organization and Strategy Research, University of Maastricht (Faculty of Economics and Business Administration), The Netherlands. http://edata.ub.unimaas.nl/www-edocs/loader/file.asp?id=264. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-19. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  62. "The World Factbook—(Rank Order—aPublic debt)". CIA. 2007-04-17. https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/rankorder/2186rank.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-08.
  63. "Key figures". National Bank of Belgium. http://www.nbb.be/pub/00_00_00_00_02/?l=en&t=ho. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-19. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  64. Perrin, Nicolas, UCLouvain, Study Group of Applied Demographics (Géadap) (April 2006). "European Migration Network—aAnnual Statistical Report on migration and asylum in Belgium (Reference year 2003)—asection A. 1) b) Population by citizenship & c) Third country nationals, 1 January 2004" (PDF). Belgian Federal Government Service (ministry) of Interior—aImmigration Office. pp. pages 5–9. Archived from the original on 2007-06-14. http://web.archive.org/web/20070614025224/http://www.dofi.fgov.be/nl/statistieken/belgian%20migration%20point/punt%208%20Belgian%20Statistical%20Report%20on%20Asylum%20and%20Migration%202003.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-28.
  65. De vreemde bevolking
  66. "Quelques réaasultats des préaacéaadents recensements—aIndicateurs de logement (1991)" (French switchable to Dutch mein). Belgian Federal Government Service (ministry) of Economy—aDirectorate-general Statistics Belgium. © 1998/2007. http://statbel.fgov.be/census/previous_fr.asp. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-08.
  67. paad-tippani: vaaloniya mein rahane vaale mool dach bhaashi aur flenadars mein French apekshaakrut chhote alpasankhyak hain, jo ek-doosare ko santulit karte hain, isliye kshetr ki bhaasha ke liye, pratyek ekabhaashi kshetr ke sabhi nivaasiyon ki ginti karna mahatvaheen trutiyon ka kaaran hoga (99% bhaasha bol sakte hain). dach: flenadars 6.079 meeliyn nivaasi aur brusels ke 1.019 meeliyn ka 15%, jo Belgium (2006) ke 10.511 meeliyn nivaasiyon ka 6.23 meeliyn ya 59.3% hai; jarman: jarman bhaashi samudaaya mein 70,400 (jahaaain iske 5% se kam French bhaashiyon ke liye bhaasha ki suvidha hai) aur apne sarkaari samudaaya ki bhaugolik seemaaon ke baahar valoon kshetr mein anumaanit 20,000-25,000 jarman bhaashi, ya 0.9%; French: baad ke kshetro mein va saath hi saath baaki vaaloniya mein (3.414 - 0.093 = 3.321 meeliyn) aur brusels ke 85% nivaasi (0.866 meeliyn) is prakaar 4.187 meeliyn ya 39.8%; saath mein vaastav mein 100%.
  68. flemish akaidamik erik korin (Charta 91 ke sarjak) ne, 2001/12/05 ko brusels sambandhit vaartaalaap mein kaha ki brusels mein janasankhya ka 91% ghar par French bolata hai, ya to akele ya kisi anya bhaasha ke saath aur 20% ghar mein dach bolte hain, (9%) akele ya French ke saath (11%)- soch-vichaar ke baad, punarvibhaajan ko 85 aur 90% French bhaashi ke beech anumaanit kiya ja sakta hai aur shesh dach bhaashi hain, apne sarkaari dastaavejon (ID, driving license, shaadi, janm, sex ityaadi) ke liye naagrikon dvaara brusels mein chuni bhaashaaon par ke aadhaar par pariklit anumaan par aadhaarit hai aur bhaasha par ye sabhi aankade Belgium nyaaya vibhaag mein bhi upalabdh hain (vivaah, janm, ling ke liye), parivhan vibhaag mein (driving license ke liye), aatanrik vibhaag (ID ke liye), Belgium dvaara raajabhaashaai janaganana ko samaapt kiye jaane ki vajah se, anupaat jaanane ka koi sateek tareeka naheen hai, at: bhaasha vikalpon par sarkaari dastaavej keval anumaan ho sakte hain. is vishay par ek web srot ke liye, dekhein udaaharan general online srot: jenseins, roodi
  69. "Belgium Market background". British Council. http://www.britishcouncil.org/eumd-information-background-belgium.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-05. "The capital Brussels, 80–85 percent French-speaking, ..." -kadaai se rajdhani nagarapaalika brusels (ka shahar) hai, haalaanki apne naam ke chalte brusels-rajdhani kshetr sandarbhit ho sakta hai aur rajdhani ke liye vishisht iske anya nagar paalika aavaas sanstha.
  70. "Citizens from other countries in the German-speaking Community". The German-speaking Community. http://www.dglive.be/EN/Desktopdefault.aspx/tabid-1408/2267_read-27184/. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-05.
    * "German (Belgium)—aOverview of the language". Mercator, Minority Language Media in the European Union, supported by the European Commission and the University of Wales. http://www.aber.ac.uk/cgi-bin/user/merwww/index.pl?rm=lang_detail;id=112;lang=1. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-07.
    * Leclerc, Jacques , membre associé du TLFQ (2006-04-19). "Belgique • België • Belgien—aLa Communauté germanophone de Belgique" (French mein). L'améaanagement linguistique dans le monde. Host: Tréasor de la langue françaaaise au Quéabec (TLFQ), Université Laval, Quebec. http://www.tlfq.ulaval.ca/AXL/europe/belgiqueger.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-07.
  71. a aa Gordon, Raymond G., Jr. (ed.) (2005). "Languages of Belgium". Ethnologue: Languages of the World, 15th edition. SIL International Dallas, Texas, USA. http://www.ethnologue.com/show_country.asp?name=BE. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-07.
  72. "Table 388. Percentage of population enrolled in secondary and postsecondary institutions, by age group and country". Digest of Education Statistics—aTables and Figures. National Center for Education Statistics, Institute of Education Sciences (IES), US Department of Education. 2005, data: 2002. http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d05/tables/dt05_388.asp. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-06.
  73. "I. Monitoring Human Development: Enlarging peoples's choices... —a5. Human poverty in OECD, Eastern Europe and the CIS" (PDF). Human Development Indicators. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). 2000. pp. 172–173. http://hdr.undp.org/reports/global/2000/en/pdf/hdr_2000_back1.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-06. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  74. http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/42/8/39700724.pdf
  75. a aa De Ley, Herman (2000). "Humanists and Muslims in Belgian Secular Society (Draft version)". Centrum voor Islam in Europe (Centre for Islam in Europe), Ghent University. http://www.flwi.ugent.be/cie/CIE/deley10.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-07.
  76. udaaharan ke liye Catholic vishvakosh mein Belgium pravishti dekhein
  77. "2001 Annual Report on Human Rights in Belgium" (PDF). Archived from the original on 2007-11-27. http://web.archive.org/web/20071127003127/http://www.hrwf.net/belgium/ext/human_rights_in_belgium_2001.pdf.
  78. Bousetta, Hassan; Gsir, Sonia; Jacobs, Dirk (2005). "Active Civic Participation of Immigrants in Belgium—aCountry Report prepared for the European research project POLITIS, Oldenburg" (PDF). Carl von Ossietzky University, Oldenburg IBKM. http://www.uni-oldenburg.de/politis-europe/download/Belgium.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-08. "In many respects, the Catholic Roman Church remains in a very advantageous situation. The long and troublesome process that eventually lead to the recognition of Islam is also illustrative of the ambiguity of the relations between the Belgian State and religions. For 25 years, Islam has been maintained in an unfair position in comparison to other religions."
  79. "België gaat plat op zijn buik voor China (Belgium bends over backwards for China)" (Dutch mein). Metro (Belgian newspaper). 2007-05-10. p. 2. http://www.metrotime.be/digipapernl.html?pag=2&kdate=2007-05-10. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-10. "[Upon the Dalai Lama for the second time in two years canceling a visit to Belgium after being informed by the Belgian government of Peking's diplomatic pressure, quote newspaper:] Uittredend Senaatsvoorzitster Anne-Marie Lizin reageert teleurgesteld: 'Gezien het belang van de vergadering waaraan u wilde deelnemen en gezien de redenen van uw beslissing, betreur ik dat ik u niet kan ontvangen in ons land, een land dat openstaat voor iedereen, ongeacht de religieuze overtuiging, en dat net een eerste stap heeft gezet in de erkenning van het'[sic] 'boeddhistische filosofie'. (Lawfully resigning at the end of the government's legislation, President of the Senat Anne-Marie Lizin reacts disappointedly: 'In view of the importance of the meeting you wanted to attend and in view of the reasons of your decision, I regret not being able to receive you in our country, a country open for everyone regardless of religious conviction, and which has just set a first step towards the recognition of the Buddhist philosophy.')" vaikalpik urls: α, β, pdf 1.1 MB: γ[mrut kadiyaaain]
  80. "Belgium". International Religious Freedom Report 2004. US Department of State, Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor. 2004. http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2004/35444.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-28.
  81. 'Vepec', dvaara jaanch 'Vereniging voor Promotie en Communicatie' (sanvardhan aur sanchaar ke liye sangathan), 22 November 2006 pru. 14 naik patrika mein prakaashit [dach bhaasha shabd 'gelovig' paath mein 'dhaarmik' ke roop mein anoodit hai aur adhik sateek taur par vishesh roop se yeh kisi tarah ke ekeshvaravaadi arthon mein Bhagwan mein vishvaas karne ke liye ek bahut aam shabd hai/ya kisi agale janm mein].
  82. "Eurobarometer on Social Values, Science and technology 2005 – page 11" (PDF). http://ec.europa.eu/public_opinion/archives/ebs/ebs_225_report_en.pdf. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-05.
  83. The many faces of Islam, TIME
  84. Belgian Malcolm X' seeks office
  85. Voor het eerst meer Marokkaanse dan Italiaanse migranten[mrut kadiyaaain]
  86. Dutch newspaper on Sikhs celebrating Maghi in Brussels
  87. "Rembert Dodoens: iets over zijn leven en werk—aDodoens' werken" (Dutch mein). Plantaardigheden—aProject Rembert Dodoens (Rembertus Dodonaeus). Stichting Kruidenhoeve/Plantaardigheden, Balkbrug, the Netherlands. Revised 20 December 2005. http://plantaardigheden.nl/dodoens/over_dodoens/leven_en_werk.htm#dodoens. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-17. "... het Cruijdeboeck, dat in 1554 verscheen. Dit meesterwerk was na de bijbel in die tijd het meest vertaalde boek. Het werd gedurende meer dan een eeuw steeds weer heruitgegeven en gedurende meer dan twee eeuwen was het het meest gebruikte handboek over kruiden in West-Europa. Het is een werk van wereldfaam en grote wetenschappelijke waarde. De nieuwe gedachten die Dodoens erin neerlegde, werden de bouwstenen voor de botanici en medici van latere generaties. (... the Cruijdeboeck, published in 1554. This masterpiece was, after the Bible, the most translated book in that time. It continued to be republished for more than a century and for more than two centuries it was the mostly used referential about herbs. It is a work with world fame and great scientific value. The new thoughts written down by Dodoens, became the building bricks for botanists and physicians of later generations.)"
    * O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (2004). "Simon Stevin". School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of St Andrews, Scotland. http://www-groups.dcs.st-andrews.ac.uk/~history/Biographies/Stevin.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-11. "Although he did not invent decimals (they had been used by the Arabs and the Chinese long before Stevin's time) he did introduce their use in mathematics in Europe."
    * "Abstract (*)". S. Karger AG, Basel. http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?Aktion=ShowPDF&ProduktNr=223979&Ausgabe=225203&ArtikelNr=13462. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-11. "The importance of A. Vesalius' publication 'de humani corporis fabrica libri septem' cannot be overestimated." (*) dvaara pay-per-view lekh ke liye ni:shulk saaraansh De Broe, Marc E.; De Weerdt, Dirk L.; Ysebaert, Dirk K.; Vercauteren, Sven R.; De Greef, Kathleen E.; De Broe Luc C. (1999). "The Low Countries - 16th/17th century" (PDF). American Journal of Nephrology 19 (2): 282–9. doi:10.1159/000013462. PMID 10213829. http://content.karger.com/ProdukteDB/produkte.asp?Aktion=ShowPDF&ArtikelNr=13462&Ausgabe=225203&ProduktNr=223979&filename=13462.pdf.
    * Midbon, Mark, University of Wisconsin–Madison (2000-03-24). "'A Day Without Yesterday': Georges Lemaitre & the Big Bang". Commonweal, republished: Catholic Education Resource Center (CERC). pp. 18–19. http://www.catholiceducation.org/articles/science/sc0022.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-07.
  88. "Belgium—aArts and cultural education". Compendium of Cultural Policies and Trends in Europe, 8th edition. Council of Europe / ERICarts. 2007. http://www.culturalpolicies.net/web/belgium.php?aid=831. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-08.
  89. "Belgique". European Culture Portal. European Commission. 2007. http://ec.europa.eu/culture/portal/sites/members/belgium_en.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-10.
  90. Adrien Gonthier (2003). "Frontièare linguistique, frontièaare politique, une presse en crise" (French mein). Le Monde Diplomatique. http://www.monde-diplomatique.fr/2003/05/GONTHIER/10142. abhigman tithi: 2008-06-17.
  91. Mumford, David (2008). The World Today Series. Western Europe/2007. NY Times. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-887985-89-1.
  92. "Low Countries, 1000–1400 AD". Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2007. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/07/euwl/ht07euwl.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-10.
  93. "Low Countries, 1400–1600 AD". Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2007. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/08/euwl/ht08euwl.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-10.
  94. Belgium mein pramukh vaastu upalabdhi ke anek udaaharan UNESCO ki vishv dharohar soochi mein hain: "Belgium". Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List. UNESCO. http://whc.unesco.org/en/statesparties/be. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-15.
  95. Hendrick, Jacques (1987) (French mein). La peinture au pays de Lièage. Lièage: Editions du Perron. pa॰ 24. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 287114026X.
  96. Guratzsch, Herwig (1979) (German mein). Die großaae Zeit der niederläaandische Malerei. Freiburg im Beisgau: Verlag Herder. pa॰ 7.
  97. "Low Countries, 1600–1800 AD". Timeline of Art History. Metropolitan Museum of Art. 2007. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ht/09/euwl/ht09euwl.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-10.
  98. "Art History: Flemish School: (1600–1800)—aArtists: (biography & artworks)". World Wide Arts Resources. 2006-02-05. http://wwar.com/masters/movements/flemish_school.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-10. -uske kalaakaaron ki ek soochi sahit flemish kalaatmak aandolan ki ek saamaanya prastuti, jo unki jeevani aur kalaatmak rachanaaon se jodti hai
  99. "Belgian Artists: (biographies & artworks)". World Wide Arts Resources. 2006-02-05. http://wwar.com/masters/nationalities/belgian.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-10. -Belgium ke chitrakaaron ki soochi, jo unki jeevani aur kalaatmak rachanaaon se jodti hai
  100. Baudson, Michel (1996). "Panamarenko". Flammarion (Paris), quoted at presentation of the XXIII Bienal Internacional de Sãao Paulo. http://www1.uol.com.br/bienal/23bienal/universa/iueopa.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-10. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  101. Brussels, capital of Art Nouveau (page 1), "ib. (page2)". Senses Art Nouveau Shop, Brussels. 2007. http://www.senses-artnouveau.com/brussels.php?page=2. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-11. (udaaharan ke liye)
  102. "Major Town Houses of the Architect Victor Horta (Brussels)". UNESCO's World Heritage List. UNESCO. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/1005. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-16. "The appearance of Art Nouveau in the closing years of the 19th century marked a decisive stage in the evolution of architecture, making possible subsequent developments, and the Town Houses of Victor Horta in Brussels bear exceptional witness to its radical new approach."
  103. "Western music, the Franco-Flemish school". britainika vishvakosh. 2007. http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-15698/Western-music. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-15. "Most significant musically was the pervasive influence of musicians from the Low Countries, whose domination of the musical scene during the last half of the 15th century is reflected in the period designations the Netherlands school and the Franco-Flemish school."
  104. pachaas ke dashak ke baad se Belgium mein rock aur paup sangeet ki do vyaapak charcha:
    * "The Timeline—aA brief history of Belgian Pop Music". The Belgian Pop & Rock Archives. Flanders Music Centre, Brussels. March 2007. http://houbi.com/belpop/timeline.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-06-07.
    * "Belgian Culture—aRock". Vanberg & DeWulf Importing. © 2006. http://www.belgianexperts.com/rock.php. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-11.
  105. flemish lekhakon ke kaaryon par aadhaarit Belgium ki ullekhaneeya filmon mein shaamil hain: de vitte (lekhak arnest kles) jain vandarahe. den aur edith keel dvaara film 1934, De Witte van Sichem ke roop mein pun: nirmit 1980 mein rob de hert dvaara nirdeshit; De man die zijn haar kort liet knippen (johaan dejn) aandre delavauks 1965; meera ('De teleurgang van de Waterhoek' steen straavels dvaara) fons redamekars 1971; Malpertuis (urf the legend of doom house)) (jeen re [flemish lekhak ka upanaam, jinhonne mukhya roop se French mein likha ya dach mein John flenadars ke roop mein]) Harry kumel 1971; De loteling (henadrik konasheins) rolaand faarahavert 1974; Dood van een non (Maria roseels) paul kolit aur piyre draaut 1975; Pallieter (feliks timramans) rolaand faarahavert 1976; De komst van Joachim Stiller (hubart laimpo) Harry kumel 1976; De Leeuw van Vlaanderen (heindrik konasheins) hyoogo klaus (khud ek prasiddh lekhak) 1985; Daens ('Peter daaens' Louis paul boon dvaara) steen koninks 1992; yeh bhi dekhein Filmarchief les DVD!s s de la cinéaamathèaaque (dach mein). 2007/06/07 ko pun:praapt.
  106. Belgium cinema ki ek sameeksha pai ja sakti hai "Cinema". .be Federal Portal. Federal government of Belgium. 2007. http://www.belgium.be/eportal/application?languageParameter=en&pageid=contentPage&docId=6879. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-13. [mrut kadiyaaain]
  107. "Fashion and the 'Antwerp Six'". © 2004.
  108. "Processional Giants and Dragons in Belgium and France". UNESCO. http://www.unesco.org/culture/intangible-heritage/05eur_uk.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-15.
  109. "Folklore estudiantin liéaageois" (French mein). University of Lièage. http://www.ulg.ac.be/cms/c_36320/photographies-folklore-etudiant?hlText=Saint+Nicolas&hlMode=any&hlText=Saint+Nicolas&hlMode=any&hlText=Saint+Nicolas&hlMode=any. abhigman tithi: 2008-06-17.
  110. Majendie, Matt (2005-04-18). "Great, but there are greater" (stm). BBC Sport. http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/other_sports/cycling/3925265.stm. abhigman tithi: 2007-09-20. "[the Author's] top five [cyclists] of all time: 1 Eddy Merckx, 2 Bernard Hinault, 3 Lance Armstrong, 4 Miguel Indurain, 5 Jacques Anquetil"
  111. "Goalkeeping Greats" Goalkeepersaredifferent.com. 11 June 2009 ko pun:praapt.
  112. " Benelux trio to apply to host the 2018 World Cup, ESPN saukaranet global, 22 May 2008 ko 2018 FIFA vishv cup se pun:praapt
  113. "The Michelin stars 2007 in Belgium". Resto.be TM Dreaminvest. 2007. http://www2.resto.be/bib_new.cfm?langue=uk. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-15.
  114. "Steak-frites". Epicurious. http://www.epicurious.com/recipes/recipe_views/views/40035. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-12. se punarprakaashit Van Waerebeek, Ruth; Robbins, Maria (October 1996). Everybody Eats Well in Belgium Cookbook. Workman Publishing. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-56305-411-6 (Paperback), ISBN 0-7611-0106-3 (Cloth).
  115. "Belgium". Global Gourmet. http://www.globalgourmet.com/destinations/belgium/backgrounder.html. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-12. se punarprakaashit Van Waerebeek, Ruth; Robbins, Maria (October 1996). Everybody Eats Well in Belgium Cookbook. Workman Publishing. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 1-56305-411-6 (Paperback), ISBN 0-7611-0106-3 (Cloth).
  116. "Mussels". Visit Belgium. Official Site of the Belgian Tourist Office in the Americas. 2005. http://www.visitbelgium.com/mussels.htm. abhigman tithi: 2007-08-12. not: paath ke taatparya ke vipreet, mausam July mein shuroo ho jaata hai aur April bhar chalta hai.
  117. haalaanki svaad bahut hi vyaktiprak aur vyaktigat hai, kuchh antarraashtreeya beer peene vaale Westvleteren 12 ko apne pasandeeda biyr mein se ek maanate hain. BeerAdvocate.com aur RateBeer.com, biyr rating ki do websiton ke adhikaansh sadasyon ne Westvleteren 12 ko lagaataar apne sabse priya biyr ke roop mein darja diya hai, 8 aur blaund ko bhi donon saaiton par ooncha darja haasil hai.
  118. InBev (2007-04-24). InBev dividend 2006: 0.72 euro per share—aainfobox: About InBev. press release. http://www.inbev.com/press_releases/20070424.1.e.cfm. abhigman tithi: 2007-05-31. "InBev is a publicly traded company (Euronext: INB) based in Leuven, Belgium. The company's origins date back to 1366, and today it is the leading global brewer by volume."

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  • Belgium, Catholic vishvakosh 1913 mein pravishti, Wikisource par punarprakaashit
  • Belgium saarvajanik kootaneeti viki par pravishti, saarvajanik kootaneeti par USC kendra ki nigraani mein
  • History of Belgium: Primary Documents EuroDocs: Europeeya itihaas ke liye online sootr