Bangladesh

গaaণaaপaa্aaরaaজaaাaaতaaনaa্aaতaa্aaরaaী বaaাaaংaaলaaাaaদaaেaaশ
gaunaupraujaatauntri baaङalaadesh

Bangladesh ganatantr
dhvaj kul chinh
raashtragaan: aamaar shonaar baangla
mera svarn Bengal
rajdhani
aur sabse badaa nagar
dhaaka
23°a42′aN 90°a22′aE / 23.7°aN 90.367°aE / 23.7; 90.367
raajabhaasha(eain) baangla
sarkaar sansadeeya ganatantr
- pradhaanamantri shekh haseena
- raashtrapati abdul haamid
- adhyaksh abdul haamid
svatantrata Pakistan se
- ghoshana 26 March 1971
- vijay diwas 16 December 1971
kshetrafal
- kul 144,000 varg kilometer (94vaaain)
55,622 varg meal
- jal (%) 7.0
janasankhya
- 2006 janaganana 147,365,352 (saatavaan)
- 2001 janaganana 129,247,2331
sakal ghareloo utpaad (PPP) 2008 praakkalan
- kul $224,889 billion (31vaan)
- prati vyakti $1389 (141 vaan)
maanav vikaas soochakaank (2013) Green Arrow Up Darker.svg 0.558[1]
madhyam · 142vaaain
mudra taaka (beedeeti)
samay mandal beedeeti (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+6)
- greeshmakaaleen (di॰ba॰asa॰) manaaya naheen jaata (yoo॰atee॰asee॰+6)
doorabhaash koot +880 - upakoot
Internet teeeladi .bd
1. Adjusted population, p.4, "Population Census 2001, Preliminary Report". Bangladesh Bureau of Statistics. 2001-08. http://www.bbsgov.org/Population%20Census%202001.PDF.
2. World Bank Development Indicators Database, 2006.

Bangladesh ganatantr (baangla: গaaণaaপaa্aaরaaজaaাaaতaaনaa্aaতaa্aaরaaী বaaাaaংaaলaaাaaদaaেaaশ gaunaupraujaatauntri baaङalaadesh) dakshin janboodveep ka ek raashtra hai. desh ki uttar, poorv aur pashchim seemaaeain Bhaarat aur dakshinpoorv seema myaanmaar deshon se milti hai; dakshin mein Bengal ki khaadi hai. Bangladesh aur bhaarateeya raajya pashchim Bengal ek baanglaabhaashi anchal, Bengal hain, jiska aitihaasik naam “aবaঙa্aগa” bauङago ya “aবaাaংaলaাa” baangla hai. iski seemaarekha us samay nirdhaarit hui jab 1947 mein Bhaarat ke vibhaajan ke samay ise poorvi Pakistan ke naam se Pakistan ka poorvi bhaag ghoshit kiya gaya.[2]

poorv aur pashchim Pakistan ke madhya lagbhag 1600 kimi (1000 maail) ki bhaugolik doori thi. Pakistan ke donon bhaagon ki janta ka dharm (islaam) ek tha, par unke beech jaati aur bhaashaagat kaafi dooriyaaain theen. pashchim Pakistan ki tatkaaleen sarkaar ke anyaaya ke viruddh 1971 mein Bhaarat ke sahayog se ek raktaranjit yuddh ke baad svaadheen raashtra Bangladesh ka udabhav hua. svaadheenata ke baad Bangladesh ke kuchh praarambhik varsh raajanaitik asthirta se paripoorn the, desh me 13 raashtrashaasak badle gaye aur 4 sainya bagaavatein hui. vishv ke sabse janabahul deshon mein Bangladesh ka sthaan aathavaan hai. kintu kshetrafal ki drushti se Bangladesh vishv mein 93vaaain hai. falasvaroop Bangladesh vishv ki sabse ghani aabaadi vaale deshon mein se ek hai. musalmaan- saghan janasankhya vaale deshon mein Bangladesh ka sthaan 4tha hai, jabki Bangladesh ke musalmaanon ki sankhya Bhaarat ke alpasankhyak musalmaanon ki sankhya se kam hai. ganga-brahmaputr ke muhaane par sthit yeh desh, prativrsh mausami utpaat ka shikaar hota hai aur chakravaat bhi bahut saamaanya hain. Bangladesh dakshin Asiaee aanchalik sahayog sanstha, saark aur bimsatek ka pratishthit sadasya hai. yeh oaaisi aur di-8 ka bhi sadasya hai.[3][4]

  • jaya baangla (জaaযaa় বaaাaaংaaলaaা) Bangladesh ka jaateeya slogaan hai.
National symbols of Bangla-Desh (Official)
State animal Panthera tigris.jpg
State bird Oriental Magpie Robin (Copsychus saularis)- Male calling in the rain at Kolkata I IMG 3746.jpg
State tree Mango blossoms.jpg
State flower Nymphaea pubescens (9149867657).jpg
State aquatic marine mammal PlatanistaHardwicke.jpg
State reptile Gavial-du-gange.jpg
State fruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) Jack fruits on Simhachalam Hills 01.jpg
State fish Ilish.JPG
State mosque Baitul Mukarram (Arabic, بيت المكرّم; Bengali, বায়তুল মুকাররম; The Holy House).jpg
State temple Hindu Temple in Dhaka.jpg
State river Boat on Jamuna River.jpg
State mountain Keokradong.jpg

anukram

itihaas

Bangladesh mein sabhyata ka itihaas kaafi puraana raha hai. aaj ke Bhaarat ka andhikaansh poorvi kshetr kabhi Bengal ke naam se jaana jaata tha. bauddh granthon ke anusaar is kshetr mein aadhunik sabhyata ki shuruaat 700 isavi isa poo. mein aarambh hua maana jaata hai. yahaaain ki praarambhik sabhyata par bauddh aur hindu dharm ka prabhaav spasht dekha ja sakta hai. uttari Bangladesh mein sthaapatya ke aise hajaaron avashesh abhi bhi maujood hain jinhein mandir ya math kaha ja sakta hai.[5]

Bengal ka islaameekaran mugal saamraajya ke vyaapaariyon dvaara 13 veen shataabdi mein shuru hua aur 16 veen shataabdi tak Bengal Asia ke pramukh vyaapaarik kshetr ke rup mein ubhara. yurop ke vyaapaariyon ka aagaman is kshetr mein 15 veen shataabdi mein hua aur antat: 16veen shataabdi mein british East India company dvaara unka prabhaav badhna shuru hua. 18 veen shataabdi aate-aate is kshetr ka niyantran poori tarah unke haathon mein aa gaya jo dheere-dheere poore Bhaarat mein fail gaya. jab svaadheenata aandolan ke falasvarup 1947 mein Bhaarat svatantr hua tab raajanaitik kaaranon se Bhaarat ko hindu bahul Bhaarat aur muslim bahul Pakistan mein vibhaajit karna pada.[6]

Pakistan ke gathan ke samay pashchimi kshetr mein sindhi, pathaan, baloch aur mujaahiron ki badi sankhya thi, jabki poorv hisse mein bangaali bolne vaalon ka bahumat tha. haalaanki poorabi bhaag me raajanaitik chetna ki kabhi kami nahi rahi lekin poorvi hissa desh ki satta me kabhi bhi uchit pratinidhitv nahi pa saka evam hamesha raajaneetik roop se upekshit raha. isse poorvi Pakistan ke logon mein jabardast naaraajagi thi. aur isi naaraajagi ka raajanaitik laabh lene ke liye Bangladesh ke neta shekh mujeeb-ur-Rahman ne avaami league ka gathan kiya aur Pakistan ke andar hi aur svaayattata ki maang ki. 1970 mein hue aam chunaav mein poorvi kshetr mein shekh ki party ne jabardast vijay haasil ki. unke dal ne sansad mein bahumat bhi haasil kiya lekin bajaae unhein pradhaanamantri banaane ke unhein jail mein daal diya gaya. aur yaheen se Pakistan ke vibhaajan ki neenv rakhi gayi.[7]

1971 ke samay Pakistan mein general yaahya Khan raashtrapati the aur unhonne poorvi hisse mein faili naaraajagi ko door karne ke liye general tikka Khan ko jimmedaari di. lekin unke dvaara dabaav se maamale ko hal karne ke prayaas kiye gaye jisse sthiti poori tarah bigad gayi. 25 March 1971 ko Pakistan ke is hisse mein sena evam police ki aguaai me jabardast narasanhaar hua. isse Pakistani sena mein kaam kar rahe poorvi kshetr ke nivaasiyon mein jabardast rosh hua aur unhonne alag mukti vaahini bana li. Pakistani fauj ka nirparaadh, hathiyaar viheen logon par atyaachaar jaari raha. jisse logon ka palaayan aarambh ho gaya jiske kaaran Bhaarat ne antarraashtreeya samudaaya se lagaataar appeal ki ki poorvi Pakistan ki sthiti sudhaari jaae, lekin kisi desh ne dhyaan naheen diya aur jab vahaan ke visthaapit lagaataar Bhaarat aate rahe to April 1971 mein tatkaaleen pradhaanamantri indira Gandhi ne mukti vaahini ko samarthan dekar, Bangladesh ko aajaad karavaane ka nirnaya liya.[8]

Bangladesh banane se poorv

Bangladesh banane se pehle poorvi Pakistan mein Pakistani sena ne sthaaneeya netaaon aur dhaarmik charampanthiyon ki madad se maanavaadhikaaron ka hanan kiya. 25 March 1971 ko shuroo hue operation sarch laait se lekar poore Bangladesh ki aajaadi ki ladaai ke dauraan poorvi Pakistan mein jamkar hinsa hui. Bangladesh sarkaar ke mutaabik is dauraan kareeb 30 lakh log maare gaye. haalaanki, Pakistan sarkaar ki or se gathit kiye gaye hamoodoor Rahman aayog ne is dauraan sirf 26 hajaar aam logon ki maut ka nateeja nikaala.[9]

svatantrata diwas

26 March ko pratyek varsh yeh desh apna svatantrata diwas maanata hai. is din yahaaain raashtreeya avakaash hota hai. ullekhaneeya hai, ki 26 March 1971 mein Bangladesh ki svatantrata ki ghoshana ki gayi hai aur mukti yuddh shuroo kar diya gaya tha. East Bengal ke logon ke sabhi vargon ke mukti ke liye Pakistani sena ke shaasakon ke nirantar utpeedn se bachaane ke Bangladesh yuddh mein bhaag liya. svatantrata nau maheene maanav jeevan ke maamale mein Pakistani sena aur ke baare mein 3 million ki haani ke khilaaf gruhayuddh ke maadhyam se praapt kiya gaya tha.[10] ant mein jeet 16 December ko ek hi varsh mein haasil kiya gaya, jo vijay diwas ke roop mein manaaya jaata hai. isaprakaar san 1971 mein poorvi Pakistan Bangladesh bana.[11]

raajaneeti

Bangladesh ki raajaneeti mein raashtrapati samvaidhaanik pradhaan hota hai, jabki pradhaanamantri desh ka prashaasanik pramukh hota hai. raashtrapati ko har paaainch saal baad chuna jaata hai. pradhaanamantri ki niyukti raashtrapati dvaara ki jaati hai, pradhaanamantri aise vyakti ko chuna jaata hai jo us samay sansad ka sadasya ho aur raashtrapati ko vishvaas dilaaye ki use sansad mein bahumat ka samarthan haasil hai. pradhaanamantri apne mantriyon ki cabinet gathit karta hai jiske niyukti ki manjoori raashtrapati deta hai.[12]

Bangladesh ki sansad ko jaateeya sansad kaha jaata hai jiske 300 sadasya pratyaksh matadaan dvaara chunakar aate hain aur paaainch saal tak apne kshetr ka pratinidhitv karte hain. desh ki sabse badi vaidhaanik sanstha baanglaadeshi sarvochch nyaayaalaya jiske pradhaan nyaayaadheesh aur anya nyaayadheeshon ki niyukti raashtrapati karta hai.[13]

kshetr

London shaheed meenaar, alataab Ali park, dhaaka
marmi log Bangladesh mein sabse bade gair bangaali samoohon mein se ek hain.

Bangladesh ko chh: upakshetron mein baanta gaya hai jinka naam un raajyon ki raajadhaaniyon ke naam par rakha gaya hai.[14][15]

bhoogol

Bangladesh ka adhiktar hissa samudra ki satah se bahut kam ooainchaai par sthit hai. jyaadaatar hissa bhaarateeya upamahaadveep mein nadiyon ke muhaane par sthit hai jo sundaravan ke naam se jaana jaata hai. ye muhaane ganga (sthaaneeya naam padma nadi), bramhaputr, yamuna aur meghana nadiyon ke hain jo Bengal ki khaadi kshetr mein avasthit hain jo jyaadaatar himaalaya se niklati hain. Bangladesh ki mitti bahut hi upajaaoo hai lekin baadh aur akaal donon se kaafi prabhaavit hoti rahati hai.[16] pahaadi kshetr sirf chitaagaang jile mein sthit hain jiski sabse ooainchi choti keokraadaang 1,230 meter ooainchi hai jo silhat mandal ke dakshin poorv mein sthit hai.[17][18]

baangla desh ki jalavaayu ushnakatibandheeya jalavaayu hai, yahaaain October se maarchatak jaade ka mausam hota hai. March se June tak umas bhari garmi hoti hai aur March se June tak monsoon ke mausam ki baarish hoti hai. Bangladesh ko praaya: har saal chakrvaateeya toofaan ka saaman karna padta hai. mitti ka aparadan aur vanon ki andhaadhundh kataai yahaaain ki kuchh badi samasyaaeain hain. dhaaka yahaaain ka sabse bada shahar hai, anya bade shaharon mein chitaagaang, raajashaahi aur khulana hain. chitaagaang ke dakshin mein sthit kaaks baajaar vishv ke sabse lambi beech mein se ek hai.[19][20]

janasaankhyiki

varsh jan.
1971 67.8
1980 80.6 18.9%
1990 105.3 30.6%
2000 129.6 23.1%
2010 148.7 14.7%
2012 161.1 8.3%

2011 ki janaganana ke anusaar Bangladesh ki janasankhya 142.3 lakh hai.[21] ek anumaan ke mutaabik 2007 se 2010 ke beech Bangladesh ki janasankhya 150 se 170 lakh ke beech hona chaahiye tha, kintu anumaan se kam hai, lekin yeh duniya ka 8 vaan sabse adhik aabaadi wala desh hai. yadyapi 1951 mein, is desh ki janasankhya 44 lakh thi.[22] yeh duniya ka sabse ghani aabaadi wala desh hai aur bahut chhote deshon tatha shahar raajyon shaamil karaate huye janasankhya ghanatv ke maamale mein yeh vishv mein 11 vein sthaan par hai.[23]

raajanaitik dal

baitool mukarram raashtreeya masjid hai.
gurudvaara naanak shaahi dhaaka mein ek sikh gurudvaara hai.
armeniyaai church (dhaaka) puraane dhaaka mein sthit hai.

raashtragaan

gurudev raveendranaath thaakur vishv ke ekamaatr vyakti hain, jinki rachana ko ek se adhik deshon kramash: Bhaarat aur Bangladesh mein raashtragaan ka darja praapt hai. unki kavita 'aamaar sonaar baaaingla' Bangladesh ka raashtragaan hai.

bhaasha

Bangladesh mein apni mool bhaasha ke roop mein 98% se adhik bangaali bhaasha bolte hain, jo yahaaain ki aadhikaarik bhaasha hai.[24][25]angreji ka bhi madhya aur uchch varg ke beech ek doosari bhaasha ke roop mein prayog kiya jaata hai aur bhi vyaapak roop se uchch shiksha aur kaanooni pranaali mein iska istemaal hota hai.[26]

media

sandarbh

  1. "Human Development Report 2014 Summary". The United Nations. http://hdr.undp.org/sites/default/files/hdr14-summary-en.pdf. abhigman tithi: 24 July 2014.
  2. Salik, Siddiq (1978). Witness to Surrender. Oxford University Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-19-577264-4.
  3. "Meeting Millennium Development Goals". BBC News. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/south_asia/8548923.stm. abhigman tithi: 27 March 2014.
  4. "Ban lauds Bangladesh's progress on women's and children's health". UN News Center (United Nations). 15 November 2011. http://www.un.org/apps/news/story.asp?NewsID=40399&Cr=maternal&Cr1#.UIK6m2_MjEU. abhigman tithi: 27 March 2014.
  5. LaPorte, R (1972). "Pakistan in 1971: The Disintegration of a Nation". Asian Survey 12 (2): 97–108. doi:10.1525/as.1972.12.2.01p0190a.
  6. James Heitzman and Robert L. Worden, san (1989). "Early History, 1000 B.C.-A.D. 1202". Bangladesh: A country study. Library of Congress. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 82-90584-08-3. OCLC 15653912. http://memory.loc.gov/frd/cs/bdtoc.html.
  7. Bharadwaj, G (2003). "The Ancient Period". In Majumdar, RC. History of Bengal. B.R. Publishing Corp.
  8. vijay diwas
  9. 1971 Bhaarat-Pak yuddh ki kuchh yaadein - charam par tha bhaarateeya nausena ka paraakram
  10. "Independence Day of Bangladesh-26 March 1971 | Best Travel Site". Xplore4life.com. http://xplore4life.com/independence-day-of-bangladesh-26th-march-1971/1. abhigman tithi: 27 March 2014.
  11. "Constitution of Bangladesh". Parliament.gov.bd. http://www.parliament.gov.bd/Constitution_English/index.htm. abhigman tithi: 27 March 2014.
  12. Mascarenhas, A (1986). Bangladesh: A Legacy of Blood. Hodder & Stoughton, London. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-340-39420-X. OCLC 16583315 242251870 13004864 16583315 242251870.
  13. Baxter, C (1997). Bangladesh, from a Nation to a State. Westview Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-8133-3632-5. OCLC 47885632.
  14. "Rangpur becomes a division". bdnews24.com. 25 January 2010. http://dev-bd.bdnews24.com/details.php?id=151976&cid=2. abhigman tithi: 27 March 2014.
  15. Local Government Act, No. 20, 1997
  16. Bangladesh cyclone of 1991. Britannica Online Encyclopedia.
  17. Collins, L; D Lapierre (1986). Freedom at Midnight, Ed. 18. Vikas Publishers, New Delhi. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-7069-2770-2.
  18. "Lowest temperature in Jessore". bdnews24.com. 12 January 2011
  19. Sen, Amartya (1973). Poverty and Famines. Oxford University Press. aai॰aऍsa॰abee॰aऍna॰ 0-19-828463-2. OCLC 177334002 191827132 31051320 40394309 53621338 63294006 10362534 177334002 191827132 31051320 40394309 53621338 63294006.
  20. Brijen Kishore Gupta (1966). Sirajuddaullah and the East India company, 1756–1757, background to the foundation of British power in India. Brill Archive. pp. 134–. GGKEY:RS7D7HRH8KA. http://books.google.com/books?id=o-MUAAAAIAAJ&pg=PA134. abhigman tithi: 27 March 2014.
  21. "Bangladesh's Population to Exceed 160 Mln after Final Census Report". English.cri.cn. http://english.cri.cn/6966/2011/07/24/2821s650100.htm. abhigman tithi: 28 March 2014.
  22. "Bangladesh – population". Library of Congress Country Studies.
  23. "Population density – Persons per sq km 2010 Country Ranks". Archived from the original on 24 October 2010. http://www.photius.com/rankings/geography/population_density_persons_per_sq_km_2010_0.html. abhigman tithi: 28 March 2014.
  24. "Condition of English in Bangladesh". ESL Teachers Board. http://www.eslteachersboard.com/cgi-bin/asia/index.pl?noframes;read=158. abhigman tithi: 28 March 2014.
  25. Constitution of Bangladesh, Part I, Article 5.
  26. S. M. Mehdi Hasan, Condition of English in Bangladesh: Second Language or Foreign Language. Retrieved 28 March 2014.

baahari kadiyaaain

vikipeediya ki bandhu pariyojanaaon par Bangladesh ke baare mein aur adhik jaankaari praapt karein -
paribhaashaaeain vikishbdakosh mein
chitr evam anya media kaumans par
sooktiyaaain vikisookti par
granth vikisrot par
paathyapustakein vikitaab par